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Showing papers in "Brno studies in English in 2011"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical essay addresses a number of methodological problems perti nent to linguistic research on film discourse and elaborates a model of film discourse's twofold layering, viz. the fictional layer and the film crew's layer; and two communicative levels, namely the characters' level and the viewer's level, on which meanings are communicated and inferred by the viewer, who is conceptualised as the recipient.
Abstract: This theoretical essay addresses a number of methodological problems perti nent to linguistic research on film discourse. First of all, attention is paid to the interdependence between contemporary film discourse and everyday language, with a view to dispersing doubts about the former’s legitimacy in language studies. Also, the discussion captures the interface between a character’s identity portrayal and the target audience’s socio-cultural background and expectations. Another objective is to elaborate a model of film discourse’s twofold layering, viz. the fictional layer and the film crew’s layer; and two communicative levels, namely the characters’ level and the viewer’s level, on which meanings are communicated and inferred by the viewer, who is conceptualised as the recipient. Additionally, the notion of recipient design will be endorsed in order to demonstrate that meanings are purposefully communicated to, and thus gleaned by, the viewer. Several postulates are propounded concerning the viewer’s understanding and appreciation of film discourse.

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the implications of cultural appropriation in the context of literary borrowing and hoaxing, and the function of Native/Aboriginal author by showing various views coming from Canadian and Australian Indigenous literati and scholars who most ardently oppose the outsider's appropriation of Indigenous imagery.
Abstract: Appropriation of indigenous voice and/or subject appropriation (as defined by James O. Young and Susan Haley) in a literary space of the two multicultural postcolonial locations, Canada and Australia, lays bare a very uneasy palimpsest of postcoloniality. Conflation of two different views, that of literary works being the constructs of possible worlds (mimesis), i.e. the space of textual freedom, and literary works being limited by postcolonial ethics especially when they attempt to map the cultural space of the postcolonial other, reveals the setbacks of postcolonial hybridity turning it into a possible minefield. The implications of alleged freedom of creative act is discussed in the context of cultural appropriation leading to various literary “borrowings” and “hoaxes”, and the function of Native/Aboriginal author by showing various views coming from Canadian and Australian Indigenous literati and scholars who most ardently oppose to the outsider’s appropriation of Indigenous imagery. The quote from Thomas King’s seminal short story in the title of the paper serves as a metaphor for a doublebind effect of careless appropriation of Indigenous stories by non-Indigenous writers.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examine Bosnian writer Aleksandar Hemon's relationship to and intervention in life-writing, tracing his first autobiographical gestures in earlier fiction against his recent insistence that his stories are "antibio graphical" since they are the very "antimatter to the matter of my life".
Abstract: In this article, I examine Bosnian writer Aleksandar Hemon’s relationship to and intervention in life-writing. Hemon’s fiction provides rich terrain for exploring the key shifts and obstacles facing the genre(s) at present by crossing national as well as aesthetic borders. In doing so, I trace his first autobiographical gestures in his earlier fiction against his recent insistence that his stories are “antibio graphical” since they are the very “antimatter to the matter of my life. They contain what did not happen to me” – thus, an alternate, unrestrained space in which Hemon can flesh out multiple fictional selves. With his novel, The Lazarus Project, he delivers, in essence, a fictional biography on two levels: a main narrator (Brik) who enacts the author’s own exodus but also traces and retells an immigrant stranger’s past (Lazarus) in order to work through his present conflicts, anger and sadness. The novel’s tensions between biography, autobiography and photography emerge from what Hemon calls a “conditional Americanness” that has overtaken the American Dream. Hemon employs photographic imagery not only to refute given notions of history and archive but also to craft a narrative imagination that builds on late German writer W. G. Sebald’s own transgressions within (auto)biographical writing, yet targets and questions more American and cross-cultural identity categories.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a distinction is drawn between common parlance senses of allusion (vague reference) and the literary idea of echoic allusions (cryptic quotation), and it is shown that echo-ic allusion involves play with multiple meanings in the manner of a pun and, like the pun, is highly dependent on its effect on the fact that the potential polysemy of individual words at the level of langue is only disambiguated by both situational and linguistic context.
Abstract: This paper is concerned with punning echoic allusion. First, a distinction is drawn between common parlance senses of allusion (vague reference) and the literary idea of echoic allusion (cryptic quotation). It is then shown that echoic allusion involves play with multiple meanings in the manner of a pun and, like the pun, is highly dependent for its effect on the fact that the potential polysemy of individual words at the level of langue is only disambiguated at the level of parole by both situational and linguistic context. Examples of allusions based on verbatim quotation are compared to perfect puns, while allusions based on nonverbatim quotation are compared to imperfect puns. Grice’s (1975) model of comprehension of indirect language is then modified and expanded to chart the processes by which readers (and listeners) understand punning echoic allusion. Finally, the possible motivations writers may have for punning echoic allusion are considered.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present paper looks at the role of the English verb operating in Presentation Scale sentences within fiction narratives from the point of view of both dynamic and static semantics; it also aims at a syntactic-semantic typology of the sentences implementing thepresentation Scale.
Abstract: In the framework of FSP every sentence implements one of the dynamic semantic scales, which functionally reflect the distribution of communicative dynamism and operate irrespective of word order. In principle, Firbas distinguishes two types of dynamic semantic scales: the Presentation Scale and the Quality Scale. The present paper looks at the role of the English verb operating in Presentation Scale sentences within fiction narratives from the point of view of both dynamic and static semantics; it also aims at a syntactic-semantic typology of the sentences implementing the Presentation Scale. Specifically, the Firbasian phenomenon of presentation or appearance on the scene is examined and exemplified by means of statistical and FSP analysis of a sample corpus based on a fiction narrative text.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated cognitive and social functions that metaphor fulfils in newspaper discourse on natural catastrophes, aiming to reveal multi-functionality of figurative language, and showed that natural phenomena are metaphorically constructed as ANIMALS, MONSTERS and WAR.
Abstract: This paper investigates cognitive and social functions that metaphor fulfils in newspaper discourse on natural catastrophes, aiming to reveal multi-functionality of figurative language. The analysis shows that natural phenomena are metaphorically constructed as ANIMALS, MONSTERS and WAR. These metaphor themes function as a conceptual tool and an effective ideological weapon. They simplify reality, hide politico-economic and social conditions, bipolarize the world, dramatize stories by appealing to readers’ emotions, and create feelings of community and belonging. The analysis draws upon critical discourse analysis and the cognitive theory of metaphor, as introduced by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). The corpus used in the analysis consists of articles on the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2005 Hurricane Katrina, which are compiled from The Globe and Mail (2004; 2005), a Canadian national daily newspaper, and The New York Times (2004; 2005), an American national daily newspaper.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors of the novel Oroonoko (an African prince enslaved in Surinam) and the protagonist of their play "I" discuss the relationship between these two characters.
Abstract: This paper traces the peculiar relationship between Aphra Behn, a 17 th century novelist, poet, playwright and translator (by all accounts the first professional writer in English, let alone the first woman to make her living by her pen) and the hero of her novel Oroonoko (an African prince enslaved in Surinam). Although Behn ennobles the young man in the tradition of Rousseau’s “noble savage,” educating him above his owners and marrying him to a similarly “pure” African maiden, certain discrepancies stand out, among them the facial features of the two slaves (clearly European), the couple’s prim and almost-Victorian sensibil ity, and the Christian brutality of the white slavelords, intent upon destroying Oroonoko for a sacrifice beyond their comprehension. Previous research addresses Oroonoko’s value as an abolitionist work, remarking upon the romance between “lesser” equals as among Europeans, or makes political comparisons between the visage of the noble prince and the English monarchs. Neglected in the literary appreciations is Behn’s evident passion for her subject, in its colonial context of illicit interracial love and possession. Is Oroonoko a courageous celebration of racial difference itself, in the only conceivable means of presentation available to a 17 th century woman? Does Oroonoko stand in as a metaphor for an encounter of yet another kind, the trespass of race, class and gender? Couched in the poetic similes of Restoration art and artifice, Oroonoko is a story of strangled violence. It is the tale of a woman writer translating desire and meaning into flesh – black flesh, publicly consumed. Behn’s authorial “I” is transgressive, transformative. Artfully concealed between covers, Behn projects her bound English body into forbidden territories: foreign darkness, black otherness, and desires too dangerous for words.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors compare Galloway's novel Clara (2002) with J. D. Landis's Longing (2000), Werner Quednau's Clara Schumann (1955), and Dieter Kuhn's play Familientreffen (1988) in order to point out some of the choices the liminal status of bio-fiction affords the author and the effect of these choices on the portrayal of the heroine.
Abstract: Clara Wieck Schumann was one of the leading concert pianists of the nineteenth century. Her story has been captured in several “fictionalised biographies,” texts which transgress genre boundaries and renegotiate the relationship between historical fact and fiction. This essay will compare Janice Galloway’s novel Clara (2002) with J. D. Landis’s Longing (2000), Werner Quednau’s Clara Schumann (1955), and Dieter Kuhn’s play Familientreffen (1988) in order to point out some of the choices the liminal status of biofiction affords the author and the effect of these choices on the portrayal of the heroine. Analyses will draw on Wolfgang Iser’s reflections on the fictionalising act and Linda Hutcheon’s notion of historiographic metafiction, demonstrating that writers’ interest in Clara Schumann has resulted not only in widely differing portrayals of the pianist’s life but also in manifestly different classes of texts.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The documentary film Into the Arms of Strangers (2000) drew the attention of a larger audience to the kind-ransport, a unique rescue operation which saved the lives of some 10,000 children, almost all of them Jewish as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The documentary film Into the Arms of Strangers (2000) drew the attention of a larger audience to the kindertransport, a unique rescue operation which saved the lives of some 10,000 children, almost all of them Jewish. Most of the chil dren who were sent to the United Kingdom from 1938 until the beginning of the war came from Germany. Although one of the best known kindertransport autobiographies was written by a Czech, Vera Gissing’s Pearls of Childhood (1994), not enough attention has been given to the special situation of Jewish children refugees from Czechoslovakia. Until President Benes’s exile in the wake of the so-called “Munich Agreement,” Czechoslovakia courageously opposed Nazi Germany. Czech refugees who arrived in the United Kingdom could be proud of their country. In contrast, Jewish children refugees from Germany had not only lost their home, but were also suspected of being enemy aliens.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that two distinct features mark black female autobiographical selfhood are the selfhood-in-relation and the political nature of African American autobiography as a genre which leads the authors to intense consideration of their reading public in the process of creating their autobiographical selves.
Abstract: By using textual examples from three autobiographies written by African American women in different periods of U.S. history, this paper argues that two distinct features mark black female autobiographical selfhood. One is its being a “selfhood-in-relation” that stands in stark opposition to “a lonely hero” subjects created by both black and white male American autobiographers. And the other is the political nature of African American autobiography as a genre which leads the authors to intense consideration of their reading public in the process of creating their autobiographical selves. The discussed texts include Harriet Jacobs’s (or Linda Brent’s) Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by Herself (1861), Zora Neale Hurston’s Dust Tracks on a Road (1942) and Angela Davis’s Angela Davis: An Autobiography (1974).

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mark Ravenhill as discussed by the authors dealt with the issue of popular culture, especially its aspect of consumerism that both Fiske and Ang discussed, and gave a special emphasis on the marginality of such a power.
Abstract: Mark Ravenhill deals with the issue of popular culture, especially its aspect of consumerism that both Fiske and Ang discussed. Although Ravenhill, like Fiske, acknowledges the power of the people to resist the negative influence of the consumer society, he gives a special emphasis on the marginality of such a power (in accord with Ang’s opinion), as will be demonstrated on the example of his plays Shopping and Fucking and Faust is Dead.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Red Queen by Margaret Drabble as discussed by the authors transgresses the generic borderlines between autobiography, biography and fiction by rewrites the published memoires of an eighteenth-century Korean Crown Princess with the help of two volumes of her biography, where she is known as Lady Hong or Hyegyong.
Abstract: Margaret Drabble’s 2004 novel The Red Queen transgresses the generic borderlines between autobiography, biography and fiction. Drabble rewrites the published memoires of an eighteenth-century Korean Crown Princess with the help of two volumes of her biography, where she is known as Lady Hong or Hyegyong. Alongside the Princess’s first-person narrative voice, Drabble has created her ghost voice addressing twenty-first century readers and comparing the time past with the time present. The novelist balances her avowed right to interpret and fictionalise with an undoubted respect for the original memoires. The article considers Drabble’s mix of autobiography, biography and fictional narrative to examine the way she has contrived the The Red Queen as a playful but serious and moving autobiographical pastiche.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored some of the ways in which personal experience turns into life writing; the process in which a record of a life lived becomes a story, such as the textualization of the "texture" of life, or from body to book; the emplotment of the incidences of life into a life narrative; the finding of voice for one's self; and the role of memory in life writing.
Abstract: This paper will explore some of the ways in which personal experience turns into life writing; the process in which a record of a life lived becomes a story, such as the textualization of the “texture” of life, or from body to book; the emplotment of the incidences of life into a life narrative (White); the heteroglossia of life writing (Bakhtin); the finding of voice for one’s self (Eakin); and the role of memory in life writing (Olney). As a specific backdrop to the discussion, two well-known examples of Canadian literature, Susanna Moodie’s Roughing It in the Bush and Margaret Atwood’s reinscription The Journals of Susanna Moodie, will be used to exemplify some of the main arguments raised in the paper.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provided comparative analysis regarding the functions of pauses through exploration of the similarities and differences in semantically identical utterances in micro-textual units in colloquial style produced by L1 and L2 speakers of English and German.
Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to provide comparative analysis regarding the functions of pauses through exploration of the similarities and differences in semantically identical utterances in micro-textual units in colloquial style produced by L1 and L2 speakers of English and German. The research study illustrates inappropriate segmentation of the discourse, inapt distribution and frequency of pause types in L2 subjects’ utterances, which may be due to the fact that L2 speakers apply cognitive activities different from L1 speakers. L1 subjects’ productions, on the other hand, indicate that they tend to plan and program their utterances in longer blocks.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored identity construction in the context of a popular radio programme (5-Live's "World Football Phone-in" which offers long-term contributors the possibility of achieving membership of a virtual community established by the programme, via the award of a ‘Brazilian shirt name’.
Abstract: This study explores identity construction in the context of a popular radio programme (5-Live’s ‘World Football Phone-in’), which offers long-term contributors the possibility of achieving membership of a virtual community (Fox 2004) established by the programme, via the award of a ‘Brazilian shirt name’. In particular, it focuses on the discursive strategies involved in gaining entry, especially on interactions involving the principle gatekeepers, and their role in the construction of an acceptable ‘identity’ (Widdicombe 1998). The role of nicknaming (Liao 2006) in constructing and maintaining group boundaries is also highlighted. In general the conclusion is that, although interactions show refer ences to membership ‘rules’, and would-be members are seen to conform to these, a successful application depends on more subtle factors, and especially on the personal whims of the principle gatekeeper.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigated speaker design in the case of Southern American English, a regional variety that can reportedly be used specifically by women to project personal charm and found that women using it sound socially attractive.
Abstract: Current ‘Speaker Design’ approaches to sociolinguistic variation investigate how speakers may pro-actively deploy the linguistic resources (variation) at their disposal to achieve certain communicative effects. In this paper, Speaker Design is investigated in the case of Southern American English, a regional variety that can reportedly be used specifically by women to project personal charm. An interactional as well as a cognitive sociolinguistic account of this process are provided. Furthermore, empirical evidence for its workings is presented. This evidence is derived from a speaker evaluation experiment, whose results are outlined. It is argued that this experiment demonstrates that Southern American English elicits certain social associations in listeners such that women using it sound socially attractive. Female Southern speakers can tap into this effect to contextualize their utterances accordingly, giving rise to communicative effects such as ‘charming’ customers into buying products.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined how Stoker has been constructed as a man who experienced same-sex desire, as revealed through his own "autobiographical" texts, such as Personal Reminiscences of Henry Irving and Dracula.
Abstract: This paper offers an examination of the Stokerian biographical project and shows how many biographies of Bram Stoker are invested in uncovering the elusive relationship between this little-known author and the actor Henry Irving. An exploration of Stokerian biographies reveals how Stoker has been constructed as a man who experienced same-sex desire, as revealed through his own “autobiographical” texts, such as Personal Reminiscences of Henry Irving and Dracula. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick’s concept of “homosocial desire” provides a useful theoretical framework within which to explore a sample selection of Stokerian biographies, including those of Daniel Farson, Phyllis A. Roth, Barbara Belford and Paul Murray. This paper maintains that the theories surrounding Stoker’s libidinal life are generally well-grounded, yet to this day several questions remain unanswered. For many biographers, the life of the author of Dracula continues to be shrouded in mystery.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper argued that the novella offers a variation on one of the author's idiosyncrasies -a hopeful belief in love and humanity, and further explored the possibilities and limitations of the genre of confessional narrative as exemplified in Intimacy.
Abstract: Hanif Kureishi’s works contain numerous autobiographical features and are peopled with characters that often bear a striking similarity not only to the author himself but also to his relatives and ex-partners. Intimacy (1998) is conceived as the dramatic confessional monologue of a middle-aged man about to leave his partner and two children to live with a younger woman, an experience the author himself had not long before its publication. This article deals with the novella in the broader context of the author’s late 1990s texts in order to distinguish between autobiographic narrative and writing from experience, showing that the latter rather than the former is employed in these works. Supported by Kureishi’s defence of the book as a literary game it also argues that rather than providing a hateful perspective on femininity the novella offers a variation on one of the author’s idiosyncrasies – a hopeful belief in love and humanity. The article further attempts to explore the possibilities and limitations of the genre of confessional narrative as exemplified in Intimacy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined how Canadian meta-phors of weather fit into this framework and made an attempt at examining the most typical source and target domains of weather, and also looked into conceptual weather metaphors built by mapping at each level of the Great Chain of Weather Metaphors.
Abstract: In his recent book entitled Metaphor, Hungarian Lakoff-scholar Zoltan Kovecses translates the tenor-vehicle relationship into a linguistic Great Chain of Being (2002). The primary purpose of the paper is to examine how Canadian meta phors of weather fit into this framework. The first part of the paper presents some theoretical grounding, proceeding from the overt-covert and direct-indirect relationship of tenor and vehicle to Lakoff’s cognitive concept of metaphor (1980, 1993). Based on this concept, the linguistic Great Chain of Weather Metaphors is created. The second part of the paper makes an attempt at examining the most typical source and target domains of weather, and, based on a pilot sample, it also looks into conceptual weather metaphors built by mapping at each level of the Great Chain of Weather Metaphors. Furthermore, the analysis tackles the question of conventionality as well as the establishment of a certain hierarchy among the different Great Chain levels through the employment of Ricoeur’s Platonic ladder theory (1987) and Lakoff’s principle of unidirectionality (1990). This section of the paper is followed by an in-depth analysis focusing on objectto-weather and weather-to-object correspondences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper read the title story of Munro's latest short story collection Too Much Happiness (2009) as a text about travelling and trading knowledge in 19 th-century Europe and examined the discourse of displacement, the clash of different value systems and the way in which travel implies both gains and losses.
Abstract: This paper travels along the border of different value systems, reading the title story of Munro’s latest short story collection Too Much Happiness (2009) as a text about travelling and trading knowledge in 19 th -century Europe. It aims to examine the discourse of displacement, the clash of different value systems and the way in which travel implies both gains and losses. The narrator of Too Much Happiness, Sophia Kovalevsky, a 19 th -century Russian mathematician, goes to Sweden, at that time the only country willing to hire a female professor for their new university. The text is an elliptical historical fiction and a spiritual travelogue. My paper discusses the ways in which Munro’s text relates to tropes of home and mobility and deals with the role of silence and gaps, the discourse of absence. It also focuses on a characteristic feature of Munro’s storytelling: crossing the borders between history, personal memoir and fiction. th -century Europe; place and memory

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that, in Borstal Boy, Brendan Behan uses the form of the Irish prison memoir to deconstruct the political orthodoxies and sexual attitudes both of English colonialism and Irish nationalism and to replace them with a vision far more complex, hyphenated and tolerant.
Abstract: This paper argues that, in Borstal Boy, Brendan Behan uses the form of the Irish prison memoir to deconstruct the political orthodoxies and sexual attitudes both of English colonialism and Irish nationalism and to replace them with a vision far more complex, hyphenated and tolerant. Although the work is based on Behan’s experience as a young teenager sent to England on an I.R.A. bombing mission, then arrested and incarcerated in an English prison, Behan is not overly concerned with autobiographical authenticity. He uses his prison experience ironically to dramatize a microcosm in many ways freer and more loving than the nominally free world beyond its boundaries. In essence Behan uses the autobiographical subject as a social text that valorizes the solidarity of “we.”

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the fluctuation of subjective and objective pronominal forms in a specific type of constructions, namely in coordinated phrases, and demonstrated that the behaviour of the first person singular pronoun goes against all the general trends in the usage of pronominals.
Abstract: This article deals with the fluctuation of subjective and objective pronominal forms in a specific type of constructions, namely in coordinated phrases. The analysis will demonstrate that the behaviour of the first person singular pronoun goes against all the general trends in the usage of pronominal forms. Subsequently, alternative approaches towards the idiosyncrasies of the first person singular pronoun will be presented. The analysis is based on the data taken from the Corpus of Contemporary American English and from surveys distributed among 209 native speakers of American English, from the age of 18 up to the age of 75. The data from both sources show that there is no systemic fluctuation in the environment of postverbal coordinated phrases as the variation between the two case forms does not affect the whole paradigm of personal pronouns, and is not induced proportionally after the analyzed heading prepositions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Praed's My Australian Girlhood (1902) demonstrates character istics of autobiography, travel literature and adventure narrative, and at the same time transgresses the said genres in both their intent as well as their structural characteristics.
Abstract: The Australian nationalist metanarrative performed “cultural apartheid” over female literary production. Excluded from official discourse and dominant literary genres, women resorted to those available in an attempt to formulate their subjectivity. Hence, their narratives became a means of talking back. Consequently, Rosa Campbell Praed’s My Australian Girlhood (1902) demonstrates character istics of autobiography, travel literature and adventure narrative, and at the same time transgresses the said genres in both their intent as well as their structural characteristics. Additionally, travelling within the colonial context, Praed inevi tably participates in the discourses of imperialism, which she is, however, found rupturing as she criticises British racial policy in Australia, thus revealing her writing as double-voiced. As a female colonial writer writing within a masculine realist literary tradition, Praed was othered by contemporary critics who either devalued her writing, or altogether dismissed it as un-Australian, ignor ing numerous instances wherein she contributes to the formulation of an 1890s identity. Therefore, to read Praed’s text means to be aware of this historically and culturally specific context.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed analysis of gender assignment to animal names is based on two sub-corpora (the English edition of National Geographic and the English editions of Journal of Zoology).
Abstract: This paper aims to be a contribution to the study of the linguistic concept of gender. Out of many potential challenges in this area, it will focus on the problem of assigning gender to animal nouns. This problem is topical in view of the fact that in present-day English, gender is a marginal grammatical category and therefore recedes into the background in descriptions of today’s English. Grammatical gender is a rare topic of research and scientific discussions or papers. A detailed analysis of gender assignment to animal names is based on two subcorpora (the English edition of National Geographic and the English edition of Journal of Zoology). To make the picture as complete as possible, a contrastive analysis of gender markers is offered.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The House of All Sorts (1944) and The Book of Small (1942) are like Modernist collages in verbal form, guiding the reader through reflections of widely differing lengths about personal experiences, birds, and meet ing people as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Emily Carr (1871–1945) as a writer drew on her life experiences for her works: Klee Wyck (1941), The Book of Small (1942), and The House of All Sorts (1944) are like Modernist collages in verbal form, guiding the reader through reflections of widely differing lengths about personal experiences, birds, and meet ing people. The posthumously published autobiography Growing Pains (1946) and journals Hundreds and Thousands (1966) add to her palette of “life writing.” Whichever genre she was writing in, it is most evident that Art was Carr’s greatest priority, implying also several moments of self-doubt, questioning the value or quality of her paintings or writings. Her artistic achievement integrates her ideas about nature, Native people, Art, the dichotomy of “Primitivism” and “Modernism,” as well as a striving for simplicity in expression. Carr’s extraor dinary character invited several artists to make her a mythic figure of Canadian culture.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The In-Between World of Vikram Lall by G.M. G. Vassanji as discussed by the authors is presented as an autobiographical narrative recorded by a fictional Kenyan Indian, whose life runs parallel with the history of his native country through the second half of the twentieth century.
Abstract: M. G. Vassanji’s novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall is presented as an autobiographical narrative recorded by Vikram Lall, a fictional Kenyan Indian, whose life runs parallel with the history of his native country through the second half of the twentieth century. As the eponymous hero confesses in the opening lines of the story: “[He has] the distinction of having been numbered one of Africa’s most corrupt men, a cheat of monstrous and reptilian cunning.” Using the framework established by Philippe Lejeune in Le Pacte autobiographique (1975), this roguish life appears as a rogue autobiography as well since it “cheats” with the characteristics of the genre. The paper will attempt to show how the novel operates within such a framework and how the usual code is used or misused in the interest of suspense and satire.