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Showing papers in "Building and Environment in 1980"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the effect of the temperature dependence of the sorptivity and absorption of organic liquids on a variety of building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters.

140 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the form and application of environmental tradeoff diagrams as an alternative computer aid for the design of the physical environment in buildings, which are generated using a mathematical model of building/environment behaviour imbedded within an optimization problem formulation.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that optimization models are particularly well suited to the provision of design information because they produce results which are prescriptive, express design options and address the problems of the stability and sensitivity of solutions to changes over time.

55 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J.M. Penman1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors measured the amount that the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in an occupied space is raised above the outside ambient level in a mechanically ventilated part of Exeter University Library.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model for transforming a non planar graph, presenting the interrelations interrelations required in the adjacency matrix, into a planar one by cancelling some of the links through trying to minimize two factors: the number of cancelled links and their weight.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a thermal performance index (TPI) which provides the relative thermal rating of several combinations of different layers of building materials of varying thickness and thermophysical properties.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the reduction of heat flux by the flow of water over an insulated roof; the water surface is exposed to periodic solar radiation and atmospheric air while the bottom of the insulation is in contact with the room air at a constant temperature (corresponding to an air conditioned building).

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The back-up heat needed to maintain a mean design temperature Td in a room depends on the loss of heat by ventilation and through the opaque part of the fabric, and on the difference between conducted loss and solar gain through windows as discussed by the authors.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An algorithm to calculate the optimum dimensions and the amount of reinforcements for a doubly reinforced rectangular beam is presented, based on ultimate strength design using rectangular stress block for concrete.

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the heat flux or temperature responses at the excitation boundary are expressed in dimensionless form and are compared against the dimensionless parameter β which is shown to govern the responses.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the heat requirements for an unglazed wall, and for a wall with one or two glass skins attached to it, were compared with the results based on weather data for the north Wirral, U.K. area.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a computational method of temperature distribution calculation for building elements in two-and three-dimensional time-dependent heat flow problems is developed with a general approximate solution using, as a numerical approach, the finite difference method.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The cavity fills were installed in conventional built houses, and subjected to a wetting regime which represented severe weather conditions which occur occasionally in Britain this article, and the results showed that some fill materials permitted only little water to cross in the test programme.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a conceptual framework is presented which can serve as a basis for a rational approach to the problem of description of energy transport and energy conversion, and the mediation of these processes by the geometrical and physical properties of objects.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an algorithm to obtain the optimum dimensions of the T beam and the area of tension reinforcement for the given external bending moment is presented, where dead weight of the beam which might contribute substantially to the total moment particularly for long spans is considered as a variable.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors extended the earlier studies by analysing secondary heating consumption returns in a similar manner and making comparisons with previous results, concluding that consumption differences between dwellings were the direct result of heat loss caused by differential airflow on and around the building.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of Mersey silt as a fine aggregate for concrete has been investigated in this paper, and sound concrete with compressive strength up to 45 N mm−2 has been made, however, the cement content required for typical mixes is higher than with conventional sands and there is no overall cost saving.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the storage of solar heat in the earth beneath a building, using an air flow gravel bed heat exchanger to supply a heat pump, is analyzed, using a transient analysis to model heat flow ambients to and from the gravel bed, combined with iterative steady state approximations for more slowly varying heat losses through the large thermal mass of soil.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a computer analysis of steel braced barrel vaults is presented and compared with the approximate method of analysis suggested by Baer, and the drawbacks of Baer's method are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the results of a recently completed study on manpower requirements in a selected number of housing projects in Nigeria and compare the findings with known previous works from both Nigeria and other advanced countries.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a general model of dynamical interaction in which the action of an object on the transport and conversion of energy is governed by the structure of a set of energy currents and energy sources is presented.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared several alternative methods of constructing low-cost housing in urban areas of developing countries and made a comprehensive economic analysis of each method and the cost components.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, two approximate yield criteria are proposed for reinforced concrete cylindrical shell element and three lower bound solutions are developed for cylinear shell roofs with free longitudinal edges.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors address the task of developing similar relationships for the intermittent system of water supply most widely practised in developing countries like India, with recourse to a field survey under Indian conditions of usage so as to reflect design hydraulic load in similar tropical countries.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a variety of patterns of stacked cans and facing sheets, and with domestic floor and wall loading in mind, to determine bending and shear stiffness and strength.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an interactive model for comfort is proposed based on the four cardinal dimensions of arousal, distraction, emotional and physical sensation levels, which can be applied in practice by clients, architects and engineers formulating briefs for buildings meanwhile coordinated feedback methods from buildings in use need to become part of the building process.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the response forces and damping values of a model of a five storeyed building frame and its five equivalent single degree mode-models during free and forced vibrations on a vibration bed were investigated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of room parameters (dimensions and reflectances) on the lighting effiency, characterized by the utilance, is examined, and a measure of this influence is given for both intensive and extensive, flux distributions of the luminaires.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a probabilistic design procedure is presented for the optimum design of prestressed concrete poles, where the cube strength of concrete, the ultimate strength of steel, the jacking stress at transfer, the cross sectional dimensions of the pole, the lever arm at which the load acts and the magnitude of the load acting on the pole are treated as random variables.