Journal•ISSN: 0006-8314

# Boundary-Layer Meteorology

Springer Science+Business Media

About: Boundary-Layer Meteorology is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Planetary boundary layer & Boundary layer. It has an ISSN identifier of 0006-8314. Over the lifetime, 4711 publications have been published receiving 209906 citations. The journal is also known as: Boundary - layer meteorology.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a model for the representation of vertical eddy fluxes of heat, momentum and water vapour in a forecast model is presented, and two tests are presented, using the scheme in a one-dimensional model: the simulation of the diurnal cycle and the transformation of a polar air mass moving over the warm sea.

Abstract: A scheme for the representation of the vertical eddy fluxes of heat, momentum and water vapour in a forecast model is presented. An important feature of the scheme is the dependence of the diffusion coefficients on the static stability of the atmosphere. Two tests are presented, using the scheme in a one-dimensional model: the simulation of the diurnal cycle, and the transformation of a polar air mass moving over the warm sea.

2,357 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the sensitivity of anemometer-derived stress estimates to the tilt of the anemometers is investigated, and three methods for determining the tilt angles relative to a mean streamline coordinate system and for computing the tilt-corrected stresses are compared.

Abstract: The sensitivity of sonic anemometer-derived stress estimates to the tilt of the anemometer is investigated. The largest stress errors are shown to occur for unstable stratification (z/L<0) and deep convective boundary layers. Three methods for determining the tilt angles relative to a mean streamline coordinate system and for computing the tilt-corrected stresses are then compared. The most commonly used method, involving a double rotation of the anemometers' axes, is shown to result in significant run-to-run stress errors due to the sampling uncertainty of the mean vertical velocity. An alternative method, requiring a triple rotation of the anemometer axes, is shown to result in even greater run-to-run stress errors due to the combined sampling errors of the mean vertical velocity and the cross-wind stress. For measurements over the sea where the cross-stream stress is important, the double rotation method is shown to overestimate the surface stress, due to the uncorrected lateral tilt component. A third method, using a planar fit technique, isshown to reduce the run-to-run stress errors due to sampling effects, and provides an unbiased estimate of the lateral stress.

1,642 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a three-dimensional numerical model was used to study turbulence and entrainment within mixed layers containing stratocumulus with or without parameterized cloud-top radiative cooling.

Abstract: Results of a three-dimensional numerical model are analysed in a study of turbulence and entrainment within mixed layers containing stratocumulus with or without parameterized cloud-top radiative cooling. The model eliminates most of the assumptions invoked in theories of cloud-capped mixed layers, but suffers disadvantages which include poor resolution and large truncation errors in and above the capping inversion. For relatively thick mixed layers with relatively thick capping inversions, the cloud-top radiative cooling is found to be lodged mostly within the capping inversion when the cooling is confined locally to the upper 50 m or less of the cloud. It does not then contribute substantially towards increased buoyancy flux and turbulence within the well mixed layer just below. The optimal means of correlating the entrainment rate, or mixed-layer growth rate, for mixed layers of variable amounts of stratocumulus is found to be through functional dependence upon an overall jump Richardson number, utilizing as scaling velocity the standard deviation of vertical velocity existing at the top of the mixed layer (near the center of the capping inversion). This velocity is found to be a fraction of the generalized convective velocity for the mixed layer as a whole which is greater for cloud-capped mixed layers than for clear mixed layers.

1,614 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, Businger et al. reviewed the preferred relationships of Dyer and Hicks (1970) in the constant flux layer, and found that the preferred relationship was the one of the Dyer-H Hicks pair.

Abstract: Flux-profile relationships in the constant flux layer are reviewed The preferred relationships are found to be those of Dyer and Hicks (1970), namely, φ
H
=φ
W
=(1−16(z/L))−1/2, φ
M
=(1−16(z/L))−1/4 for the unstable region, and φ
H
=φ
W
=φ
M
= 1+5(z/L) for the stable region The carefully determined results of Businger et al (1971) remain a difficulty which calls for considerable clarification

1,564 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the frequency response of eddy correlation systems due to sensor response, path-length averaging, sensor separation and signal processing is discussed and illustrated by application to the Institute of Hydrology's "Hydra" EDD correlation system, showing that flux loss from such a system is typically 5 to 10% for sensible and latent heat flux, but can be much larger for momentum flux and variance measurements.

Abstract: Simplified expressions describing the frequency response of eddy correlation systems due to sensor response, path-length averaging, sensor separation and signal processing are presented. A routine procedure for estimating and correcting for the frequency response loss in flux and variance measurements is discussed and illustrated by application to the Institute of Hydrology's ‘Hydra’ eddy correlation system. The results show that flux loss from such a system is typically 5 to 10% for sensible and latent heat flux, but can be much larger for momentum flux and variance measurements in certain conditions. A microcomputer program is included which, with little modification, can be used for estimating flux loss from other eddy correlation systems with different or additional sensors.

1,204 citations