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Showing papers in "British journal of nursing in 2016"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the causes and potential factors that affect male fertility together with an overview of diagnosis, investigation and current treatment options for these men are offered.
Abstract: It is estimated that 3.5 million people in the UK, that is one in every seven couples, have fertility problems. In the past, it was assumed that the cause always lay with the woman. However, developments in science brought a greater understanding of the process of sperm production and conception. It is now known that up to 30% of fertility problems may be because of the man alone and up to 90% of these are down to low sperm count or low sperm quality or both. This paper offers a review of the causes and potential factors that affect male fertility together with an overview of diagnosis, investigation and current treatment options for these men.

94 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bullying behaviours in nursing in the UK and other countries, why bullying happens, and how to prevent or combat it are explored are explored.
Abstract: This article explores bullying behaviours in nursing in the UK and other countries, why bullying happens, and suggests actions to prevent or combat it. Bullying involves intentional and repeated psychological violence, humiliating and isolating staff from colleagues. Current literature reports that 20–25% of nursing staff experience bullying behaviour. The main perpetrators are nurses in a senior position to those being bullied and colleagues who are established staff members. Those likely to be bullied are students and new staff members. Bullying can cause distress and depression, with up to 25% of those bullied leaving their jobs or the profession, and have an impact on patient care. Factors contributing to bullying are hierarchical management and employees not feeling empowered. Silence and inaction by managers and colleagues allows this behaviour to continue. A zero-tolerance policy and the addressing of this behaviour clearly and promptly by managers should be instigated. Staff being bullied should b...

86 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This publication summarises the work and recommendations of the panel for the Michigan Appropriateness Guide for Intravenous Catheters (MAGIC), an international panel of experts convened to establish a guide for indications and appropriate usage for VADs.
Abstract: Patients admitted to acute care frequently require intravenous access to effectively deliver medications and prescribed treatment. For patients with difficult intravenous access, those requiring multiple attempts, those who are obese, or have diabetes or other chronic conditions, determining the vascular access device (VAD) with the lowest risk that best meets the needs of the treatment plan can be confusing. Selection of a VAD should be based on specific indications for that device. In the clinical setting, requests for central venous access devices are frequently precipitated simply by failure to establish peripheral access. Selection of the most appropriate VAD is necessary to avoid the potentially serious complications of infection and/or thrombosis. An international panel of experts convened to establish a guide for indications and appropriate usage for VADs. This publication summarises the work and recommendations of the panel for the Michigan Appropriateness Guide for Intravenous Catheters (MAGIC).

84 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nurses who completed the ECEPC had better knowledge of palliative care when compared with nurses who had not undertaken the programme, and increasing years as a registered nurse improved palliatives care knowledge and attitudes towards caring for the dying.
Abstract: Aims: This study examines the palliative care knowledge and attitudes towards caring for the dying patient of nurses working in care of older people settings in one rural region in Ireland Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used combining two questionnaires: the palliative care quiz for nurses (PCQN) and the thanatophobia scale (TS) Results: A total of 61 nurses completed the questionnaire There was a significant correlation found between level of knowledge and attitudes towards palliative care (p=0007), highlighting that as participants' level of palliative care knowledge increased, attitudes become more positive While palliative care training did not impact on the mean overall scores, there was a significant difference in the PCQN scores of those who had completed the European Certificate in Essential Palliative Care (ECEPC) compared with those who had attended information sessions within their unit Furthermore, increasing years as a registered nurse improved palliative care knowledge and

74 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Diverse forms of nurse handover were found, used in combination: office based (whole nursing team), nurse in charge to NIC, and bedside, and there were varied views on the benefits of patient involvement in bedside handover.
Abstract: Aim and objectives to understand the purpose, impact and experience of nurse handover from patient and staff perspectives. Background poor communication is increasingly recognised as a major factor in healthcare errors. Handover is a key risk point. Little consensus exists regarding the practice in nursing but the trend is towards bedside handover. Research on patient and staff experiences of handover is limited. Design a qualitative and observational study on two acute wards in a large urban hospital in the UK. Methods interviews conducted with patients and staff and observation of handovers, ward rounds and patient-staff interactions. Results diverse forms of nurse handover were found, used in combination: office based (whole nursing team), nurse in charge (NIC) to NIC, and bedside. Patients' and nurses' views concurred on the purpose of bedside handover--transference of information about the patient between two nurses--and about the medical ward round, which was seen as a discussion with the patient. Views diverged regarding the purpose and value of office handover. Bedside handover differed in style, content, and place of delivery, often driven by concerns regarding confidentiality and talking over patients, and there were varied views on the benefits of patient involvement in bedside handover. Nurses worked beyond their shift end to complete handover. Communication problems within the clinical team were identified by staff and patients. Conclusions while it is important to agree the purpose of handover and develop appropriate structure, content and style, it need not be a uniform process in all clinical areas. Nurse training to deliver bedside handover and patient information on the purpose of handover and the patient's role would be beneficial.

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors report on the establishment of the extended role of the clinical nurse specialist in consenting women for BRCA testing in routine gynaecology-oncology clinics using the mainstreaming model, the first report of oncology nurses in the BRCa testing pathway.
Abstract: Purpose: The PARP inhibitor, Olaparib, is approved for women with BRCA-mutated ovarian cancer. Therefore there is an urgent need to test patients and obtain results in time to influence treatment. Models of BRCA testing, such as the mainstreaming oncogenetic pathway, involving oncology health professionals are being used. The authors report on the establishment of the extended role of the clinical nurse specialist in consenting women for BRCA testing in routine gynaecology-oncology clinics using the mainstreaming model. Methods: Nurses undertook generic consent training and specific counselling training for BRCA testing in the form of a series of online videos, written materials and checklists before obtaining approval to consent patients for germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Results: Between July 2013 and December 2015, 108 women with ovarian cancer were counselled and consented by nurses in the medical oncology clinics at a single centre (The Royal Marsden, UK). This represented 36% of all ovarian can...

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that in the current climate it is essential that advanced nurse practitioners not only demonstrate advanced practice, but also actively embrace the concept of 'advancing' nursing practice as the dominant feature of new roles.
Abstract: Advanced nursing practice roles have emerged over the last 25 years in response to two major challenges: first, the significant reduction in available doctors; and, second, the rise in numbers of patients with complex health needs. It is suggested that, with a major drive to respond to the first problem, with its emphasis on the development of medical skills, the development of advanced nursing practice (which has the potential to have a significant impact on the second challenge of the rise in long-term conditions) has very much taken second place. Moreover, advanced nursing practice roles have become so medically focused that not only is advanced nursing practice not evident, but neither are the recognised sub-roles that are fundamental to advancing practice. These include innovation, education, research and clinical leadership. This article argues that in the current climate it is essential that advanced nurse practitioners not only demonstrate advanced practice, but also actively embrace the concept of 'advancing' nursing practice as the dominant feature of new roles.

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.
Abstract: Ethics is fundamental to good research practice and the protection of society. From a historical point of view, research ethics has had a chequered past and without due cognisance there is always the potential for research to do harm. Research ethics is fundamental to research practice, nurse education and the development of evidence. In conducting research, it is important to plan for and anticipate any potential or actual risks. To engage in research, researchers need to develop an understanding and knowledge of research ethics and carefully plan how to address ethics within their research. This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.

51 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families are examined.
Abstract: It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The verses just before this one are beautiful verses, they describe Joseph telling his brothers that a time will come when G-d will surely remember them and they will return home to the Land of Israel.
Abstract: The verses just before this one are beautiful verses, they describe Joseph telling his brothers that a time will come when G-d will surely remember them and they will return home to the Land of Israel. He asks his brothers that he be remembered at that time and taken out of Egypt along with them. The final words of Joseph to his brothers, \"Pakod Yifkod\" reverberate to this day, they are words of a covenant, they are full of promise and hope. It would have been much more uplifting and inspiring had the Book of Genesis ended on this theme.

42 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the main types of urinary incontinence is provided, and recent guidelines for the assessment, diagnosis and effective conservative treatment options for them are summarized, and when a referral to specialist care is required.
Abstract: Urinary incontinence is a common problem that is often under-reported due to the embarrassing nature and social stigma attached. Urinary incontinence can have a considerable effect on an individual's quality of life, but can be significantly improved with correct assessment, treatment and management. Conservative treatment options, including pelvic floor exercises, bladder retraining and fluid modification, are recommended before referral to secondary services. This article provides an overview of the main types of urinary incontinence, and summarises recent guidelines for the assessment, diagnosis and effective conservative treatment options for them, and when a referral to specialist care is required.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The normal structure and function of skin and how the care and management of a stoma presents challenges for maintaining peristomal skin health are explored.
Abstract: It is estimated that around one in 500 people in the UK are living with a stoma, with approximately 21 000 operations that result in stoma formation being performed each year ( Colostomy Association, 2016 ). These people face a unique set of challenges in maintaining the integrity of their peristomal skin. This article explores the normal structure and function of skin and how the care and management of a stoma presents challenges for maintaining peristomal skin health. Particular focus is paid to the incidence of skin problems for those living with a stoma, whether it is temporary or permanent, and the factors that contribute to skin breakdown in this population. Wider factors such as the central role of the clinical nurse specialist and the impact of product usage on positive outcomes and health economics are also considered.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This book model can be downloaded from the site link that is provided in this website and will serve you the book not in the printed ways.
Abstract: Book; however in the past time becomes a sacral thing to have by everybody. Many books from thin to the very thick pages are presented. But now, for the technology has developed advanced, we will serve you the book not in the printed ways. making change work is one of the products of those books. This book model can be downloaded from the site link that we provide in this website. We offer you not only the best books from this country, but many from outsides.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A range of psychosocial factors were established, however more research is required to determine all possible causation factors of nurses' work-related fatigue.
Abstract: Objective: To explore and determine relationship between psychosocial factors and work-related fatigue among emergency and critical care nurses in Brunei. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted on all emergency and critical care nurses across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016. Results: 201 nurses participated in the study (82% response rate). A total of 36% of the variance of chronic fatigue was explained by stress, trust in management, decision latitude, self-rated health, and work–family conflict. Burnout, self-rated health, commitment to workplace, and trust in management explained 30% of the variance of acute fatigue. Stress, work–family conflict and reward explained 28% of the variance of intershift recovery after controlling for significant sociodemographic variables. Smoking was identified as an important sociodemographic factor for work-related fatigue. Conclusions: Psychosocial factors were good predictors of work-related fatigue. A range of psychosocial factors were establish...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current thinking on IAD is explored and the implications for nursing practice are explored, an area where nursing research has made a considerable contribution over the past few years.
Abstract: Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common skin disorder seen in patients with incontinence. Typically IAD presents as inflammation of the skin surface characterised by redness, and in extreme cases, swelling and blister formation. If untreated this usually rapidly leads to excoriation and skin breakdown, which may subsequently become infected by the skin flora. While this is a common condition encountered in all areas of nursing practice, gaps remain in our understanding of the many contributing factors. A lack of standardised definitions of IAD, differences in terminology, and a bewildering increase in products available to prevent and manage IAD, makes it difficult for nurses to deliver evidence-based care. However, it is an area where nursing research has made a considerable contribution over the past few years. This article explores the current thinking on IAD and the implications for nursing practice.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study supports PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement in nurses by finding that band 5 nurses might benefit most from interventions to increase their PsyCap.
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the relationship between work engagement and psychological capital (PsyCap) levels reported by registered nurses. Background: PsyCap is a developable human resource. Research on PsyCap as an antecedent to work engagement in nurses is needed. Methods: A convenience sample of 137 registered nurses participated in this quantitative cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires measured self-reported levels of work engagement and psychological capital. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between work engagement and PsyCap scores (r=0.633, p<0.01). Nurses working at band 5 level reported statistically significantly lower PsyCap scores compared with nurses working at band 6 and 7 levels. Conclusion: Nurses reporting high levels of work engagement also reported high levels of PsyCap. Band 5 nurses might benefit most from interventions to increase their PsyCap. This study supports PsyCap as an antecedent to work e...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Five well-established theories of behaviour change are outlined: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory.
Abstract: Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The impact of sharps injuries can be severe, both psychological and physical, and this systematic review shows that further research is needed into this, especially in under-researched areas such as the UK.
Abstract: Aims and objectives: The purpose of this review was to discover the impact of sharps injuries in the student nurse population Background: Much is known and reported about sharps injuries in registered nurses, but there has been a lack of published evidence regarding sharps injuries within the student nurse population Method: A systematic review of nursing, health and psychology databases was conducted The limits set were publications between 1980 and 2014 in the English language Studies were identified then, following a rigorous critical and quality appraisal with validated tools, were selected for the systematic review Results: A total of 40 articles met the inclusion criteria, reporting studies conducted in 18 countries Psychological and physical impacts of sharps injuries in student nurses were reported, such as fear, anxiety and depression, although these impacts were not quantified using a validated instrument Conclusion: The impact of sharps injuries can be severe, both psychological and phys

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A rational approach is provided to assessing and managing constipation in individuals receiving opioids and the use of simple laxatives and the addition of newer laxatives or opioid antagonists can be used to treat OIC.
Abstract: Up to 40% of patients taking opioids develop constipation. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) may limit the adequate dosing of opioids for pain relief and reduce quality of life. Health professionals must therefore inquire about bowel function in patients receiving opioids. The management of OIC includes carefully re-evaluating the necessity, type and dose of opioids at each visit. Lifestyle modification and alteration of aggravating factors, the use of simple laxatives and, when essential, the addition of newer laxatives or opioid antagonists (naloxone, naloxegol or methylnaltrexone) can be used to treat OIC. This review discusses the recent literature regarding the management of OIC and provides a rational approach to assessing and managing constipation in individuals receiving opioids.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using ECG to confirm PICC tip position was found to be cheaper, quicker and more accurate than post-procedural chest X-ray, and the cost, accuracy and efficiency of both systems were evaluated and compared.
Abstract: In 2011, the vascular access team at East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust safely and successfully incorporated the use of electrocardiogram (ECG) guidance technology for verification of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) tip placement into their practice This study, 5 years on, compared the strengths and limitations of using this ECG method with the previous gold-standard of post-procedural chest X-ray The study was undertaken using an embedded case study approach, and the cost, accuracy and efficiency of both systems were evaluated and compared Using ECG to confirm PICC tip position was found to be cheaper, quicker and more accurate than post-procedural chest X-ray

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of studies in which the authors used TR to learn more about the underlying causes of selected symptoms provides new evidence for the management of symptoms experienced by individuals with cancer, which could lead to improvements in the care of cancer patients across the world.
Abstract: In recent years, translational research (TR) has become a new approach for bridging basic research and clinical practice. This article examines studies in which the authors used TR to learn more about the underlying causes of selected symptoms, and to discuss these results in the context of cancer nursing and symptom management. A literature review was undertaken, plus critical analysis of the authors. TR conducted by cancer nursing scholars has been relatively limited in the past, but is becoming more common as nurses complete additional academic work in the basic sciences and develop research teams with colleagues of those areas of knowledge. The goal in these studies is to show how a set of variables explains differential interventional effects. The availability of TR provides new evidence for the management of symptoms experienced by individuals with cancer, which could lead to improvements in the care of cancer patients across the world.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of people in Ireland who have had a stoma for an average of 15 years found that, while they now have a similar quality of life to the general population, they have poorer mental health and a higher level of sexual dysfunction.
Abstract: Having a stoma can reduce a person's quality of life and cause distress. A survey of people in Ireland who have had a stoma for an average of 15 years found that, while they now have a similar quality of life to the general population, they have poorer mental health and a higher level of sexual dysfunction. Respondents want to talk about their experiences and may benefit from more opportunities to talk to others with a stoma or to stoma care nurses. While most patient information suggests that patients can return to their usual diet and their clothes, a majority of ostomates have to make changes in these areas; some dietary changes have implications for their health. Ostomates in Ireland experience continuing problems with leakages and peristomal skin. These issues show there is a need for routine, regular follow up of ostomates by stoma care nurses. Although most patients found follow up by a community stoma care nurse helpful, the provision of this type of service varies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Disease-specific distress in IBD was identified and is distinct from stress, anxiety and depression, and development of a new IBD-distress scale is warranted.
Abstract: Objectives: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) imposes a significant burden on patients. The authors have noticed an underlying presence of distress, seemingly distinct from anxiety and depression, in qualitative data collected for previous studies. Disease-related distress has been explored in diabetes, but has not been addressed in IBD. The authors aimed to determine the presence of IBD distress to inform development of a scale for assessing the phenomenon. Methods: This three-phase study used (1) a conceptual framework based on diabetes distress to conduct secondary analysis of qualitative data from four previous IBD studies (n=49 transcripts). Patient advisors confirmed the themes identified as causing distress, which guided (2) a focus group with people with IBD (n=8) and (3) items generated from phase 1 and 2 were subsequently used for a modified Delphi survey of IBD health professionals. Results: Five IBD-distress themes were identified: emotional distress; healthcare-related distress; interpersonal/...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice, however, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care.
Abstract: Following the introduction of a regional nurse mentor preparation programme, research was undertaken within a health and social care trust to explore both the trainee mentors' and their supervisors' perception of this new programme. A qualitative study involving focus groups was undertaken. The focus groups comprised a total of twelve participants including five trainee mentors and seven supervisors (experienced mentors) who had recently completed a mentor preparation programme. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis. Three themes were identified from the data: personal investment (including the emotional impact of mentoring) contextual perceptions (environmental factors such as time) and intellectual facets (related to personal and professional growth). Comprehensive preparation for mentors appears to be effective in developing mentors with the ability to support nursing students in practice. However, further study is required to explore how to support mentors to balance the demands of the mentoring role with the delivery of patient care.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviews the behavioural manifestations of, and the strategies for managing, Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis) type II, a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase.
Abstract: This article reviews the behavioural manifestations of, and the strategies for managing, Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type II), a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase. Hunter syndrome is generally considered to have two manifestations: an attenuated form and a severe form; in the latter, the person has pronounced cognitive decline. Infants with either phenotype usually appear normal at birth, but may show some somatic signs. Children with the severe phenotype show developmental delay and changes in behaviour patterns at about 18 months to 4 years of age. To varying degrees, patients with the severe form manifest behavioural disorders such as hyperactivity, aggression, impulsivity, anxiety and sleep disturbances. Medications, such as antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants, have been tried with varying degrees of success. Behavioural management strategies may be a worthwhile approach, although published data are lacking. For sleep disturbances, behavioural modification plus melatonin or benzodiazepine may be effective treatments.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The hypothesis that nursing education programmes need to improve the curricular content related to the assessment and reporting of suspected child abuse and neglect, and prevention strategies to improved the wellbeing of children is supported.
Abstract: Background: Child abuse and neglect are global phenomena. Research on knowledge of and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect among nursing students in India is limited. Aim: To investigate undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes towards child abuse and neglect. Methods: A descriptive design was adopted for the study, in which 158 nursing students participated by responding to a standardised questionnaire. Results: The findings revealed that students' knowledge of child abuse and neglect is inadequate, as the total mean (M) score was 13.84±4.35 (M±standard deviation (SD)). The total attitude score of 50.37±6.196 (M±SD) indicated participants' positive attitudes towards prevention of child abuse and neglect. However, there was a negative relation between age and attitudes towards and knowledge of child abuse. Older students scored higher on the total attitude and knowledge scale compared with younger students. Conclusion: The study findings support the hypothesis that nursing educatio...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread are discussed.
Abstract: The emergence of Zika virus disease (ZIKV) in the Americas, mainly Brazil, has required the World Health Organization to take action to halt the spread of the virus by implementing preventive measures. This has resulted in increased surveillance of the virus and its potential complications. In the UK, cases of ZIKV have been reported in returning travellers. With the importance of this disease increasing, it is vital that nurses and other health professionals take the time to learn about ZIKV in order to pass on this knowledge to patients, enabling them to make informed choices about travel to affected areas. This article will discuss the ZIKV, its complications and what to advise travellers, including pregnant women, to prevent transmission and spread.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the several debridement methods available to clinicians to provide clinicians working in wound care with a better understanding of the mechanisms and implications of autolytic debridements.
Abstract: Chronic wounds affect millions of people worldwide. In the UK alone, the cost of their treatment is estimated to be between £4.5bn and £5.1bn. The implementation of wound-bed preparation strategies remove the barriers to healing and wound debridement is a key component in preparing the wound bed for wound progression. This article aims to review one of the several debridement methods available to clinicians: autolytic debridement. Autolysis (i.e. autolytic debridement) uses the body's own enzymatic mechanisms to remove devitalised tissue in order to remove the barriers to healing. This review aims to provide clinicians working in wound care with a better understanding of the mechanisms and implications of autolytic debridement.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: VAD-related bacteraemia rates reduced by 69% from 26 cases to 8 when staff compliance with Curos placement onto VADs was 80% or more after the introduction of a passive disinfection device for 6 months in four areas at one hospital trust.
Abstract: This article discusses the effect on compliance and incidence of vascular access device (VAD)-related bacteraemia following the introduction of a passive disinfection device (Curos®) for 6 months in four areas at one hospital trust. The hospital's infection prevention and control team replaced the 'active' disinfection using a disinfection wipe with 'scrub the hub'. Disinfection wipes used for needle-free devices were removed from all four trial areas and Curos was incorporated into the aseptic non-touch technique (ANTT(®)) protocols for the trial wards. Staff training was provided before and during the study, and audits of staff compliance with Curos placement were undertaken monthly. A benchmarking audit of 'scrub the hub' techniques was conducted 1 month before audit began. The results of the audit showed VAD-related bacteraemia rates reduced by 69% from 26 cases (confirmed through review of blood culture laboratory data and source identified by consultant microbiologists) before the study, to 8 when staff compliance with Curos placement onto VADs was 80% or more.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A national men's health policy, extended open hours in primary care, more outreach work and professional training, and a strategic response, locally or nationally, to men'sHealth problems in the UK has been absent.
Abstract: Men's health outcomes are problematic globally, regionally and nationally Male life expectancy was 36 years shorter than female life expectancy in the UK in 2015 Men take more risks with their health and are less likely than women to be aware of disease symptoms They use primary care services less frequently than women, with likely impacts on health outcomes, especially for mental health, although there is evidence that for some conditions men may seek help just as quickly as women Men's health initiatives have increased and there is growing evidence that 'gender-sensitive' interventions aimed at men can be effective However, a strategic response, locally or nationally, to men's health problems in the UK has been absent A number of actions, including by nurses, could make a difference A national men's health policy, extended open hours in primary care, more outreach work and professional training, are among the measures suggested