Showing papers in "Biosensors and Bioelectronics in 2011"
TL;DR: This review discusses the application of graphene for the detection of glucose, Cyt-c, NADH, Hb, cholesterol, AA, UA, DA, and H(2)O(2).
Abstract: A detailed overview towards the advancement of graphene based biosensors has been reviewed. The large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centers of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface. Rapid electron transfer facilitates accurate and selective detection of biomolecules. This review discusses the application of graphene for the detection of glucose, Cyt-c, NADH, Hb, cholesterol, AA, UA, DA, and H(2)O(2). GO and RGO have been used for the fabrication of heavy metal ion sensors, gas sensors, and DNA sensors. Graphene based FETs have also been discussed in details. In all these cases, the biosensors performed well with low working potentials, high sensitivities, low detection limits, and long-term stabilities.
TL;DR: This review article concentrates on the summarization of the recent progress in the fabrication and application of microbial biosensors based on amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cell, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry.
Abstract: A microbial biosensor is an analytical device which integrates microorganism(s) with a physical transducer to generate a measurable signal proportional to the concentration of analytes. In recent years, a large number of microbial biosensors have been developed for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Starting with the discussion of various sensing techniques commonly used in microbial biosensing, this review article concentrates on the summarization of the recent progress in the fabrication and application of microbial biosensors based on amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cell, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry, respectively. Prospective strategies for the design of future microbial biosensors will also be discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, a graphene/Pt-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was created to simultaneously characterize ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid(UA) levels via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV).
Abstract: In this study, a graphene/Pt-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was created to simultaneously characterize ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) levels via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) During the preparation of the nanocomposite, size-selected Pt nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 17 nm were self-assembled onto the graphene surface In the simultaneous detection of the three aforementioned analytes using CV, the electrochemical potential differences among the three detected peaks were 185 mV (AA to DA), 144 mV (DA to UA), and 329 mV (AA and UA), respectively In comparison to the CV results of bare GC and graphene-modified GC electrodes, the large electrochemical potential difference that is achieved via the use of the graphene/Pt nanocomposites is essential to the distinguishing of these three analytes An optimized adsorption of size-selected Pt colloidal nanoparticles onto the graphene surface results in a graphene/Pt nanocomposite that can provide a good platform for the routine analysis of AA, DA, and UA
TL;DR: Efforts have been made to discuss and explore various characteristics of PANI responsible for direct electron transfer leading towards fabrication of mediator-less biosensors.
Abstract: The present paper contains a detailed overview of recent advances relating to polyaniline (PANI) as a transducer material for biosensor applications. This conducting polymer provides enormous opportunities for binding biomolecules, tuning their bio-catalytic properties, rapid electron transfer and direct communication to produce a range of analytical signals and new analytical applications. Merging the specific nature of different biomolecules (enzymes, nucleic acids, antibodies, etc.) and the key properties of this modern conducting matrix, possible biosensor designs and their biosensing characteristics have been discussed. Efforts have been made to discuss and explore various characteristics of PANI responsible for direct electron transfer leading towards fabrication of mediator-less biosensors.
TL;DR: The design, construction, and testing of a contact lens with an integrated amperometric glucose sensor is reported, proposing the possibility of in situ human health monitoring simply by wearing a contact eye, with good linearity for the typical range of glucose concentrations in the tear film.
Abstract: We report the design, construction, and testing of a contact lens with an integrated amperometric glucose sensor, proposing the possibility of in situ human health monitoring simply by wearing a contact lens. The glucose sensor was constructed by creating microstructures on a polymer substrate, which was subsequently shaped into a contact lens. Titania sol-gel film was applied to immobilize glucose oxidase, and Nafion® was used to decrease several potential interferences (ascorbic acid, lactate, and urea) present in the tear film. The sensor exhibits a fast response (20s), a high sensitivity (240 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) and a good reproducibility after testing a number of sensors. It shows good linearity for the typical range of glucose concentrations in the tear film (0.1-0.6 mM), and acceptable accuracy in the presence of interfering agents. The sensor can attain a minimum detection of less than 0.01 mM glucose.
TL;DR: This paper focuses onCP-based sensor elements and the state-of-art of CP-based sensing devices that have potential applications as tools in clinical diagnosis and surgical interventions and some of the key issues related to CPs are highlighted.
Abstract: A class of organic polymers, known as conducting polymers (CPs), has become increasingly popular due to its unique electrical and optical properties. Material characteristics of CPs are similar to those of some metals and inorganic semiconductors, while retaining polymer properties such as flexibility, and ease of processing and synthesis, generally associated with conventional polymers. Owing to these characteristics, research efforts in CPs have gained significant traction to produce several types of CPs since its discovery four decades ago. CPs are often categorised into different types based on the type of electric charges (e.g., delocalized pi electrons, ions, or conductive nanomaterials) responsible for conduction. Several CPs are known to interact with biological samples while maintaining good biocompatibility and hence, they qualify as interesting candidates for use in a numerous biological and medical applications. In this paper, we focus on CP-based sensor elements and the state-of-art of CP-based sensing devices that have potential applications as tools in clinical diagnosis and surgical interventions. Representative applications of CP-based sensors (electrochemical biosensor, tactile sensing ‘skins’, and thermal sensors) are briefly discussed. Finally, some of the key issues related to CP-based sensors are highlighted.
TL;DR: Nano nickel oxide (NiO) modified non-enzymatic glucose sensors with enhanced sensitivity with excellent electrocatalytical activity and assay performance are investigated and can be used for the assay of glucose in real sample.
Abstract: Development of fast and sensitive sensors for glucose determination is important in food industry, clinic diagnostics, biotechnology and many other areas. In these years, considerable attention has been paid to develop non-enzymatic electrodes to solve the disadvantages of the enzyme-modified electrodes, such as instability, high cost, complicated immobilization procedure and critical operating situation et al. Nano nickel oxide (NiO) modified non-enzymatic glucose sensors with enhanced sensitivity were investigated. Potential scanning nano NiO modified carbon paste electrodes up to high potential in alkaline solution greatly increases the amount of redox couple Ni(OH)(2)/NiOOH derived from NiO, and thus improves their electrochemical properties and electrocatalytical performance toward the oxidation of glucose. The non-enzymatic sensors response quickly to glucose and the response time is less than 5s, demonstrating excellent electrocatalytical activity and assay performance. The calibration plot is linear over the wide concentration range of 1-110 μM with a sensitivity of 43.9 nA/μM and a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit of the electrode was found to be 0.16 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The proposed non-enzymatic sensors can be used for the assay of glucose in real sample.
TL;DR: This review provides an in-depth overview of state-of-the-art dielectrophoretic platforms integrated into microfluidics aimed towards different biomedical applications and suggests the future trends and potential applications of DEP systems in single cell analysis, stem cell research, establishing novel devices, and realising fully DEP-activated lab-on-a-chip systems.
Abstract: Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of polarisable particles in a nonuniform electric field, has been proven as a versatile mechanism to transport, accumulate, separate and characterise micro/nano scale bioparticles in microfluidic systems. The integration of DEP systems into the microfluidics enables the inexpensive, fast, highly sensitive, highly selective and label-free detection and analysis of target bioparticles. This review provides an in-depth overview of state-of-the-art dielectrophoretic (DEP) platforms integrated into microfluidics aimed towards different biomedical applications. It classifies the current DEP systems in terms of different microelectrode configurations and operating strategies devised to generate and employ DEP forces in such processes, and compares the features of each approach. Finally, it suggests the future trends and potential applications of DEP systems in single cell analysis, stem cell research, establishing novel devices, and realising fully DEP-activated lab-on-a-chip systems.
TL;DR: The principles of operation of electrochemical biosensors based on CILEs and IL/composite-modified macrodisk electrodes are discussed and emphasis is given to direct electron-transfer reaction and electrocatalysis of hemeproteins and enzyme-modified composite electrodes.
Abstract: Since 1992, when the room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation were reported to provide an attractive combination of an electrochemical solvent and electrolyte, ILs have been widely used in electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, electrochemical capacitor, and lithium batteries. However, it has only been in the last few years that electrochemical biosensors based on carbon ionic liquid electrodes (CILEs) and IL-modified macrodisk electrodes have been reported. However, there are still a lot of challenges in achieving IL-based sensitive, selective, and reproducible biosensors for high speed analysis of biological and environmental compounds of interest. This review discusses the principles of operation of electrochemical biosensors based on CILEs and IL/composite-modified macrodisk electrodes. Subsequently, recent developments and major strategies for enhancing sensing performance are discussed. Key challenges and opportunities of IL-based biosensors to further development and use are considered. Emphasis is given to direct electron-transfer reaction and electrocatalysis of hemeproteins and enzyme-modified composite electrodes.
TL;DR: An aptasensor for Ochratoxin A (OTA) using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) indicator based on the conformation change of OTA's aptamer in phosphate buffered saline containing Mg(2+) and OTA, and the phenomenon of salt-induced AuNPs aggregation.
Abstract: This work presents an aptasensor for Ochratoxin A (OTA) using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) indicator. The assay method is based on the conformation change of OTA's aptamer in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing Mg(2+) and OTA, and the phenomenon of salt-induced AuNPs aggregation. A single measurement took only five minutes. Circular dichroism spectroscopic experiments revealed for the first time that upon the addition of OTA, the conformation of OTA's aptamer in PBS buffer changed from random coil structure to compact rigid antiparallel G-quadruplex structure. This compact rigid G-quadruplex structure could not protect AuNPs against salt-induced aggregation, and thus the color change from red to blue could be observed by the naked eye. The linear range of the colorimetric aptasensor covered a large variation of OTA concentration from 20 to 625 nM and the detection limit of 20 nM (3σ) was obtained.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that bovine serum albumin (BSA) stabilized Au clusters exhibited highly intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and a sensitive and selective method forxanthine detection was developed using xanthine oxidase (XOD) and the as-prepared BSA-Au clusters.
Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrated that bovine serum albumin (BSA) stabilized Au clusters exhibited highly intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Unlike nature enzymes, the BSA-Au clusters have strong robustness and can be used over a wide range of pH and temperature. Because of ultra-small size, good stability and high biocompatibility in water solution compare with other kinds of nanoparticles as peroxidase mimetics, such as Fe(3)O(4), FeS or graphene oxide, it is more competent for bioanalysis. Furthermore, we make use of the novel properties of BSA-Au clusters as peroxidase mimetics to detect H(2)O(2). The as-prepared BSA-Au clusters were used to catalyze the oxidation of a peroxidase substrate 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H(2)O(2) to the oxidized colored product, and which provides a colorimetric detection of H(2)O(2). As low as 2.0 × 10(-8)M H(2)O(2) could be detected with a linear range from 5.0 × 10(-7) to 2.0 × 10(-5)M via this method. More importantly, a sensitive and selective method for xanthine detection was developed using xanthine oxidase (XOD) and the as-prepared BSA-Au clusters. The detection limit of this assay for xanthine was 5 × 10(-7)M and the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of xanthine in urine and human serum sample.
TL;DR: There is an urgent need for the development of rapid, competent, and reliable methods for direct detection and identification of foodborne brown pathogens, and foreseeable future trends in biosensor research activities are presented.
Abstract: The wholesomeness of food is the real proviso for healthy life. Food freed from microbial and chemical cross-contaminations adds on to its hygienic and nutritive value. Infectious diseases spreading every day through food have become a life-threatening problem for millions of people around the world. Food or food products are the potent transmitting agent of more than 250 known diseases. So far only in the United States, 76 million cases of food-borne illness, 32,500 cases of hospitalization and 5000 cases per annum of mortality are recognized. Health expert's estimate that the yearly cost of all the food borne diseases is approximately $5-6 billion. There is therefore, is an urgent need for the development of rapid, competent, and reliable methods for direct detection and identification of foodborne brown pathogens. In this overview, we have concentrated specifically on microbe-based biosensing methods such as optical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), amperometric, potentiometric, whole-cell, electrochemical, impedimetric, piezoelectric for the rapid detection of food borne pathogens. Furthermore, we have focused our attention on the discussion of principal concepts, applications, and examples from analyte to the configuration of potential biosensors that have been achieved up until now to detect potential foodborne pathogens. The article presents foreseeable future trends in biosensor research activities for paving the way for fresh and healthy food proposal.
TL;DR: The P-AuNPs displayed the most obvious response to mercury ions in water in contrast to lead and copper ions, and the real water sample analysis verified the conclusion.
Abstract: A simple, cost-effective and rapid colorimetric method for any or all of Hg(2+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) detection using papain-functionalized gold nanoparticles (P-AuNPs) has been developed. Papain is a protein with seven cystein residues, which can selectively bind with Hg(2+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+). We functionalized gold nanoparticles with papain. The P-AuNPs could be used to simultaneously detect Hg(2+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), and showed different responses to the three ions in an aqueous solution based on the aggregation-induced color change of gold nanoparticles. The P-AuNPs displayed the most obvious response to mercury ions in water in contrast to lead and copper ions, and the real water sample analysis verified the conclusion. The sensitivity of the detection system was influenced by the pH of the P-AuNPs solution, the concentration of P-AuNPs and the size of gold nanoparticles, and we found that larger gold nanoparticles contributed to more sensitive results. The detection system can detect as low as 200 nM Hg(2+), Pb(2+) or Cu(2+) using 42 nm gold nanoparticles. We expect our approach to have wide-ranging applications in the developing region for monitoring water quality in some areas.
TL;DR: This review emphasizes the new developments in the field of SPR-related instrumentation including optical platforms, chips design, nanoscale approach and new materials.
Abstract: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensing is one of the most advanced label free, real time detection technologies. Numerous research groups with divergent scientific backgrounds have investigated the application of SPR biosensors and studied the fundamental aspects of surface plasmon polaritons that led to new, related instrumentation. As a result, this field continues to be at the forefront of evolving sensing technology. This review emphasizes the new developments in the field of SPR-related instrumentation including optical platforms, chips design, nanoscale approach and new materials. The current tendencies in SPR-based biosensing are identified and the future direction of SPR biosensor technology is broadly discussed.
TL;DR: Findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for oxygen reduction that can still produce ~750 mW/m(2) after 1 year, and suggest that the degradation in cathode performance was due to clogging of the AC micropores.
Abstract: Activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes are inexpensive and useful alternatives to Pt-catalyzed electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but information is needed on their long-term stability for oxygen reduction. AC cathodes were constructed with diffusion layers (DLs) with two different porosities (30% and 70%) to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen transfer on power. The 70% DL cathode initially produced a maximum power density of 1214 ± 123 mW/m 2 (cathode projected surface area; 35 ± 4 W/m 3 based on liquid volume), but it decreased by 40% after 1 year to 734 ± 18 mW/m 2 . The 30% DL cathode initially produced less power than the 70% DL cathode, but it only decreased by 22% after 1 year (from 1014 ± 2 mW/m 2 to 789 ± 68 mW/m 2 ). Electrochemical tests were used to examine the reasons for the degraded performance. Diffusion resistance in the cathode was found to be the primary component of the internal resistance, and it increased over time. Replacing the cathode after 1 year completely restored the original power densities. These results suggest that the degradation in cathode performance was due to clogging of the AC micropores. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for oxygen reduction that can still produce ∼750 mW/m 2 after 1 year.
TL;DR: The experiment results showed that the sensor exhibits good reproducibility and long-term stability, as well as high selectivity with no interference from other potential competing species.
Abstract: A nonenzymatic electrochemical biosensor was developed for the detection of glucose based on an electrode modified with palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs)-functioned graphene (nafion-graphene) The palladium nanoparticle-graphene nanohybrids were synthesized using an in situ reduction process Nafion-graphene was first assembled onto an electrode to chemically adsorb Pd(2+) And Pd(2+) was subsequently reduced by hydrazine hydrate to form PdNPs in situ Such a PdNPs-graphene nanohybrids-based electrode shows a very high electrochemical activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium The proposed biosensor can be applied to the quantification of glucose with a wide linear range covering from 10 μM to 5mM (R=0998) with a low detection limit of 1 μM The experiment results also showed that the sensor exhibits good reproducibility and long-term stability, as well as high selectivity with no interference from other potential competing species
TL;DR: In this work, biomolecule-stabilized Au nanoclusters were demonstrated as a novel fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective detection of glucose and found to be quenched effectively by the enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide.
Abstract: In this work, biomolecule-stabilized Au nanoclusters were demonstrated as a novel fluorescence probe for sensitive and selective detection of glucose. The fluorescence of Au nanoclusters was found to be quenched effectively by the enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). By virtue of the specific response, the present assay allowed for the selective determination of glucose in the range of 1.0×10(-5) M to 0.5×10(-3) M with a detection limit of 5.0×10(-6) M. The absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence decay studies were then performed to discuss the quenching mechanism. In addition, we demonstrated the application of the present approach in real serum samples, which suggested its great potential for diagnostic purposes.
TL;DR: An electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of DA was successfully constructed as demonstration based on the synthesized GSCR-MIPs nanocomposites and revealed a lower limit of detection and wider linear response compared to some previously reported DA electrochemical MIPs sensors.
Abstract: A novel composite of graphene sheets/Congo red-molecular imprinted polymers (GSCR-MIPs) was synthesized through free radical polymerization (FRP) and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dopamine (DA) electrochemical sensor. The template molecules (DA) were firstly absorbed at the GSCR surface due to their excellent affinity, and subsequently, selective copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was further achieved at the GSCR surface. Potential scanning was presented to extract DA molecules from the imprinted polymers film, and as a result, DA could be rapidly and completely removed by this way. With regard to the traditional MIPs, the GSCR-MIPs not only possessed a faster desorption and adsorption dynamics, but also exhibited a higher selectivity and binding capacity toward DA molecule. As a consequence, an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of DA was successfully constructed as demonstration based on the synthesized GSCR-MIPs nanocomposites. Under experimental conditions, selective detection of DA in a linear concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-7)-8.3 × 10(-4)M was obtained, which revealed a lower limit of detection and wider linear response compared to some previously reported DA electrochemical MIPs sensors. The new DA electrochemical sensor based on GSCR-MIPs composites also exhibited excellent repeatability, which expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was about 2.50% for 30 repeated analyses of 20 μM DA.
TL;DR: The current scientific and engineering challenges involved in developing practical bio-fuel cell systems are described, with particular emphasis on a fundamental understanding of the reaction environment, the performance and stability requirements, modularity and scalability.
Abstract: Recent developments in bio-fuel cell technology are reviewed. A general introduction to bio-fuel cells, including their operating principles and applications, is provided. New materials and methods for the immobilisation of enzymes and mediators on electrodes, including the use of nanostructured electrodes are considered. Fuel, mediator and enzyme materials (anode and cathode), as well as cell configurations are discussed. A detailed summary of recently developed enzymatic fuel cell systems, including performance measurements, is conveniently provided in tabular form. The current scientific and engineering challenges involved in developing practical bio-fuel cell systems are described, with particular emphasis on a fundamental understanding of the reaction environment, the performance and stability requirements, modularity and scalability. In a companion review (Part II), new developments in microbial fuel cell technologies are reviewed in the context of fuel sources, electron transfer mechanisms, anode materials and enhanced O2 reduction.
TL;DR: This study fabricated a glucose biosensor by immobilizing glucose oxidase into AgNP/F-SiO(2)/GO nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for glucose detection and demonstrates that the resultant glucose bios sensor can be used for the glucose detection in human blood serum.
Abstract: In this paper, we report on the first preparation of well-defined SiO(2)-coated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets (SiO(2)/GO) without prior GO functionalization by combining sonication with sol-gel technique. The functional SiO(2)/GO nanocomposites (F-SiO(2)/GO) obtained by surface functionalization with NH(2) group were subsequently employed as a support for loading Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to synthesize AgNP-decorated F-SiO(2)/GO nanosheets (AgNP/F-SiO(2)/GO) by two different routes: (1) direct adsorption of preformed, negatively charged AgNPs; (2) in situ chemical reduction of silver salts. The morphologies of these nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the resultant AgNP/F-SiO(2)/GO exhibits remarkable catalytic performance for H(2)O(2) reduction. This H(2)O(2) sensor has a fast amperometric response time of less than 2s. The linear range is estimated to be from 1×10(-4) M to 0.26 M (r=0.998) and the detection limit is estimated to be 4 × 10(-6) M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, respectively. We also fabricated a glucose biosensor by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) into AgNP/F-SiO(2)/GO nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for glucose detection. Our study demonstrates that the resultant glucose biosensor can be used for the glucose detection in human blood serum.
TL;DR: These microfluidic immunosensors employing nanostructured surfaces and off-line analyte capture with heavily labeled paramagnetic particles hold great promise for accurate, sensitive multiplexed detection of diagnostic cancer biomarkers.
Abstract: A microfluidic electrochemical immunoassay system for multiplexed detection of protein cancer biomarkers was fabricated using a molded polydimethylsiloxane channel and routine machined parts interfaced with a pump and sample injector. Using off-line capture of analytes by heavily-enzyme-labeled 1 μm superparamagnetic particle (MP)-antibody bioconjugates and capture antibodies attached to an 8-electrode measuring chip, simultaneous detection of cancer biomarker proteins prostate specific antigen (PSA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum was achieved at sub-pg mL⁻¹ levels. MPs were conjugated with ∼90,000 antibodies and ∼200,000 horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labels to provide efficient off-line capture and high sensitivity. Measuring electrodes feature a layer of 5 nm glutathione-decorated gold nanoparticles to attach antibodies that capture MP-analyte bioconjugates. Detection limits of 0.23 pg mL⁻¹ for PSA and 0.30 pg mL⁻¹ for IL-6 were obtained in diluted serum mixtures. PSA and IL-6 biomarkers were measured in serum of prostate cancer patients in total assay time 1.15 h and sensor array results gave excellent correlation with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). These microfluidic immunosensors employing nanostructured surfaces and off-line analyte capture with heavily labeled paramagnetic particles hold great promise for accurate, sensitive multiplexed detection of diagnostic cancer biomarkers.
TL;DR: A simple method to detect fungi toxin (ochratoxin A) produced by Aspergillus Ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosumm is developed, utilizing graphene oxide as quencher which can quench the fluorescence of FAM attached to toxin-specific aptamer.
Abstract: In this paper, we developed a simple method to detect fungi toxin (ochratoxin A) produced by Aspergillus Ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum m, utilizing graphene oxide as quencher which can quench the fluorescence of FAM (carboxyfluorescein) attached to toxin-specific aptamer. By optimizing the experimental conditions, we obtained the detection limit of our sensing platform based on bare graphene oxide to be 1.9 μM with a linear detection range from 2 μM to 35 μM. Selectivity of this sensing platform has been carefully investigated; the results showed that this sensor specifically responded to ochratoxin A without interference from other structure analogues (N-acetyl- l -phenylalanine and warfarin) and with only limited interference from ochratoxin B. Experimental data showed that ochratoxin A as well as other structure analogues could adsorb onto the graphene oxide. As compared to the non-protected graphene oxide based biosensor, PVP-protected graphene oxide reveals much lower detection limit (21.8 nM) by two orders of magnitude under the optimized ratio of graphene oxide to PVP concentration. This sensor has also been challenged by testing 1% red wine containing buffer solution spiked with a series of concentration of ochratoxin A.
TL;DR: The ssDNA-GO architecture probe has been successfully applied in the multiplex detection of sequence-specific DNA, thrombin, Ag(+), Hg(2+) and cysteine, and the limit of detection was 1 nM.
Abstract: We have designed a versatile molecular beacon (MB)-like probe for the multiplex sensing of targets such as sequence-specific DNA, protein, metal ions and small molecule compounds based on the self-assembled ssDNA–graphene oxide (ssDNA–GO) architecture. The probe employs fluorescence “on/off” switching strategy in a single step in homogeneous solution. Compared to traditional molecular beacons, the proposed design is simple to prepare and manipulate and has little background interference, but still gives superior sensitivity and rapid response. More importantly, this ssDNA–GO architecture can serve as a universal beacon platform by simply changing the types of ssDNA sequences for the different targets. In this work, the ssDNA–GO architecture probe has been successfully applied in the multiplex detection of sequence-specific DNA, thrombin, Ag + , Hg 2+ and cysteine, and the limit of detection was 1 nM, 5 nM, 20 nM, 5.7 nM and 60 nM, respectively. The results demonstrate that the ssDNA–GO architecture can be an excellent and versatile platform for sensing multiplex analytes, easily replacing the universal molecular beacon.
TL;DR: This work provides a useful avenue for implementing ER-GNO as a new generation of electrochemical transducer in disposable electrode, which could expand the scope of graphene constructed electrochemical biosensing devices and hold great promise for routine sensing applications.
Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensing platform using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ER-GNO) modified electrode was proposed. This modified electrode was prepared by one-step electrodeposition of the exfoliated GNO sheets onto the ionic liquid doped screen-printed electrode (IL-SPE). The resulting ER-GNO/IL-SPE brought new capabilities for electrochemical devices by combining the advantages of ER-GNO and disposable electrode. Two important biomolecules, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), were employed to study the electrochemical performance of the ER-GNO/IL-SPE, which exhibited more favorable electron transfer kinetics than the bare IL-SPE. On the basis of the greatly enhanced electrochemical reactivity of H 2 O 2 at the developed electrode, ER-GNO and glucose oxidase constructed disposable biosensor showed better analytical performance for the glucose detection compared with the IL-SPE based biosensor. The linear range for the detection of glucose was from 5.0 μM to 12.0 mM with a detection limit of 1.0 μM. This work provides a useful avenue for implementing ER-GNO as a new generation of electrochemical transducer in disposable electrode, which could expand the scope of graphene constructed electrochemical biosensing devices and hold great promise for routine sensing applications.
TL;DR: The fabrication and testing of a multiplex immuno-disc sensor for the specific detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus is described and a compact portable device which converts the color intensity of the gold nanoparticles that accumulate at the test region into a quantitative voltage reading proportional to the bacterial concentration in the sample is described.
Abstract: Point-of-care testing (POCT) of infectious bacterial agents offers substantial benefits for disease diagnosis, mainly by shortening the time required to obtain results and by making the test available bedside or at remote care centers. Immunochromatographic lateral flow biosensors offer a low cost, highly sensitive platform for POCT. In this article, we describe the fabrication and testing of a multiplex immuno-disc sensor for the specific detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as the signaling agents. The detection range of the bacteria lies within 500-5000 CFU/ml. The advantage of the immuno-disc sensor is that it does not require any preprocessing of biological sample and is capable of whole cell bacterial detection. We also describe the design and fabrication of a compact portable device which converts the color intensity of the gold nanoparticles that accumulate at the test region into a quantitative voltage reading proportional to the bacterial concentration in the sample. The combination of the immuno-disc and the portable color reader provides a rapid, sensitive, low cost, and quantitative tool for the detection of a panel of infectious agents present in the patient sample.
TL;DR: The detection of dissolved avidin concentrations as low as 15 nM or 1 μg/ml is demonstrated using functionalized slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics with high sensitivity over an extremely small area.
Abstract: We demonstrate the detection of dissolved avidin concentrations as low as 15 nM or 1 μg/ml using functionalized slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics. With a cavity sensing surface area of approximately 2.2 μm(2), we are able to detect surface mass densities of order 60 pg/mm(2) corresponding to a bound mass of approximately 100 ag. The ultra-compact size of the sensors makes them attractive for lab-on-a-chip applications where high densities of independent sensing elements are desired within a small area. The high sensitivity over an extremely small area is due to the strong modal overlap with the analyte enabled by the slotted waveguide cavity geometry that we employ. This strong overlap results in larger shifts in the cavity peak wavelength when compared to competing approaches.
TL;DR: G-CdS nanocomposite not only can be used for immobilizing GOD, but also can be extended to other enzymes and bioactive molecules, thus providing a promising platform for the development of biosensors.
Abstract: Integrating graphene-based composites with enzyme provides a potent strategy to enhance biosensor performance due to their unique physicochemical properties. Herein we report on the utilization of graphene–CdS (G–CdS) nanocomposite as a novel immobilization matrix for the enzymes, which glucose oxidase (GOD) was chosen as model enzyme. In comparison with the graphene sheet and CdS nanocrystal, G–CdS nanocomposite exhibited excellent electron transfer properties for GOD with the rate constant (ks) of 5.9 s−1 due to the synergy effect of graphene sheet and CdS nanocrystals. Further, based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen, the obtained glucose biosensor displays satisfactory analytical performance over an acceptable linear range from 2.0 to 16 mM with a detection limit of 0.7 mM, and also prevents the effects of interfering species, which is suitable for glucose determination by real samples. These results mean that this immobilization matrix not only can be used for immobilizing GOD, but also can be extended to other enzymes and bioactive molecules, thus providing a promising platform for the development of biosensors.
TL;DR: ERGO-AuPdNPs nanocomposite showed excellent biocompatibility, enhanced electron transfer kinetics and large electroactive surface area, and were highly sensitive and stable towards oxygen reduction, making them highly suitable for oxidase-based biosensing.
Abstract: A simple, fast, green and controllable approach was developed for electrochemical synthesis of a novel nanocomposite of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) and gold-palladium (1:1) bimetallic nanoparticles (AuPdNPs), without the aid of any reducing reagent. The electrochemical reduction efficiently removed oxygen-containing groups in ERGO, which was then modified with homogeneously dispersed AuPdNPs in a good size distribution. ERGO-AuPdNPs nanocomposite showed excellent biocompatibility, enhanced electron transfer kinetics and large electroactive surface area, and were highly sensitive and stable towards oxygen reduction. A biosensor was constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase as a model enzyme on the nanocomposites for glucose detection through oxygen consumption during the enzymatic reaction. The biosensor had a detection limit of 6.9μM, a linear range up to 3.5mM and a sensitivity of 266.6μAmM(-1)cm(-2). It exhibited acceptable reproducibility and good accuracy with negligible interferences from common oxidizable interfering species. These characteristics make ERGO-AuPdNPs nanocomposite highly suitable for oxidase-based biosensing.
TL;DR: The robust selectivities, sensitivities, and stabilities determined experimentally indicated the great potential of NiNPs/SMWNTs nanohybrids for construction of a variety of electrochemical sensors.
Abstract: A nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor device was fabricated for glucose detection based on nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs)/straight multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SMWNTs) nanohybrids, which were synthesized through in situ precipitation procedure. SMWNTs can be easily dispersed in solution after mild sonication pretreatment, which facilitates the precursor of NiNPs binding to their surface and results in the homogeneous distribution of NiNPs on the surface of SMWNTs. The morphology and component of the nanohybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were used to evaluate the catalytic activity of the NiNPs/SMWNTs nanohybrids modified electrode towards glucose. It was found that the nanohybrids modified electrode showed remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution compared to that of the bare glass carbon electrode (GCE), the NiNPs and the SMWNTs modified electrode, attributing to the synergistic effect of SMWNTs and Ni 2+ /Ni 3+ redox couple. Under the optimal detection conditions, the as-prepared sensors exhibited linear behavior in the concentration range from 1 μM to 1 mM for the quantification of glucose with a limit of detection of 500 nM (3σ). Moreover, the NiNPs/SMWNTs modified electrode was also relatively insensitive to commonly interfering species such as ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), dopamine (DA), galactose (GA), and xylose (XY). The robust selectivities, sensitivities, and stabilities determined experimentally indicated the great potential of NiNPs/SMWNTs nanohybrids for construction of a variety of electrochemical sensors.
TL;DR: Results indicated that PdNPs/CS-GR nanocomposites held great potential for construction of a variety of electrochemical biosensors.
Abstract: Graphene (GR) was covalently functionalized with chitosan (CS) to improve its biocompatibility and hydrophilicity for the preparation of biosensors. The CS-grafted GR (CS-GR) rendered water-soluble nanocomposites that were readily decorated with palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using in situ reduction. Results with TEM, SEM, FTIR, Raman and XRD revealed that CS was successfully grafted without destroying the structure of GR, and PdNPs were densely decorated on CS-GR sheets with no aggregation occurring. A novel glucose biosensor was then developed through covalently immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on a glassy carbon electrode modified with the PdNPs/CS-GR nanocomposite film. Due to synergistic effect of PdNPs and GR, the PdNPs/CS-GR nanocomposite film exhibited excellent electrocatalytical activity toward H2O2 and facilitated high loading of enzymes. The biosensor demonstrated high sensitivity of 31.2 μA mM−1 cm−2 for glucose with a wide linear range from 1.0 μM to 1.0 mM as well as a low detection limit of 0.2 μM (S/N = 3). The low Michaelis–Menten constant (1.2 mM) suggested enhanced enzyme affinity to glucose. These results indicated that PdNPs/CS-GR nanocomposites held great potential for construction of a variety of electrochemical biosensors.