Showing papers in "Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology in 2016"
TL;DR: Various strategies for the purification and separation of keratin from the organic waste have been described and use of natural keratin in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry has also been explored.
Abstract: Keratin is a durable, fibrous protein which is mainly present in higher vertebrates (mammals, birds and reptiles) and humans epithelial cells. Food industry especially the meat market, slaughter house and wool industry produces million of tons of keratin containing biomass. These industries are constantly growing and the major producers include USA, Brazil and China, account for more than 40 million tons per year. These proteins constitute keratin by-products have from 15 to 18% nitrogen, 2-5% sulphur, 3.20% mineral elements and 1.27% fat and 90% of proteins. The organic waste rich in keratin can be utilized as a natural source using chemical and mechanical methods. The natural keratin obtained by biomass does not contain any harmful chemical and can be used directly to produce variety of cosmetics, creams, shampoos, hair conditioners and biomedical products. The natural protein is more compatible to use or apply on human skin and hairs. The monomeric units of natural keratin can penetrate in the skin and hair cuticle and able to nourish the skin without any side effects. In the present review various strategies for the purification and separation of keratin from the organic waste have been described and use of natural keratin in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry has also been explored.
TL;DR: The results of quantitative PCR analysis revealed that in coordination with the variation during the infection, the expression levels of four antimicrobial peptides were up-regulated and played a vital role against the pathogenic invasion.
Abstract: Housefly, Musca domestica, has a complicated immune system. However, its underlying operating mechanism remains elusive. Candida albicans is a major pathogen affecting humans by causing deep infection fungous disease, but it is non-symbiotic in houseflies. To investigate the C. albicans infection process in housefly, the changes in morphological and histological and expression patterns of antimicrobial peptide were monitored to indicate the insect's response to fungal infection. The results showed that scattered brown spots were comprising melanized encapsulation and encapsulated fungal cells were initially observed at the inner side of larvae's body wall 3 h post-infection (PI). Between 6 and 36 h PI, the whole body of larvae was densely covered with the brown spots, which then gradually disappeared. The majority had disappeared at 48 h PI. Some fungi colonized in the gaps between the body wall and the muscle layer, as well as among muscle fibers of the muscle layer at 12 h PI and hyphal was observed at 18 h PI. These fungi colonized distribution changed from a continuous line to scattered spots at 24 h PI and virtually disappeared at 48 h. The results of quantitative PCR analysis revealed that in coordination with the variation during the infection, the expression levels of four antimicrobial peptides were up-regulated. In conclusion, C. albicans infection in M. domestica larvae involved the following stages: injection, infection, immune response and elimination of the pathogen. The rapid response of antimicrobial peptides, melanized encapsulation and agglutination played a vital role against the pathogenic invasion.
TL;DR: The liposome components, methods of preparation, drug encapsulation mechanism and the potential therapeutic applications of liposomes in cancer therapy are discussed.
Abstract: Liposomes, the vesicles of phospholipid bilayer, can encapsulate both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs and protect them from degradation. Liposomes have been extensively studied and continue to create intense interest in research since their discovery in the mid-1960s. Since then, liposomes have been considered to be the most successful nanocarriers for drug deliver and have made their way to the market. Currently, a number of liposomal formulations are on the marker for cancer treatment and many more are in pipe line. This review discusses about the liposome components, methods of preparation, drug encapsulation mechanism and the potential therapeutic applications of liposomes in cancer therapy.
TL;DR: Bromelain is a concoction of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes that assist digestion, enhance absorption of other drugs and is a potential postoperatively agent that promote wound healing and reduce postsurgical discomfort and swelling.
Abstract: Bromelain is a concoction of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes. Depending upon the site of extraction it can be regarded as either stem bromelain (SBM) (EC 18.104.22.168) or fruit bromelain (FBM) (EC 22.214.171.124). Bromelain remain enzymatic active over a broad spectrumand endure a range of pH (5.5 to 8.0) and temperature (35.5 to 71 oC). It is one of the extensively investigated proteolytic enzyme owing to its astonishing applications in various industries. This necessitated employing a strategy that result in highest purified bromelain in less steps and lowest cost. Use of modernistic approach such as membrane filtration, reverse micellar systems, aqueous two phase extraction and chromatographic techniques have shown promise in this regard. Besides its industrial applications, bromelain has been widely utilized as a potential phytomedical compound. Some of its reported actions include inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-edematous, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, modulation of cytokines and immunity, skin debridement and fibrinolytic activity. It also assist digestion, enhance absorption of other drugs and is a potential postoperatively agent that promote wound healing and reduce postsurgical discomfort and swelling.
TL;DR: The endophytic fungus is have rich source of secondary metabolites which act as biological active agent in the higher plants and the natural compounds from the endophytes acts as growth inhibitor of plant pathogenic organism.
Abstract: The endophytic fungus is have rich source of secondary metabolites which act as biological active agent in the higher plants. The fungal derivatives play vital part in human life and their compounds are the source of drug for cancer, microbial and viral diseases. The natural compounds from the endophytes acts as growth inhibitor of plant pathogenic organism. Endophytes are rich sources of natural products which are used in agriculture (plant growth and insecticidal), pharmaceutical industries and also used for phytoremediation.
TL;DR: In this paper, a chemical co-precipitation method was used to synthesize magnetic nanopowders via X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer analysis (VSM), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR).
Abstract: In the present work, Cu2+ substituted cobalt ferrite (Co1-xCuxFe2O4, x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1) magnetic nanopowders were synthesized via chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared powders were investigated by various characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer analysis (VSM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR). The XRD analysis reveals that the synthesized nanopowders possess single phase centred cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite size of the particles ranging from 27-49 nm was calculated by using Debye-scherrer formula. Magnetic properties of the synthesized magnetic nanoparticles are studied by using VSM. The VSM results shows the magnetic properties such as coercivity, magnetic retentivity decreases with increase in copper substitution whereas the saturation magnetization shows increment and decrement in accordance with Cu2+ substitution in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. SEM analysis reveals the morphology of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles. FTIR spectra of Cu2+ substituted cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were recorded in the frequency range 4000-400cm-1. The spectrum shows the presence of water adsorption and metal oxygen bonds. The adhesion nature of Cu2+ substituted cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles with bacteria in reviewed results indicates that the synthesized nanoparticles could be used in biotechnology and biomedical applications.
TL;DR: This review presents general information on rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas species, as well as on their production and applications.
Abstract: Surfactants are chemical products widely used in our daily life in toothpaste and other personal hygiene and cosmetic products, and in several industries. Biosurfactants are surfactants of biological origin that can be produced by microorganisms and have many advantages, such as low toxicity and high biodegradability, compared to synthetic counterparts. Unfortunately, high production costs limit the use of biosurfactants. Low-cost production is the most important factor for biosurfactants to be able to compete in the global market place. This review presents general information on rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas species, as well as on their production and applications. In addition, industrial products and their wastes used for rhamnolipid production are reviewed in detail based on recent studies.
TL;DR: The results of the present study indicate that biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles might be used to treat breast cancer, and suggest that these nanoparticles could be a new potential adjuvant chemotherapeutic and chemo preventive agent against cytotoxic cells.
Abstract: The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proposed as an environmental friendly and cost effective alternative to chemical and physical methods. Silver nanoparticles are biologically synthesized and characterized were used in the study. The invitro cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles against MCF-7 cancer cell lines were assessed. The cytotoxic effects of the silver nanoparticles could significantly inhibited MCF-7 cancer cell lines proliferation in a time and concentration-dependent manner by MTT assay. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of silver nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL. At 100 μg/mL concentration, the silver nanoparticles exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays. Western blot analysis has revealed that nanoparticle was able to induce cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, which was initiated by the inhibition of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles might be used to treat breast cancer. The present studies suggest that these nanoparticles could be a new potential adjuvant chemotherapeutic and chemo preventive agent against cytotoxic cells. However, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as anticancer agents.
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of LED lights on glucobrassicin in Chinese cabbage and kale was studied extensively, because GSL is the precursor of indole-3-carbinol, a potent anticancer isothiocyanate.
Abstract: Light emitting diode (LED) lights play an important role in the plant physiology and alter the metabolites in a significant manner. Glucosinolates (GSLs), polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant properties of Chinese cabbage and kale cultivated in varying LED lights were investigated. Analysis revealed 7 aliphatic, 3 indolyl and 1 aromatic GSLs in Chinese cabbage and kale. The total GSL content ranged from 1.5-19.08 and 1.85-24.87 µmol/g DW, and glucobrassicanapin was the predominant GSL (3) in Chinese cabbage, whereas; sinigrin (3.49 µmol/g DW) was in kale. Blue and red LED lights produced significantly higher amount of GSLs in Chinese cabbage and kale respectively. Results revealed higher amount of total polyphenol (3.845 µg/mL) and total flavanoids (3.939 μg/mL) in Chinese cabbage. Chinese cabbage and kale showed signiﬁcant antioxidant activities when compare with positive control, and the antioxidant assays were slightly correlated with total GSLs, polyphenols and flavanoids contents. The influence of LED lights on glucobrassicin in Chinese cabbage and kale should be studied extensively, because GSL is the precursor of indole-3-carbinol, a potent anticancer isothiocyanate.
TL;DR: The aim of this review was to describe the current state-of-the-art regarding isolation, characterization and aging of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs).
Abstract: The aim of this review was to describe the current state-of-the-art regarding isolation, characterization and aging of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently received widespread attention because of their potential use in tissue-engineering applications. Various studies have indicated that MSCs with a fibroblast-like morphology migrate to the sites of injury and help to regenerate damaged tissue. Over the past few years, it has been recognized that fat is not only an energy supply, but also a rich source of multipotent stem cells that can be easily harvested, isolated and selected as compared with other tissues. ADSCs are particularly interesting because of their rapid proliferation and multidirectional differentiation potential.
TL;DR: YE can be used as a feed additive due to its capability to improve feed efficiency, immune and antioxidative function in broilers.
Abstract: Effects of yucca extract (YE) on feed efficiency, immune and antioxidative function in Arbor Acres broilers were studied. One hundred and twenty-eight fourteen-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into four treatments with four replicates of 8 birds each. These four diets were formulated by adding 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg YE to the basal diet. The results showed that: diets supplemented with 100 and 200 mg/kg YE increased average body weight gain, feed efficiency, IgG, IgM, T-AOC, CAT and SOD levels, and have positive effects on inducing immune organs' maturation. In addition, 100 mg treatment mainly improved the feed efficiency whereas 200 mg treatment mainly acted on immunity and anti-oxidation. In conclusion, YE can be used as a feed additive due to its capability to improve feed efficiency, immune and antioxidative function in broilers.
TL;DR: The present investigation relates to elicitors of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to enhance biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production in hairy root cultures of M. charantia to develop a protocol for the production of phenolic compounds from JA and SA-elicited hairyroot cultures.
Abstract: Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) is an important vegetable and also medicinal crop which produces the bioactive compounds for various biological activities with potential uses in human health. The present investigation relates to elicitors of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) to enhance biomass accumulation and phenolic compound production in hairy root cultures of M. charantia. Hairy root cultures were elicited with JA and SA at 0, 25, 50 and 100 μM concentrations respectively. The adding of elicitation to the hairy root cultures on the 15th day of culture and the roots were harvested on day 25. Cultures supplemented with 100 μM JA and SA enhanced the phenolic compounds significantly compared to that of non-elicited hairy root cultures. The biomass of hairy root culture significantly increased by SA whereas decreased in JA elicitation at 100 μM. JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures significantly produced a higher amount of phenolic compounds (12811.23 and 11939.37µg/g), total phenolic (4.1 and 3.7 mg/g) and flavonoid (3.5 and 3.2 mg/g) contents than non-elicited hairy root cultures (10964.25 µg/g, 2.8 and 2.5 mg/g). JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures were significantly higher antioxidant activity of DPPH (84 and 78%), reducing potential (0.53 and 0.48), phosphomolybdenum (3.6 and 3.2 mg/g) and ferrous ion chelating assays (80 and 74%) than non-elicited hairy root cultures. The higher antimicrobial and anticancer activity were exhibited in JA and SA-elicited than non-elicited hairy root cultures. This protocol can be developed for the production of phenolic compounds from JA and SA-elicited hairy root cultures.
TL;DR: This research focused on isolation, identification and characterization of new strains of fungi and bacteria, which were able to produce extracellular xylanase, mannanase, pectinase and α-amylase, and some of the strains have good potential for use as sources of important industrial enzymes.
Abstract: This research focused on isolation, identification and characterization of new strains of fungi and bacteria, which were able to produce extracellular xylanase, mannanase, pectinase and α-amylase. Fungi isolates were identified on the basis of analyses of 18S gene sequencing and internal transcribed spacer region. The closest phylogenetic neighbors according to 18S gene sequence and ITS region data for the two isolates M1 and SE were Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus sydowii, respectively. I4 was identified as Bacillus mojavensis on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical properties. The enzyme production was evaluated by cultivating the isolated microorganisms in liquid-state bioprocess using wheat bran as carbon source. Two fungi (M1, and SE) and one bacterium (I4) strains were found to be xylanase producer, and several were proven to be outstanding producers of microbial xylanase. The strains producing xylanase secreted variable amounts of starch-debranching enzymes and produced low level β-mannan-degrading enzyme systems. The bacterium strain was found to be capable of producing pectinolytic enzymes on wheat bran at high level. Some of the strains have good potential for use as sources of important industrial enzymes.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan, was compared with an International standard of food fish.
Abstract: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan. The concentration of selected heavy metals Fe, Cr, Cu, and in gills, muscles, kidney and liver was compared with an International standard of food fish. The overall metal concentrations among different weight categories in C. carpio were in the order of Fe > Cu > Cr >. In W. attu the overall accumulation of these metals were, in order of Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb The order of accumulation of metals in gills and muscle of C. carpio was Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu; kidney and muscles of W. attu was Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb; liver Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb. An increasing trend of concentration of iron, copper, chromium and lead occurred with an increase in weight of C. carpio and W. attu. There was a significant difference in the accumulation of heavy metals in different organs of both species (p<0.01). All studied heavy metals except Cr were within permissible limits described by various international agencies like WHO, FAO and FEPA in edible tissues of C. carpio and W. attu.
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of gamma radiation on the growth and production of some active substances of Arthrospira platensis was studied, and it was shown that low doses of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) induced carbohydrate production by 106, 246 and 146%, respectively.
Abstract: This work aimed to study the influence of gamma radiation on the growth and production of some active substances of Arthrospira platensis. Biomass production was significantly inhibited (p ≤ 0.05) by 21 and 34%, with respect to the control at 2.0 and 2.5 kGy, respectively. Chlorophyll-a content showed 11% reduction at 2.5 kGy compared to the control. As a result of growth and Chl-a inhibition, chlorophyll productivity recorded a continuous significant decrease below the control in the cells exposed to 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 kGy by 8, 12, 15 and 25%, respectively after 15 days of incubation. In addition, phycobillins productivity showed significant decrease by 10 and 36% below the control at 2 and 2.5 kGy of gamma radiation, respectively. Protein production decreased significantly by 24% at 1.5 kGy; low doses of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) induced carbohydrate production by 106, 246 and 146%, respectively. Lipid content increased significantly over the control at 0.5 kGy of gamma irradiation by 22%, which was decreased at higher doses. Interestingly, carotenoid productivity showed significant increase at all used gamma doses up to 155% over the control.
TL;DR: It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20%) produced the highest yield and yield attributes.
Abstract: VC (20%), TC (20%) and N:P:K fertilizer (farmer's practice) were used to determine the growth and yield attributes of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata). Plants grown with VC (20%) produced the highest fresh biomass for bush bean (527.55 g m-2), winged bean (1168.61 g m-2) and yard long bean (409.84 g m-2). In all the tested legumes the highest pod weight, pod number, pod dry weight and pod length were found in the VC (20%) treatment. Photosynthetic rates in the three legumes peaked at pod formation stage in all treatments, with the highest photosynthetic rate observed in winged bean (56.17 µmol m-2s-1) grown with VC (20%). The highest yield for bush bean (2.98 ton ha-1), winged bean (7.28 ton ha-1) and yard long bean (2.22 ton ha-1) were also found in VC (20%) treatment. Furthermore, protein content was highest in bush bean (26.50 g/100g), followed by yard long bean (24.74 g/100g) and winged bean (22.04 g/100g), under VC (20%) treatment. It can be concluded that legumes grown with VC (20%) produced the highest yield and yield attributes.
TL;DR: An overview of the biomarkers/panels being explored as well as the potential of aptamers to improve current long-term survival rates of ovarian cancer are provided.
Abstract: Ovarian carcinoma accounts for highest mortality of all gynecologic malignancies as the disease is asymptomatic until late stages. Biomarkers such as CA-125 and HE4 are being currently used for diagnosis of ovarian cancer, but they show contradicting diagnostic accuracy. Therefore other biomarkers have been investigated for early detection of this disease, but no success has been obtained and no test has yet been recommended for screening a general population. In this instance, aptamers can be effectively used to identify tumor-specific antigens for early diagnosis and targeted therapy of ovarian cancer. This article provides an overview of the biomarkers/panels being explored as well as the potential of aptamers to improve current long-term survival rates of ovarian cancer.
TL;DR: This purified bacteriocin was stable over wide range of pH (4-10) as well as temperatures (4°C-121°C) suggesting it as a potent candidate for preservation of various foods.
Abstract: The present study focused on the production optimization of bacteriocin by Lactobacillus viridescence NICM 2167 followed by its purification and characterization. The bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.The bacteriocin produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) received attention in recent years due to their potential application as natural preservatives in food. Bacteriocinproduced by Lactobacillus viridescence showed broad range of antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens. Production parameters were optimized showing highest production of bacteriocinin MRS broth with pH= 7.0 incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Bacteriocin was purified in two steps involving ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by gel filtration using Sephadex G-100. Purified bacteriocin with single band on SDS-PAGE showed molecular weight of 8.3 kDa. This purified bacteriocin was stable over wide range of pH (4-10) as well as temperatures (4°C-121°C) suggesting it as a potent candidate for preservation of various foods.
TL;DR: The results indicate that lead nitrate and mercury chloride have reproductive toxicity, in male rats at the tested doses.
Abstract: This study was done to evaluate the effects of lead nitrate and mercury chloride in testis tissues of Wistar rats. Lead nitrate and mercury chloride are widely used heavy metals in industry. Oral lead and mercury administrations to adult male rats at doses 45 mg/kg bw and 0.02 mg/kg bw, respectively for 4 weeks caused a significant increasing in MDA levels and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST). The MDA levels and acivities of antioxidant enzymes was lower in rats that were administrated by lead nitrate than mercury chloride treated group. Light microscopic analyses revealed that lead nitrate and mercury chloride induced numerous histopathological changes in testis tissues of rats. Histopathological observations of the testis tissues showed that mercury chloride caused more harmful effects than lead nitrate, too. The results indicate that lead nitrate and mercury chloride have reproductive toxicity, in male rats at the tested doses. The effect which we observed applying the lead nitrate and mercury chloride together, was more greater than when we used them alone.
TL;DR: In this article, the optimal conditions for the enzymatic transesterification were temperature of 38.76℃, 31.3% immobilized lipase, 10.4% water content, and a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 4.715:1.
Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the biodiesel production from cotton seed oil by lipase produced by Pichia guilliermondii lipase, which was immobilized onto hydrophobic magnetic particles (HMPs). The optimum reaction conditions were determined for lipase dosage, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, temperature and water content. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content by multiple regression analysis. Verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic transesterification were temperature of 38.76℃, 31.3% immobilized lipase, 10.4% water content, and a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 4.715:1. The gas chromatography- mass spectrometry showed that biodiesel was mainly composed of the methyl esters of hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of leached amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice were investigated separately by replacing cooking liquid with AM and AP separated from pouring cooking liquid.
Abstract: Effects of leached amylose (AM) and amylopectin (AP) on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice were investigated separately by replacing cooking liquid with AM and AP separated from pouring cooking liquid. The pouring of cooking water reduced the hardness (from 28.45 to 19.42N) and stickiness (from 1.74 to 1.19N·s) significantly. However, the addition of AM and AP enhanced the hardness (27.63N) and stickiness (1.71N·s).Scanning electron microscopy show that the leached short-chain AM entered the surface hollows in the cooked rice after water evaporation. Meanwhile, the Long-chain AM cross-linked to formed a three-dimensional network structures, which covered on the filled hollows. This distribution led to a harder texture of cooked rice. The leached AP absorbed water and swelledto form masses. Atthe gelatinization temperature,theAPmassesagglomeratedtoformafilmlayer,whichcoveredtheunevenstructure, the thicker and smoother film contributed to the sticky texture.
TL;DR: The corn husks could be used as raw material for xylan extraction vis a vis its translation into prebiotic xylooligosaccharides and the maximum yield of xylobiose was achieved with the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of pH 5.8, temperature 44°C, enzyme dose 5.7U/ml and Hydrolysis time of 17.5h.
Abstract: Corn husks are the major wastes of corn industries with meagre economic significance. The present study was planned for value addition of corn husk through extraction of xylan, followed by its enzymatic hydrolysis into xylooligosaccharides, a pentose based prebiotic. Compositional analysis of corn husks revealed neutral detergent fibre 68.87%, acid detergent fibre 31.48%, hemicelluloses 37.39%, cellulose 29.07% and crude protein 2.68%. Irrespective of the extraction conditions, sodium hydroxide was found to be more effective in maximizing the yield of xylan from corn husks than potassium hydroxide (84% vs. 66%). Application of xylanase over the xylan of corn husks resulted into production of xylooligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization namely, xylobiose and xylotriose in addition to xylose monomer. On the basis of response surface model analysis, the maximum yield of xylobiose (1.9 mg/ml) was achieved with the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of pH 5.8, temperature 44°C, enzyme dose 5.7U/ml and hydrolysis time of 17.5h. Therefore, the corn husks could be used as raw material for xylan extraction vis a vis its translation into prebiotic xylooligosaccharides.
TL;DR: In this article, anoxybacillus thermarum A4 was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, with 29.8-fold purification and 74.6% yield.
Abstract: α -Amylase from Anoxybacillus thermarum A4 was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography, with 29.8-fold purification and 74.6% yield. A4 amylase showed best performance for soluble potato starch hydrolysis at 70 °C and pH 5.5-10.5. A4 amylase was extremely stable at +4 °C, and the enzyme retained over 65% of its original α - amylase activity at 70 °C and 43% at 90 °C. The enzyme’s K m values for soluble starch, amylopectin and amylose substrates were obtained as 0.9, 1.3 and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. EDTA, Hg 2+ , B 4 O 72- , OH - , CN -, and urea exhibited different inhibition effects; their IC 50 values were identified as 8.0, 5.75, 16.5, 15.2, 8.2 and 10.9 mM, respectively. A4 amylase exhibited extreme stability toward some surfactants and perfect match for a wide variety of commercial solid and liquid detergents at 55 °C. So, it may be considered to be potential applications for detergent and other industrial uses.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors assessed leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus) and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora linnaeus), as antioxidants in beef cold storage after 48h storage.
Abstract: Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus) and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus) as antioxidants in beef cold storage After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 085 Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship
TL;DR: Oleuropein as a natural active compound have antioxidant activity to attenuate the effect of alloxan against diabetic disease and it can be recommended to use oleuro pein as an additive food to cure type 1 diabetic.
Abstract: This study have been designed to study the effect of extracted pure oleuropein from Oleaeuropaealeaf against alloxan induced type 1 diabetic rats.Diabetic male ratwas induced by injectingsingle subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg b.wof alloxan.Respectively, pure oleuropein compound (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg.b.w)was orally administered once per a day during a period of 40 days ofexperiment.Then, the serum blood was collected for the determination of glucose level,haematological analysis, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant. Further, pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histological examination. Oleuropein showed a significant rolein attenuating the blood glucose levels and elevation of in-vivo antioxidantafter treating diabetic rats with 5 and 10 mg/kg. b.w.The haematologicaltest did not show any significant differences. The histological sections of diabetic rats treated with 5mg/kg/ b.w ofoleuropein showed regularity in size appearance of pancreatic islet with normal distribution of islet cells.Oleuropein as a natural active compound have antioxidant activity to attenuate the effect of alloxan against diabetic disease.Therefore, it can be recommended to use oleuropein as an additive food to cure type 1 diabetic.
TL;DR: In this article, the seasonal fluctuations of the main water variables in the no-take area (A zone) of the Ustica Marine Protected Area (MPA) were investigated.
Abstract: In this research, the seasonal fluctuations of the main water variables in the no-take area (A zone) of the Ustica MPA were investigated. This study aims to monitor the water quality of the Ustica MPA, to analyze all the hydrological parameters useful to the physical-chemical characterization of water and to use TRIX index to characterize the trophic level of the coastal marine area. The final results shown that Ustica is an area of relevant environmental and ecological value and is a good example of a Marine Protected Area, which is not excessively affected by the human presence even during the touristic season. This study represents the first records based on well-organized protocol in order to assess water column characteristics of the studied area. This paper could be used as a reference document for future studies regarding the same or similar areas.
TL;DR: The present work revealed that CCl4 induced elevation of in Bax, Smad, TGF-β and NFkBhepatic mRNA expression, administration of silymarin alone down regulates these expressions, and the use of chlorogenic acid and/ or melatonin potentiates the anti-apoptotic action of sallymarin.
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine whether silymarin alone or in combination with chlorogenic acid and/ or melatonin plays a modulatory role against apoptotic damage in rats liver induced by of CCl4. The present work revealed that CCl4 induced elevation of in Bax, Smad, TGF-β and NFkBhepatic mRNA expression, administration of silymarin alone down regulates these expressions. Treatment with chlorogenic acid and/ or melatonin along with silymarin produced best results in this concern. Bcl-2 expression was down regulated by CCl4 whereas concurrent treatment of chlorogenic acid and/ or melatonin along with silymarin increased this expression. On conclusion, the use of chlorogenic acid and/ or melatonin potentiates the anti-apoptotic action of silymarin.
TL;DR: In this article, various concentrations of casein hydrolysate (25, 50, 75, 100 mg/L) and L-phenylalanine (50, 100, 150, 200 µM/l) were incorporated in MS containing 15 µM BA plus 5 µM 2,4-D for enhancement of secondary metabolites in cell culture of Spilanthes acmella.
Abstract: In this study, the various concentrations of casein hydrolysate (25, 50, 75, 100 mg/L) and L-phenylalanine (50, 100, 150, 200 µM/l) were incorporated in MS containing 15 µM BA plus 5 µM 2,4-D for enhancement of secondary metabolites in cell culture of Spilanthes acmella. The presence of casein hydrolysate in the nutrient medium improved the growth of cell biomass and the production of scopoletin. The addition of casein hydrolysate up to 75 mg/L stimulated the accumulation of scopoletin, but increasing excess 75 mg/L the level of casein hydrolysate reduced the production of scopoletin. The addition of L-phenylalanine in the nutrient medium was found to be more effective for production of secondary metabolite in S. acmella. The addition of 50 µM/L of L-phenylalanine in the medium increased scopoletin content to 27.12 ± 0.58 µg/g dry weight, compared to the scopoletin content of control at 7.89 ± 0.61 µg/g dry weight. The highest accumulation of scopoletin was observed in the 100 µM/L L-phenylalanine in cell suspension, which was 4.51 times more than the control. As a result, using moderate concentration of L-phenylalanine was ideal for the production of scopoletin. In general, casein hydrolysate was more effective than L-phenylalanine for production of scopoletin and growth of cell biomass in the cell culture of S. acmella.
TL;DR: An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for medicinally important herb Swertia chirayita was developed and the genetic fidelity was assessed using RAPD and ISSR markers and regenerated plants showed high clonal fidelity.
Abstract: An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for medicinally important herb Swertia chirayita was developed and the genetic fidelity was assessed using RAPD and ISSR markers. The best shoot regeneration was observed on MS basal supplemented with 1.0 mg/L Benzyl amino purine (BAP) in combination with Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.5 mg/L) that resulted in the increase by multiplication rate (7.65) with an average of 33.33 numbers of shoots and average shoot length of 2.70 cm. It was further enhanced by the addition of adenine sulfate (0.007%) that resulted in an average of 42 shoots per clum with 4.13 cm of average shoot length and the increase in multiplication fold to 9.75 that further resulted in the reduced use of other cytokinins and auxins. The rooting was nearly 100 % on 1/4 MS augmented with 1.0 mg/L Indole butyric acid with maximum average root length of 5.1cm. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized with 85-90 % survival rate. Ascorbate peroxidase activity increased with the maximum activity during the shoot multiplication. Clonal fidelity has been checked by two marker systems ISSR and RAPD and regenerated plants showed high clonal fidelity.
TL;DR: Results indicated the value of optimization process and the optimized chitinase enzyme could be an excellent choice in application of food and biotechnology as a biofungicide.
Abstract: Biological control strategy which can damage chitin, a vital component of pathogenic fungi and arthropods promises a safe solution for many fungal problems And it’s more favorable than chemicals which increase health risks and environmental problems Thus, the chitinase producers appear potential candidates of biological control of pathogenic fungi Brevundimonus diminuta KT277492 is a new isolate that has been isolated recently from Egyptian soil Significant factors that affecting the chitinase enzyme production were studied and optimized using Plackett-Burman and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) As a result, maximum production of chitinase enzyme was 83287 IUL -1 , this result presented about 8767-fold increase in the enzyme production In the last phase of the study, partially purified chitinase enzyme obtained from B diminuta KT277492 was tested against two pathogenic fungi and the results showed good inhibitory activity against A alternata and F solani with IZD of 31±025 and 25±091 mm respectively Finally, obtained results indicated the value of optimization process and the optimized chitinase enzyme could be an excellent choice in application of food and biotechnology as a biofungicide This reflects the necessity of studying the characteristics and kinetics of the enzyme in the forthcoming study