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Showing papers in "Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology in 2020"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the response of two local maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes designated as Sahwal-2002 (salt-tolerant) and Sadaf (sensitive) to salt stress was investigated under controlled growth conditions.
Abstract: The response of two local maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes designated as Sahwal-2002 (salt-tolerant) and Sadaf (salt-sensitive) to salt stress was investigated under controlled growth conditions. The role of phenylalanine and seed priming under salt stress in maize with different morphological parameters were studied. The genotype Sadaf, being salt-tolerant, experienced more oxidative damage than the Sahiwall-2002 genotype under salt stress. The salinity affected both growth and physiological attributes of the maize species whereas the phenylalanine successfully increased the salinity tolerance in maize species at the seedling stage.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning minimizing the risk of infection from airborne transmission within the built environment through the application of best practices is highlighted.
Abstract: The spread of Coronavirus is causing in the society all around the world a considerable degree of fear, worry and concern and particularly among healthcare workers that are at increased risk for infection. This paper gathers the strategy/guidelines to reduce the contamination in Intensive care unit (ICU) and in all the hospital environment. The ASHRAE and REHVA guidelines applied the UV-C Lamps, Pressure control filtration, Restroom actions and Humidity control to reduce the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) in ICU. The role of infection control in the design of hospitals is increasing every day. This paper highlights the role of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning minimizing the risk of infection from airborne transmission within the built environment through the application of best practices.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the chemical composition of Vernonia chalybaea essential oil and its antifungal, antioxidant and hemolytic activities were investigated using checkerboard technique to find antimicrobial modulatory effects.
Abstract: This article describes the chemical composition of Vernonia chalybaea essential oil, and investigates its antimicrobial, antioxidant and hemolytic activities. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the broth microdilution method using strains of yeasts and dermatophytic fungi. The checkerboard technique to find antimicrobial modulatory effects was performed using ketoconazole as standard drug. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and β-carotene/linoleic-acid system. The toxicity was characterized by the brine shrimp lethality test and hemolysis bioassays. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS method, showing to be rich in the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (39.06%) and bicyclogermacrene (19.69%), and also demonstrated a relevant antifungal activity against strains of Trichophyton rubrum. In the modulatory activity assay, the essential oil of V. chalybaea and β-caryophyllene demonstrated a synergistic interaction with ketoconazole, with increasing of its antifungal action. The antioxidant activity was evidenced mainly by β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with IC50 value of 35.87 ± 0.32 µg/mL. The results suggest that V. chalybaea essential oil and β-caryophyllene are valuable natural medicinal agents with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is verified that the selection of conditions and mode of cultivation contribute to the production of microalgal biomass and FA biosynthesis in autotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations.
Abstract: Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms whose composition and biomass production can be influenced by manipulating the cultivation conditions employed. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of various cultivation conditions in autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of cultivation conditions on the cell growth and biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) by microalgae of the genus Chlorella in autotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation. Evaluation of the effects of the conditions was performed using an experimental design methodology. The highest values of maximum biomass concentration (Xmax) and maximum biomass productivity (Pmax) were obtained in autotrophic cultures. Palmitic acid was the FA obtained at the highest concentration in both cultivation modes. The concentrations of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) ranged from 12.2 to 41.2% in autotrophic cultures and from 11 to 34.3% in the mixotrophic cultures. The variables photoperiod and sodium bicarbonate concentration showed the greatest influence on the Xmax, Pmax, and PUFA concentration in autotrophic and mixotrophic cultivations, respectively. This study verified that the selection of conditions and mode of cultivation contribute to the production of microalgal biomass and FA biosynthesis.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the secondary metabolites profile of callus and cell suspension cultures of T. peruviana and compare them with those from explant (fruit pulp) were prepared.
Abstract: Thevetia peruviana is an ornamental shrub grown-up in many tropical region of the world. This plant produces secondary metabolites with biological properties of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. The objective was to determine the secondary metabolites profile of callus and cell suspension cultures of T. peruviana and compare them with those from explant (fruit pulp). Extracts in 50% aqueous ethanol and ethyl acetate were prepared. The phytochemical analysis was performed using standard chemical tests and thin layer chromatography. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoids compounds (TPC and TFC), total cardiac glycosides (TCG) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) was determined during the cell suspension growth. Phenolic chemical profile was also analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Common metabolites (alkaloids, amino acids, antioxidants, cardiac glycosides, leucoanthocyanidins, flavonoids, phenols, sugars and triterpenes) were detected in all samples. The maximum production of extracellular TCG, TPC, TFC and TAA in cells suspensions were at 6-12 days; in contrast, intracellular content was relatively constant during the exponential grown phase (0 to 12-days). HPLC analysis detected one compound with retention time at 11.6 min; this compound was tentatively identified as dihydroquercetin, a flavonoid with anti-cancer properties. These results provide evidence on the utility of the in vitro cell cultures of T. peruviana for valuable pharmaceutical compounds production.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research analyzes the different trends of each BMI category and finds that BMI ≥ 25 has the highest AUC and Predictive accuracy compares to other BMI, which claims a good rank of performance.
Abstract: Obesity is the most common chronic disease, due to its ignorance in society. It gives birth to other diseases such as endocrine. The objective of this research is to analyze the different trends of each BMI category and predict its related serious consequences. Data mining based Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique has been applied for this and the accuracy of each BMI category has been calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), which is an effective method and potentially applied to medical data sets. The Area Under Curve (AUC) of ROC and predictive accuracy have been calculated for each classified BMI category. Our analysis shows interesting results and it is found that BMI ≥ 25 has the highest AUC and Predictive accuracy compares to other BMI, which claims a good rank of performance. From our trends, it has been explored that at each BMI precaution is mandatory even if the BMI < 18.5 and at ideal BMI too. Development of effective awareness, early monitoring and interventions can prevent its harmful effects on health.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum leaves (PC-EO) and its antibacterial activity against endodontic bacteria was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by the broth microdilution method on 96-well microplates.
Abstract: Endodontic infections result from oral pathogenic bacteria which reach and infect dental pulp, as well as surrounding tissues, through cracks, unrepaired caries and failed caries restorations. This study aims to determine the chemical composition of essential oil from Psidium cattleianum leaves (PC-EO) and to assess its antibacterial activity against endodontic bacteria. Antibacterial activity of PC-EO was evaluated in terms of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by the broth microdilution method on 96-well microplates. Bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (MIC = 20 µg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL), Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC = 12.5 µg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC = 50 µg/mL), Bacteroides fragilis (MIC = 12.5 µg/mL), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) were evaluated and compared to chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CDH), the positive control. PC-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation with the use of a Clevenger-type apparatus whereas its chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Viridiflorol (17.9%), β-caryophyllene (11.8%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%) and β-selinene (8.6%) were the major constituents found in PC-EO, which exhibited high antibacterial activity against all endodontic pathogens under investigation. Therefore, PC-EO, a promising source of bioactive compounds, may provide therapeutic solutions for the field of endodontics.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case study based on the participation and contact with dynamized activities through action plans for the circular economy in Europe, specifically in Portugal, is presented, which aims to identify the main in-progress actions and the challenges for the diffusion of the circulareconomies in the Portuguese nation and draw a panorama for Brazil, transiting through different data sources, economic sectors and stakeholders.
Abstract: This article is about a case study based on the participation and contact with dynamized activities through action plans for the circular economy in Europe, specifically in Portugal. It aims to identify the main in-progress actions and the challenges for the diffusion of the circular economy in the Portuguese nation and draw a panorama for Brazil, transiting through different data sources, economic sectors and stakeholders. Through data triangulation, the investigative plan contemplated participatory observations in workshops, interviews with experts, documental analyses and means of communication. After going through data cross checking for validation, the content was aggregated to a strategic analysis matrix. As a result, it was possible to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges associated with the growth of the circular economy in Portugal, as well as to indicate directions and possibilities in the Brazilian context. It is possible to realize, for both countries, the importance of the international benchmarking for the recognition and promotion of circular economy actions, besides the necessity to revise laws aligned with the internal e external market rules, by increasing the offer of circular products and services.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work demonstrated for the first time, the array of enzymes produced by Induratia spp.
Abstract: Endophytic fungi belonging to the genus Muscodor now transferred to Induratia are known producers of bioactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with many industrial applications. However, the members of this genus have rarely been reported to produce non-volatile metabolites including enzyme. Enzymes of the endophytes are degraders of the polysaccharides available in the host plants and the knowledge of enzyme production by Induratia spp. may provide insights into their possible biotechnological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of amylase, cellulase, lipase, pectinase, phytase, protease, endo β-1,4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes produced by fungi of the species Induratia coffeana, Induratia yucatanensis and Induratia sp. isolated from organic coffee plants. All Induratia spp. were able to produce the extracellular enzymes cellulase, pectinase, protease, and phytase. Eight fungi were able to produce lipase and four produced amylase. The specific activity of endo β-1, 4 glucanase and exo β-1,4 glucanase enzymes were detected for 9 and 8 endophytic fungi, respectively. This work demonstrated for the first time, the array of enzymes produced by Induratia spp. isolated from Coffea arabica in organic systems in Brazil.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of DS on swelling power, solubility, morphological properties, gelatinization temperature, paste clarity and moisture sorption were studied using the GAB model (R2>0.96).
Abstract: Acetylated cassava starch with low and medium degrees of substitution (DS) were synthesized. Also, the effect of DS on swelling power, solubility, morphological properties, gelatinization temperature, paste clarity and moisture sorption were studied. Swelling power and solubility in water between 50oC and 90°C were determined. Acetylated cassava starches with low DS showed an increased in both parameters, while at higher DS values a reduction of them was observed. Maximum swelling power values were measured in acetylated starch with DS of 0.2 and maximum solubility was registered at DS of 0.72. Equilibrium moisture content values from sorption isotherms presented a good fit using the GAB model (R2>0.96). SEM micrographs showed that as acetyl groups are incorporated the granules suffer surface changes and eventually lose their structure at DS of 1.5. Clarity of acetylated starch pastes with low DS was lighter than native starch paste. In addition, the increase in DS produced a reduction in gelatinization temperature.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effectiveness of these strategies has been validated in different animal models and it seems that these practices will be transformed in near future to develop the medical devices including catheters, implants, and dressings for the prevention of bacterial infections.
Abstract: The bacterial species employ various types of molecular communication systems recognized as quorum sensing for the synchronization of differential gene expression to regulate virulence traits and biofilm formation. A variety of quorum sensing inhibitors; molecules that interfere with quorum sensing among bacteria have been examined which can block the action of autoinducers. Moreover, the studies have scrutinized various enzymes for their quorum quenching activity resulting in the degradation of signaling molecules or blocking of gene expression. So far, the studies have found that these approaches are not only capable to reduce the pathogenicity and biofilm formation but also resulted in increased bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of these strategies has been validated in different animal models and it seems that these practices will be transformed in near future to develop the medical devices including catheters, implants, and dressings for the prevention of bacterial infections. Although many of these approaches are still in the research stage, the increasing library of quorum quenching molecules and enzymes will open innovative perspectives for the development of antibacterial approaches which will extend the therapeutic arsenal against the pathogenic bacterial species.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a chicken fat-based medium was used to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola and evaluated the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp.
Abstract: Sophorolipids are glycolipids that have natural antimicrobial properties and present great potential in the pharmaceutical field. The present study aimed to produce sophorolipids from Candida bombicola using a chicken fat-based medium and evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans). The production of sophorolipids reached 27.86 g L-1. Based on the structural characterization, 73.55% of the sophorolipids present a mixture of acidic monoacetylated C18:2 and lactonic diacetylated C16:0, and 26.45% were present in the diacetylated C18:1 lactonic form. Bacteria submitted to sophorolipid exposure showed a reduction in viability at doses of 500 μg mL-1 and 2,000 μg mL-1 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. These results suggest that sophorolipids produced in chicken fat medium may be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent or eliminate contamination by different pathogens.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antimycobacterial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil (EO) from Brazilian green propolis (BGP-EO).
Abstract: Propolis is a resinous substance collected and processed by Apis mellifera from parts of plants, buds and exudates. In Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, green propolis is produced from the collection of resinous substance found in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antimycobacterial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil (EO) from Brazilian green propolis (BGP-EO). The oil showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL), Mycobacterium avium (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 64 µg/mL). Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by both DPPH (IC50 = 23.48 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 32.18 µg/mL) methods. The antiproliferative activity in normal (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) and tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa and M059J) was analyzed by the XTT assay. BGP-EO showed inhibition of normal cell growth at 68.93 ± 2.56 µg/mL. Antiproliferative activity was observed against human tumor cell lines, whose IC50 values were 56.17, 66.43 and -65.83 µg/mL for MCF-7, HeLa and M059J cells, respectively. Its major constituents, which were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS, were carvacrol (20.7 %), acetophenone (13.5 %), spathulenol (11.0 %), (E)-nerolidol (9.7 %) and β-caryophyllene (6.2 %). These results showed the effectiveness of BGP-EO as a natural product which has promising biological activities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, poly-e-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles entrapped β-carotene was produced using the nanoprecipitation method.
Abstract: Nanoparticles demonstrate an important role in the protection of bioactive compounds from external factors such as temperature, oxygen and light. In this study, poly-e-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles entrapped β-carotene was produced using the nanoprecipitation method. Firstly, was evaluated the lipophilic surfactant effect and carrier agent of the active compound in the nanocapsules formulation. After choosing the most stable formulation, the nanocapsules production was optimized using β-carotene, caprylic/capric triglycerides (CCT) and soybean lecithin. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to evaluate the influence of soy lecithin concentration, volume of CCT and β-carotene concentration in the particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), encapsulation efficiency and recovery. Formulations containing soy lecithin and CCT demonstrated better stability comparing to the other formulations tested. The nanoparticle formulations presented an optimized particle size below 200 nm, PDI lower than 0.1 and encapsulation efficiency above 95%. Based on the results obtained, the optimum conditions to prepare PCL nanocapsules were 0.2160 mg/mL of β-carotene, 232.42 μL of CCT and 2.59 mg/mL of soy lecithin, suggesting an applicability to promote controlled released of β-carotene in food system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a green process was used to attach silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the surface of two different brands of orthodontic wires and the coated materials were analyzed for their physicochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Abstract: Conventional orthodontic treatment with the use of stainless steel may be detrimental to oral health by promoting demineralizing lesions appearance and increasing adhesion and formation of bacterial biofilm, inducing the development of cavities. An alternative that has been researched to reduce the side effects of orthodontic treatment is the coating of materials with antimicrobial nanoparticles. Nanometric- sized particles increase their surface area and contact with the microbial membrane, consequently intensifying their bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect. In this work, hydrothermal synthesis, a “green” process was used to attach silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the surface of two different brands of orthodontic wires. The coated materials were analyzed for their physicochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which showed the distribution of AgNPs along the wires without modifying their properties. In the microbiological test, one of the brands showed a statistically significant difference in microbial adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Results lead to the conclusion that antimicrobial orthodontic wires coated with silver nanoparticles through hydrothermal synthesis is a promising material for the improvement of orthodontic treatment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated the chemical composition and bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis.
Abstract: Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main pests of the soybean crop, being controlled mainly with agrochemicals. The environmental and health risks, as well as the development of resistance by the pests, has led to the search for alternative control measures, aiming to use more eco-friendly procedures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and the bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis. The major compound in both EOs was α-pinene (60.04 wt.% for S. molle and 38.49 wt.% for S. terebinthifolia). Bioassays were carried out with third instar larvae, with five replicates and each replicate with ten larvae, totaling 50 larvae per treatment. The oils were incorporated in the artificial diet (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% v/v). The controls were: water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% v/v. According to the Probit method, the S. terebinthifolia EO presented a LC50 of 1.74% v/v (1.58-1.97% v/v); it was not possible to determine the LC50 for the S. molle EO. The mortality percentage after 24 and 48 h was 52% and 30% at 2.0% v/v for S. terebinthifolia and S. molle oil, respectively. After 72 h, the mortality rate for S. molle EO have not changed; for S. terebinthifolia EO it increased to 70%; the larvae treated with the chemical control (synthetic insecticide) had a mortality of 100%.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the best conditions for the extraction of Zingiber officinale essential oil using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) techniques, regarding the maximum oil yield, were found.
Abstract: This study aims to find the best conditions for the extraction of Zingiber officinale essential oil using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) techniques, regarding the maximum oil yield. For the HD technique is evaluated the best ratio between plant mass and water volume and for SFE and SD the pressure condition was investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the similarity between the composition of the essential oil in different pressures and extraction methods. The experimental extraction curve was plotted and three different mathematical models were used to fit the data for SD and SFE methods, obtaining the relevant mass transfer parameters. The essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), being α-zingiberene the main component with different contents (from 11.9 to 28.9%). The best condition for the SFE was 100 bar, 40 °C (0.0508 goil/gplant) with 19.34% of α-zingiberene; for the SD, 3 bar (133 °C) (0.00616 goil/gplant) with 28.9% of α-zingiberene; and HD, the volume of 750 mL (0.006988 goil/gplant) with 15.70% of α-zingiberene, all measured on a dry basis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nine out of 10 Trichoderma isolates positively affected root weight of pepper seedlings, while three out of ten positively affected shoot weight, and positive correlation was found between pyrogallol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and germination in plants treated with these isolates.
Abstract: One of the main challenges in pepper production is to enhance seed germination energy and germination, and to grow healthy nursery plants with strong root system. Trichoderma species colonize roots as they grow and provide season-long benefits to plants, which is why Trichoderma species are widely used as plant growth promoter agents and promoters of plant defence mechanisms. This study evaluated the effectiveness of seed biopriming with Trichoderma isolates for growth promotion of pepper plants in early stage and their effects on seedling physiology. Nine out of ten Trichoderma isolates positively affected root weight of pepper seedlings, while three out of ten positively affected shoot weight. Root and shoot lengths were mainly unaffected. Germination energy was positively affected by five isolates with up to 40% increase compared to the control, while germination was significantly enhanced by two isolates with up to 22% increase. Considering seedling physiology, two different strain-dependent modes of actions were expressed. Promising Trichoderma isolates induced formation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which acted as signal molecules that increased germination energy and germination. Positive correlation was found between pyrogallol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and germination in plants treated with these isolates.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the anatomical distribution, chemical characteristics and biosynthesis of cannabinoids, as well as its actions mechanisms are described. And the modulators of the cannabinoid system in clinical use are indicated, together with marijuana legalization benefits.
Abstract: Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is an important annual medicinal plant that belongs to the Cannabaceae family. It contains 421 substances of 18 chemical types-the most significant compound is δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which causes several effects, both in the Central Nervous System and in several peripheral locations in the organism. The objectives of this scientific review are to mention the anatomical distribution, chemical characteristics and biosynthesis of cannabinoids, as well as its actions mechanisms. The endogenous cannabinoid system, the therapeutic properties of C. sativa and its action on the nociceptive control are described. Finally, the modulators of the cannabinoid system in clinical use are indicated, together with marijuana legalization benefits.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated here that chicken feather hydrolysate has potential for use in the production of L-lactic acid but its utilization requires further optimization.
Abstract: A comprehensive comparison of the main fermentation parameters, productivity, yield and final L-lactic acid concentration, obtained through batch, fed-batch and continuous cultivations using Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198 and a model cultivation medium was carried out. Using this data, a pulse-feed fed-batch process was established for testing chicken feather hydrolysate as a replacement for all complex nitrogen sources (yeast and beef extracts and peptone) in the medium. As comparably high values of productivity (about 4.0 g/L/h) and yield (about 98 %) were reached under all cultivation conditions, the maximum final L-lactic acid concentration (116.5 g/L), as achieved through pulse-feed fed-batch fermentation, was chosen as the most important criterion for process selection. Fed-batch cultivation with chicken feather hydrolysate as both a complex nitrogen source and a neutralizing agent for maintaining constant culture pH yielded half the concentration of L-lactic acid compared to the model medium. We demonstrate here that chicken feather hydrolysate has potential for use in the production of L-lactic acid but its utilization requires further optimization

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the content of phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) in vegetable oils sold in Sao Paulo city, in Brazil was evaluated.
Abstract: In the last years phytosterols, natural components of plants, have received more attention due to association of their consumption with reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. There are several scientific studies about phytosterols in vegetable oils, but they are scarce in unconventional oils. The objective of this research was evaluating the content of phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol) in vegetable oils sold in Sao Paulo city, in Brazil. The analysis included cold alkaline saponification, derivatization with hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane reagents, and quantification by gas chromatography using flame ionization detection and internal standardization. The quality control parameters indicated that the method was suitable for analysis. Total sterols were between 272.3 mg kg-1 (coconut oil) to 6169.7 mg kg-1 (evening primrose oil). β-sitosterol was the component found in higher concentrations and evening primrose oil was the most representative in quantity of phytosterols.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of different spray drying parameters on the quality of powder derived from control and concentrated juice at three inlet air temperatures 120, 130 and 140 °C and at three levels of juice total soluble solids (TSS): maltodextrin levels at 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1: 1.5 were studied.
Abstract: Sweet orange juice is an important part of diet since it is nutritious beverage offering good taste and play significant part in a healthy diet. High hygroscopicity, thermo-plasticity and presence of low molecular weight components in sweet orange juice offer low glass transition temperature (Tg), likely to form soft particle with sticky surface leading to sticky powder during drying. Maltodextrins are amorphous drying aids that tend to inhibit sugar crystallization and form a high Tg product after drying. In this study, the effect of the different spray drying parameters on the quality of powder derived from control and concentrated juice at three inlet air temperatures 120, 130 and 140 °C and at three levels of juice total soluble solids (TSS): maltodextrin levels at 1:0.5; 1:1 and 1:1.5 were studied. The impact of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration has significantly affected various properties of sweet orange powder. For control juice, process yields increased with increase in inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. However, for reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate, process yield increased with increase in maltodextrin concentration and decreased with increase in inlet air temperature. For control juice, process yields obtained were in the range of 12.59-41.16% and in case of concentrated juice, the process yield obtained was in the range of 21.35-56.95% at different combinations of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentrations. Spray-dried powder was considered as “possible” and “fair” in terms of flowability and cohesiveness. Vitamin C retention was high at lower inlet air temperature with lower concentration of maltodextrin.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated the biomass and essential oil production of nine populations of poejo (Cunila galioides) cultivated in five agroecological regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, under different edaphoclimatic conditions.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass and essential oil production of nine populations of poejo (Cunila galioides) cultivated in five agroecological regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, under different edaphoclimatic conditions. The experiments were performed in field conditions in Erechim, Caxias do Sul, Pelotas, Sao Francisco de Paula, and Santa Vitoria do Palmar. The experimental design was completely randomized, with nine populations, eight plants per plot and four repetitions. The following were evaluated: biomass production and essential oil chemical composition and yield. The data underwent ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple range test. The adaptability and stability of the populations in the different environments were also evaluated by regression analysis. The results showed great differences between the populations and cultivation sites, with genotype vs. environment interaction. Most populations presented the best biomass production results at Erechim. Pelotas and Santa Vitoria do Palmar were the worst locations for poejo production, mainly due to a water deficit occurred during the experiment. The Santa Lucia population presented broad stability and the greatest adaptability to the environments for biomass and essential oil production, but its average production was not satisfactory. The Andre da Rocha population presented the highest average production of essential oil, and was favored in favorable environments. Regarding essential oil chemical composition, the populations kept stable contents of the major compounds at all locations, with a few variations. In some populations, a higher concentration of sesquiterpenes was observed, which can be attributed to environmental stress.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored different modeling strategies for D-limonene radical polymerization, using benzoyl peroxide as initiator, and found that the process is drastically influenced by chain transfer reactions, presenting a non-ideal behavior.
Abstract: Despite its potential in the production of polymers from renewable sources, D-limonene faces difficulties in its polymerization, resulting in low monomer conversion and molar mass. In order to investigate the non-ideality inherent kinetics, this work explores different modeling strategies for D-limonene radical polymerization, using benzoyl peroxide as initiator. The starting model considered the classical approach for conventional radical polymerization. This model was then corrected by including reaction orders different from the unit. After an analysis and choice of the best model, computer simulations were compared with experimental results from literature, validating the chosen approach. It was found that the process is drastically influenced by chain transfer reactions, presenting a non-ideal behavior. Finally, an analysis of distinct reaction conditions provided information on monomer conversion, molar mass and polymer dispersity, which could guide future research in the synthesis optimization. Higher molar mass poly(limonene) were obtained by simultaneously reducing the monomer and initiator concentrations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.
Abstract: Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the anatomical changes in tomato plants subjected to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies were investigated. But the results showed that the most evident anatomical changes were found in chlorophyllous and vascular tissues of the leaves, rather than in the stems.
Abstract: Studies evaluating the influence of nutrients on plant anatomy are very important because nutritional deficiencies can alter the thickness and shape of certain tissues, compromising their functionality what can explain the reduction of productivity. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical changes in cherry tomato plants subjected to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies. The experiment was conducted in nutrient solution and the plants subjected to three treatments: complete solution (Control), Ca restriction (1 mmol L-1 of Ca) and Mg omission (without Mg). The experimental design was completely randomized, with three repetitions. Sixty days after seedling transplanting leaves and stem were collected and submitted to anatomical evaluations. Ca or Mg deficiency promotes most evident anatomical changes in chlorophyllous and vascular tissues of the leaves, rather than in the stems. Leaves of ‘Sindy’ tomato plants with a concentration of 1.7 g kg-1 of Mg and visual symptoms of Mg deficiency present hyperplasia of both tissues, phloem and xylem. This deficiency also promotes increases in the thickness of mesophyll, spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma, and consequently of leaf thickness. The midrib of the leaves with a concentration of 10 g kg-1 of Ca, without visual symptoms of deficiency presented phloem hypertrophy and hyperplasia.

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TL;DR: In this paper, nanocapsules (NC) formulations containing a co-load of clotrimazole (C), a highly prescribed antifungal drug, and diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2], an organoselenium compound with a promising scope of pharmacological actions, were prepared.
Abstract: In the current study, nanocapsules (NC) formulations containing a co-load of clotrimazole (C), a highly prescribed antifungal drug, and diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2], an organoselenium compound with a promising scope of pharmacological actions, were prepared. Formulations were characterized as well as the potential toxicity, antioxidant action, and antifungal effect were assessed using in vitro techniques. The NCs were prepared employing Eudragit® RS 100 as polymeric wall and medium chain triglycerides or virgin coconut oil (CO) as core. All NC suspensions had pH around acid range, compound content close to theoretical value (1 mg/mL/drug), average diameter in nanometric range, positive values of zeta potential as well as high encapsulation efficacy and mucoadhesive property. Physicochemical stability was performed over a 30-day period and showed no modification in the aforementioned parameters to all samples. Preliminary screening of toxicological potential performed by the hen’s egg test chorioallantoic membrane technique classified the formulations as non-irritant. The DPPH radical assay revealed that nanoencapsulated compounds had superior antioxidant action in comparison to their free forms (concentration range tested 1.0-25.0 µg/mL). Importantly, the formulation composed of CO and containing C and (PhSe)2 showed the highest antioxidant potential and was selected for further investigation regarding antifungal effect against some Candida spp strains. Results of in vitro antifungal assay demonstrated that the C and (PhSe)2 co-encapsulation had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values around 60. Thus, our study supplies additional data about advantages achieved by encapsulating active compounds.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920 in a low cost sugarcane molasses fermentation medium and employed the produced HA to obtain films blends based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).
Abstract: The aims of this work were to produce hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920 in a low cost sugarcane molasses fermentation medium and to employ the produced HA to obtain films blends based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The films were produced using solution casting method and they were characterized according to their microstructure, mechanical and barrier properties. HA was added in different concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15% (w/w)), and glycerol was used as a plasticizer (25 g/100 g solids). All formulations resulted in easily manipulated films with good appearance. The addition of HA on PVA films increased their thermal stability, solubility, swelling index, water vapor permeability and elongation. Microbial HA sample combined with PVA showed to be a promising material to biomedical application, and an addition between 5 and 10% (w/w) was sufficient to improve PVA films properties.

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TL;DR: Investigation of the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa finds that the cytotoxic mechanism might be related to apoptotic events.
Abstract: Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso, commonly known as “imbuia”, “canela-imbuia” or “imbuia-amarela” in Brazil, is a tree of the Southern Atlantic Forest. The present study investigates the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa. Species identification was achieved by anatomy features, mainly due to paracytic and anomocytic stomata; non-glandular trichomes; biconvex midrib and petiole with a collateral open arc vascular bundle; presence of a sclerenchymatous layer, starch grains and crystal sand in the stem; and the presence of phenolic compounds in the epidermis, phloem and xylem of the midrib, petiole and stem. The main volatile components of the essential oil were α-pinene (19.71%), β-pinene (13.86%) and bicyclogermacrene (24.62%). Cytotoxicity against human cancer cell (MCF-7), mouse cancer cell (B16F10) and mouse non-tumoral cell (McCoy) was observed as well as insecticidal activity of the essential oil against susceptible ‘Ft. Dix’ bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by topical application.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an automatic fuzzy classification system for glycemic index, which indicates the level of Diabetes Mellitus type 2, was proposed, which is a chronic disease occurred when there is deficiency in insulin production or in its action, or both causing complications.
Abstract: This paper proposes an automatic fuzzy classification system for glycemic index, which indicates the level of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Diabetes is a chronic disease occurred when there is deficiency in insulin production or in its action, or both, causing complications. Neuro-fuzzy systems and Decision Trees are used to obtain, respectively, the numerical parameters of the membership functions and the linguistic based rules of the fuzzy classification system. The results goal to categorize the glycemic index into 4 classes: decrease a lot, decrease, stable and increase. Real database from [1] is used and the input attributes of the system are defined. In addition, the proposed automatic fuzzy classification system is compared with an “expert” fuzzy classification system, which is totally modeled using expert knowledge. From linguistic based rules obtained from fuzzy inference process, new scenarios are simulated in order to obtain a larger data set which provides a better evaluation of the classification systems. Results are promising, since they indicate the best treatment - intervention or comparative - for each patient, assisting in the decision-making process of the health care professional.