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JournalISSN: 0006-3495

Biophysical Journal

About: Biophysical Journal is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Lipid bilayer & Membrane. It has an ISSN identifier of 0006-3495. Over the lifetime, 31580 publication(s) have been published receiving 1446534 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Biophys J. more

Topics: Lipid bilayer, Membrane, Bilayer more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(94)80775-1
Peter J. Basser1, J. Mattiello1, D. Lebihan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper describes a new NMR imaging modality--MR diffusion tensor imaging. It consists of estimating an effective diffusion tensor, Deff, within a voxel, and then displaying useful quantities derived from it. We show how the phenomenon of anisotropic diffusion of water (or metabolites) in anisotropic tissues, measured noninvasively by these NMR methods, is exploited to determine fiber tract orientation and mean particle displacements. Once Deff is estimated from a series of NMR pulsed-gradient, spin-echo experiments, a tissue's three orthotropic axes can be determined. They coincide with the eigenvectors of Deff, while the effective diffusivities along these orthotropic directions are the eigenvalues of Deff. Diffusion ellipsoids, constructed in each voxel from Deff, depict both these orthotropic axes and the mean diffusion distances in these directions. Moreover, the three scalar invariants of Deff, which are independent of the tissue's orientation in the laboratory frame of reference, reveal useful information about molecular mobility reflective of local microstructure and anatomy. Inherently tensors (like Deff) describing transport processes in anisotropic media contain new information within a macroscopic voxel that scalars (such as the apparent diffusivity, proton density, T1, and T2) do not. more

Topics: Anisotropic diffusion (55%), Diffusion Anisotropy (53%), Diffusion MRI (51%) more

5,179 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(61)86902-6
Abstract: Van der Pol's equation for a relaxation oscillator is generalized by the addition of terms to produce a pair of non-linear differential equations with either a stable singular point or a limit cycle. The resulting "BVP model" has two variables of state, representing excitability and refractoriness, and qualitatively resembles Bonhoeffer's theoretical model for the iron wire model of nerve. This BVP model serves as a simple representative of a class of excitable-oscillatory systems including the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model of the squid giant axon. The BVP phase plane can be divided into regions corresponding to the physiological states of nerve fiber (resting, active, refractory, enhanced, depressed, etc.) to form a "physiological state diagram," with the help of which many physiological phenomena can be summarized. A properly chosen projection from the 4-dimensional HH phase space onto a plane produces a similar diagram which shows the underlying relationship between the two models. Impulse trains occur in the BVP and HH models for a range of constant applied currents which make the singular point representing the resting state unstable. more

Topics: Phase plane (53%), Phase space (51%), Van der Pol oscillator (51%) more

4,852 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(00)76713-0
Peter Schuck1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A new method for the size-distribution analysis of polymers by sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation is described. It exploits the ability of Lamm equation modeling to discriminate between the spreading of the sedimentation boundary arising from sample heterogeneity and from diffusion. Finite element solutions of the Lamm equation for a large number of discrete noninteracting species are combined with maximum entropy regularization to represent a continuous size-distribution. As in the program CONTIN, the parameter governing the regularization constraint is adjusted by variance analysis to a predefined confidence level. Estimates of the partial specific volume and the frictional ratio of the macromolecules are used to calculate the diffusion coefficients, resulting in relatively high-resolution sedimentation coefficient distributions c(s) or molar mass distributions c(M). It can be applied to interference optical data that exhibit systematic noise components, and it does not require solution or solvent plateaus to be established. More details on the size-distribution can be obtained than from van Holde-Weischet analysis. The sensitivity to the values of the regularization parameter and to the shape parameters is explored with the help of simulated sedimentation data of discrete and continuous model size distributions, and by applications to experimental data of continuous and discrete protein mixtures. more

3,383 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1529/BIOPHYSJ.106.091116
Abstract: Biological structures span many orders of magnitude in size, but far-field visible light microscopy suffers from limited resolution. A new method for fluorescence imaging has been developed that can obtain spatial distributions of large numbers of fluorescent molecules on length scales shorter than the classical diffraction limit. Fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) analyzes thousands of single fluorophores per acquisition, localizing small numbers of them at a time, at low excitation intensity. To control the number of visible fluorophores in the field of view and ensure that optically active molecules are separated by much more than the width of the point spread function, photoactivatable fluorescent mole- cules are used, in this case the photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PA-GFP). For these photoactivatable molecules, the activation rate is controlled by the activation illumination intensity; nonfluorescent inactive molecules are activated by a high- frequency (405-nm) laser and are then fluorescent when excited at a lower frequency. The fluorescence is imaged by a CCD camera, and then the molecules are either reversibly inactivated or irreversibly photobleached to remove them from the field of view. The rate of photobleaching is controlled by the intensity of the laser used to excite the fluorescence, in this case an Ar1 ion laser. Because only a small number of molecules are visible at a given time, their positions can be determined precisely; with only ;100 detected photons per molecule, the localization precision can be as much as 10-fold better than the resolution, depending on background levels. Heterogeneities on length scales of the order of tens of nanometers are observed by FPALM of PA-GFP on glass. FPALM images are compared with images of the same molecules by widefield fluorescence. FPALM images of PA-GFP on a terraced sapphire crystal surface were compared with atomic force microscopy and show that the full width at half-maximum of features ;86 6 4 nm is significantly better than the expected diffraction-limited optical resolution. The number of fluorescent molecules and their brightness distribution have also been determined using FPALM. This new method suggests a means to address a significant number of biological questions that had previously been limited by microscope resolution. more

Topics: Photoactivated localization microscopy (59%), Super-resolution microscopy (58%), RESOLFT (56%) more

3,118 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0006-3495(72)86068-5
Abstract: Coupled nonlinear differential equations are derived for the dynamics of spatially localized populations containing both excitatory and inhibitory model neurons. Phase plane methods and numerical solutions are then used to investigate population responses to various types of stimuli. The results obtained show simple and multiple hysteresis phenomena and limit cycle activity. The latter is particularly interesting since the frequency of the limit cycle oscillation is found to be a monotonic function of stimulus intensity. Finally, it is proved that the existence of limit cycle dynamics in response to one class of stimuli implies the existence of multiple stable states and hysteresis in response to a different class of stimuli. The relation between these findings and a number of experiments is discussed. more

Topics: Wilson–Cowan model (65%), Limit cycle (54%), Population (52%) more

2,980 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Enrico Gratton

138 papers, 14.4K citations

Klaus Schulten

126 papers, 12.8K citations

Mark S.P. Sansom

87 papers, 3.9K citations

David D. Thomas

58 papers, 1.7K citations

Derek Marsh

47 papers, 2.3K citations

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