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JournalISSN: 0007-1145

British Journal of Nutrition 

Cambridge University Press
About: British Journal of Nutrition is an academic journal published by Cambridge University Press. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Medicine. It has an ISSN identifier of 0007-1145. Over the lifetime, 14004 publications have been published receiving 679110 citations. The journal is also known as: Br J Nutr.
Topics: Population, Medicine, Vitamin, Rumen, Fatty acid


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Skinfold thicknesses at four sites – biceps, triceps, subscapular and supra-iliac – and total body density were measured on 209 males and 272 females aged from 16 to 72 years, finding it necessary to use the logarithm of skinfold measurements in order to achieve a linear relationship with body density.
Abstract: The fat content of the human body has physiological and medical importance. It may influence morbidity and mortality, it may aIter the effectiveness of drugs and anaesthetics, and it may affect the ability to withstand exposure to cold and starvation. Thus the measurement of the total body fat provides useful information. In many people, but by no means everyone, a moderately satisfactory estimate of the body fat content can be obtained from the height and weight. However, for more precise evaluation several methods are available which give a reasonably accurate measure of body fat both in normal subjects and in individuals with unusual body builds. Most of these methods are based on the assumption that the body can be considered to consist of two compartments of relatively constant composition but which are distinctly different; these compartments are: (I) the body fat, which includes the entire content of chemical fat or lipids in the body, and (2) the fat-free mass (FFM), which includes all the rest of the body apart from fat. The body fat compartment is anhydrous, contains no potassium and has a fairly constant density of about 0.90 x 103 kg/m3. The fat-free compartment on the other hand probably has a fairly constant density of about 1.10 x 103 kg/m3, a potassium content of about 68 mequiv./kg in males (about 10% less in females) and a water content of about 720 g/kg. Thus measurement of body density or of total body K or of total body water allows a calculation of the relative proportion of these two compartments in the body and therefore also of the total fat content. The accuracy of these measures, however, is limited by the variability of the composition and density of the fat-free compartment in different individuals. In particular, individuals with a relatively high or

6,287 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The regression equations were shown to be valid for adult men varying in age and fatness, in combination with age, waist and forearm circumference.
Abstract: 1. Skinfold thickness, body circumferences and body density were measured in samples of 308 and ninety-five adult men ranging in age from 18 to 61 years. 2. Using the sample of 308 men, multiple regression equations were calculated to estimate body density using either the quadratic or log form of the sum of skinfolds, in combination with age, waist and forearm circumference. 3. The multiple correlations for the equations exceeded 0.90 with standard errors of approximately +/- 0.0073 g/ml. 4. The regression equations were cross validated on the second sample of ninety-five men. The correlations between predicted and laboratory-determined body density exceeded 0.90 with standard errors of approximately 0.0077 g/ml. 5. The regression equations were shown to be valid for adult men varying in age and fatness.

3,083 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that the term ‘adipokine’ be universally adopted to describe a protein that is secreted from (and synthesised by) adipocytes, excluding signals released only by the other cell types (such as macrophages) in adipose tissue.
Abstract: White adipose tissue is now recognised to be a multifunctional organ; in addition to the central role of lipid storage, it has a major endocrine function secreting several hormones, notably leptin and adiponectin, and a diverse range of other protein factors. These various protein signals have been given the collective name 'adipocytokines' or 'adipokines'. However, since most are neither 'cytokines' nor 'cytokine-like', it is recommended that the term 'adipokine' be universally adopted to describe a protein that is secreted from (and synthesised by) adipocytes. It is suggested that the term is restricted to proteins secreted from adipocytes, excluding signals released only by the other cell types (such as macrophages) in adipose tissue. The adipokinome (which together with lipid moieties released, such as fatty acids and prostaglandins, constitute the secretome of fat cells) includes proteins involved in lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, the alternative complement system, vascular haemostasis, blood pressure regulation and angiogenesis, as well as the regulation of energy balance. In addition, there is a growing list of adipokines involved in inflammation (TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta, nerve growth factor) and the acute-phase response (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, haptoglobin, serum amyloid A). Production of these proteins by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and raised circulating levels of several acute-phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines has led to the view that the obese are characterised by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, and that this links causally to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. It is, however, unclear as to the extent to which adipose tissue contributes quantitatively to the elevated circulating levels of these factors in obesity and whether there is a generalised or local state of inflammation. The parsimonious view is that the increased production of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins by adipose tissue in obesity relates primarily to localised events within the expanding fat depots. It is suggested that these events reflect hypoxia in parts of the growing adipose tissue mass in advance of angiogenesis, and involve the key controller of the cellular response to hypoxia, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1.

2,163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts and aims to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept, defined as the selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.
Abstract: The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, 'normobiosis' characterises a composition of the gut 'ecosystem' in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to 'dysbiosis', in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation. The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new definition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classified as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in 'prebiotic effects'), defined as: 'The selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.' Thanks to the methodological and fundamental research of microbiologists, immense progress has very recently been made in our understanding of the gut microbiota. A large number of human intervention studies have been performed that have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in line with the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now a well-established scientific fact. The more data are accumulating, the more it will be recognised that such changes in the microbiota's composition, especially increase in bifidobacteria, can be regarded as a marker of intestinal health. The review is divided in chapters that cover the major areas of nutrition research where a prebiotic effect has tentatively been investigated for potential health benefits. The prebiotic effect has been shown to associate with modulation of biomarkers and activity(ies) of the immune system. Confirming the studies in adults, it has been demonstrated that, in infant nutrition, the prebiotic effect includes a significant change of gut microbiota composition, especially an increase of faecal concentrations of bifidobacteria. This concomitantly improves stool quality (pH, SCFA, frequency and consistency), reduces the risk of gastroenteritis and infections, improves general well-being and reduces the incidence of allergic symptoms such as atopic eczema. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Promising beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some preliminary studies, including changes in gut microbiota composition (especially increase in bifidobacteria concentration). Often associated with toxic load and/or miscellaneous risk factors, colon cancer is another pathology for which a possible role of gut microbiota composition has been hypothesised. Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone mineral density. Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2. It is plausible, even though not exclusive, that these effects are linked to the microbiota-induced changes and it is feasible to conclude that their mechanisms fit into the prebiotic effect. However, the role of such changes in these health benefits remains to be definitively proven. As a result of the research activity that followed the publication of the prebiotic concept 15 years ago, it has become clear that products that cause a selective modification in the gut microbiota's composition and/or activity(ies) and thus strengthens normobiosis could either induce beneficial physiological effects in the colon and also in extra-intestinal compartments or contribute towards reducing the risk of dysbiosis and associated intestinal and systemic pathologies.

1,786 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that addition of non-protein N supplements to ruminant rations are warranted only if the prevailing concentration of ruminal ammonia is less than 50 mg NH3-N/l ruminal fluid.
Abstract: 1. The effect of ammonia concentration on microbial protein production was determined in continuous-culture fermentors charged with ruminal contents obtained from steers fed on either a protein-free purified diet, a maize-based all-concentrate diet, or a forage–concentrate (23:77) diet. Urea was infused into the fermentors to maintain various concentrations of ammonia in the incubating mixtures.2. Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, microbial protein yield measured as tungstic acid-precipitable N (TAPN) increased linearly with supplementary urea until ammonia started to accumulate in the incubating ingesta. Increasing the ammonia concentration beyond 50 mg NH3-N/l had no effect on microbial protein production.3. The molar proportions of volatile acids produced were not affected by the level of urea supplementation. Total acid production was decreased slightly under N-limiting conditions, but not to the same extent as microbial protein production.4. Estimated yield of microbial dry matter/mol ATP produced averaged 15·6 when non-limiting N as urea was provided with the purified diet.5. These results suggest that addition of non-protein N supplements to ruminant rations are warranted only if the prevailing concentration of ruminal ammonia is less than 50 mg NH3-N/l ruminal fluid.

1,731 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2023285
2022739
2021638
2020283
2019288
2018286