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Showing papers in "Buildings in 2021"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The seismic performance assessment of buildings is a challenging process as mentioned in this paper, and the seismic performance of buildings can be classified into three categories: seismic performance, seismic performance and seismic performance degradation.
Abstract: The seismic performance assessment of buildings is a challenging process [...]

169 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to clarify the DT concept and differentiate it from other advanced 3D modeling technologies, digital shadows, and information systems, and recommends the development of DT applications that offer rapid and accurate data analysis platforms for real-time decisions, self-operation, and remote supervision requirements post-COVID-19.
Abstract: Construction projects and cities account for over 50% of carbon emissions and energy consumption Industry 4 0 and digital transformation may increase productivity and reduce energy consumption A digital twin (DT) is a key enabler in implementing Industry 4 0 in the areas of construction and smart cities It is an emerging technology that connects different objects by utilising the advanced Internet of Things (IoT) As a technology, it is in high demand in various industries, and its literature is growing exponentially Previous digital modeling practices, the use of data acquisition tools, human–computer–machine interfaces, programmable cities, and infrastructure, as well as Building Information Modeling (BIM), have provided digital data for construction, moni-toring, or controlling physical objects However, a DT is supposed to offer much more than digital representation Characteristics such as bi-directional data exchange and real-time self-management (e g , self-awareness or self-optimisation) distinguish a DT from other information modeling sys-tems The need to develop and implement DT is rising because it could be a core technology in many industrial sectors post-COVID-19 This paper aims to clarify the DT concept and differentiate it from other advanced 3D modeling technologies, digital shadows, and information systems It also intends to review the state of play in DT development and offer research directions for future investigation It recommends the development of DT applications that offer rapid and accurate data analysis platforms for real-time decisions, self-operation, and remote supervision requirements post-COVID-19 The discussion in this paper mainly focuses on the Smart City, Engineering and Construction (SCEC) sectors © 2021 by the author Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

112 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the use of supervised machine learning (ML) algorithms, gene expression programming (GEP), and artificial neural network (ANN) was employed in order to predict the compressive strength of RCA-based concrete.
Abstract: To minimize the environmental risks and for sustainable development, the utilization of recycled aggregate (RA) is gaining popularity all over the world. The use of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) in concrete is an effective way to minimize environmental pollution. RCA does not gain more attraction because of the availability of adhered mortar on its surface, which poses a harmful effect on the properties of concrete. However, a suitable mix design for RCA enables it to reach the targeted strength and be applicable for a wide range of construction projects. The targeted strength achievement from the proposed mix design at a laboratory is also a time-consuming task, which may cause a delay in the construction work. To overcome this flaw, the application of supervised machine learning (ML) algorithms, gene expression programming (GEP), and artificial neural network (ANN) was employed in this study to predict the compressive strength of RCA-based concrete. The linear coefficient correlation (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), mean square error (MSE), and root mean square error (RMSE) were evaluated to investigate the performance of the models. The k-fold cross-validation method was also adopted for the confirmation of the model’s performance. In comparison, the GEP model was more effective in terms of prediction by giving a higher correlation (R2) value of 0.95 as compared to ANN, which gave a value of R2 equal to 0.92. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to know about the contribution level of each parameter used to run the models. Moreover, the increment in data points and the use of other supervised ML approaches like boosting, gradient boosting, and bagging to forecast the compressive strength, would give a better response.

74 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The positive energy district (PED) concept highlights the importance of active interaction between energy generation systems, energy consumers, and energy storage within a district as discussed by the authors, and it aims to improve the flexibility of decentralized energy generation, individual buildings and energy systems should be able to interact with each other.
Abstract: There are many concepts for buildings with integrated renewable energy systems that have received increased attention during the last few years. However, these concepts only strive to streamline building-level renewable energy solutions. In order to improve the flexibility of decentralized energy generation, individual buildings and energy systems should be able to interact with each other. The positive energy district (PED) concept highlights the importance of active interaction between energy generation systems, energy consumers and energy storage within a district. This paper strives to inform the public, decision makers and fellow researchers about the aspects that should be accounted for when planning and implementing different types of PEDs in different regions throughout the European Union. The renewable energy environment varies between different EU regions, in terms of the available renewable energy sources, energy storage potential, population, energy consumption behaviour, costs and regulations, which affect the design and operation of PEDs, and hence, no PED is like the other. This paper provides clear definitions for different types of PEDs, a survey of the renewable energy market circumstances in the EU and a detailed analysis of factors that play an essential role in the PED planning process.

67 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the fire and thermal resistance of geopolymer concrete along with its thermo-chemistry at a towering temperature was evaluated and the impact of heat and fire on mechanical attributes viz., mechanical-compressive strength, flexural behavior, elastic modulus; durability, thermal shrinkage; chemical stability; and microstructure properties such as XRD, FTIR, NMR, SEM as well as physico-chemical modifications of geo-mer composites subsequent to their exposures at elevated temperatures was reviewed in depth.
Abstract: Even though, an innovative inorganic family of geopolymer concretes are eye-catching potential building materials, it is quite essential to comprehend the fire and thermal resistance of these structural materials at a very high temperature and also when experiencing fire with a view to make certain not only the safety and security of lives and properties but also to establish them as more sustainable edifice materials for future. The experimental and field observations of degree of cracking, spalling and loss of strength within the geopolymer concretes subsequent to exposure at elevated temperature and incidences of occurrences of disastrous fires extend an indication of their resistance against such severely catastrophic conditions. The impact of heat and fire on mechanical attributes viz., mechanical-compressive strength, flexural behavior, elastic modulus; durability—thermal shrinkage; chemical stability; the impact of thermal creep on compressive strength; and microstructure properties—XRD, FTIR, NMR, SEM as well as physico-chemical modifications of geopolymer composites subsequent to their exposures at elevated temperatures is reviewed in depth. The present scientific state-of-the-art review manuscript aimed to assess the fire and thermal resistance of geopolymer concrete along with its thermo-chemistry at a towering temperature in order to introduce this novel, most modern, user and eco-benign construction materials as potentially promising, sustainable, durable, thermal and fire-resistant building materials promoting their optimal and apposite applications for construction and infrastructure industries.

60 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study presents the roadmap for the successful adoption of ImTs for industry practitioners and stakeholders in the AEC industry for various domains and provides directions for the future with an emphasis on developing sustainable development goals (SDGs).
Abstract: With the outset of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0), every sector is escalating to get enrichment out of it, whether they are research- or industry-oriented. The Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry lags a bit in adopting it because of its multi-faceted dependencies and unique nature of work. Despite this, a trend has been seen recently to hone the IR 4.0 multitudes in the AEC industry. The upsurge has been seen in the usage of Immersive Technologies (ImTs) as one of the disruptive techniques. This paper studies the literature based on ImTs, which are Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), and Mixed Reality (MR) integrating with Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the AEC sector. A total number of 444 articles were selected from Scopus following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) protocol of reviewing the literature. Among the selected database, 64 papers are identified as the result of following the protocol, and the articles are divided into eight domains relevant to the AEC industry, namely client/stakeholder, design exploration, design analysis, construction planning, construction monitoring, construction health/safety, facility/management, and education/training. This study adopts both a scientometric analysis for bibliometrics visualization and a critical review using Strength Weakness Opportunity Threat (SWOT) analysis for finding gaps and state of play. The novelty of this paper lies in the analysis techniques used in the literature to provide an insight into the literature, and it provides directions for the future with an emphasis on developing sustainable development goals (SDGs). In addition, research directions for the future growth on the adoption of ImTs are identified and presented based on categorization in immersive devices, graphical/non-graphical data and, responsive/integrative processes. In addition, five subcategories for each direction are listed, citing the limitations and future/needs. This study presents the roadmap for the successful adoption of ImTs for industry practitioners and stakeholders in the AEC industry for various domains. The paper shows that there are studies on ImTs with or without BIM; however, future studies should focus on the usage of ImTs in various sectors such as modular integrated construction (MiC) or emerging needs such as SDGs.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The International Energy Agency's Energy in Buildings and Communities Programme (IEA EBC) Annex 83 is the main platform for this international scientific debate and research as discussed by the authors, where the main topics of discussion in the PED context are the role and importance of definitions of PEDs, virtual and geographical boundaries in PED, the role of different stakeholders, evaluation approaches, and the learnings of realized PED projects.
Abstract: At a global level, the need for energy efficiency and an increased share of renewable energy sources is evident, as is the crucial role of cities due to the rapid urbanization rate. As a consequence of this, the research work related to Positive Energy Districts (PED) has accelerated in recent years. A common shared definition, as well as technological approaches or methodological issues related to PEDs are still unclear in this development and a global scientific discussion is needed. The International Energy Agency’s Energy in Buildings and Communities Programme (IEA EBC) Annex 83 is the main platform for this international scientific debate and research. This paper describes the challenges of PEDs and the issues that are open for discussions and how the Annex 83 is planned and organized to facilitate this and to actively steer the development of PEDs major leaps forward. The main topics of discussion in the PED context are the role and importance of definitions of PEDs, virtual and geographical boundaries in PEDs, the role of different stakeholders, evaluation approaches, and the learnings of realized PED projects.

49 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The real-time monitoring and response of buildings is discussed, which includes both static and dynamic analyses along with numerical simulation studies such as finite element analysis (FEA), and recommendations for the future research and development of SHM are made.
Abstract: This study investigated operational and structural health monitoring (SHM) as well as damage evaluations for building structures. The study involved damage detection and the assessment of buildings by placing sensors and by assuming weak areas, and considered situations of assessment and self-monitoring. From this perspective, advanced sensor technology and data acquisition techniques can systematically monitor a building in real time. Furthermore, the structure’s response and behavior were observed and recorded to predict the damage to the building. In this paper, we discuss the real-time monitoring and response of buildings, which includes both static and dynamic analyses along with numerical simulation studies such as finite element analysis (FEA), and recommendations for the future research and development of SHM are made.

47 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of the literature on mitigation measures to combat urban heat island (UHI) using reflective pavements with an emphasis on durability properties and impacts of tree canopy is presented in this paper.
Abstract: Pavements occupy about 40% of urban land cover, with 75–80% black top roads, playing a critical role in urban connectivity and mobility. Solar energy is absorbed and stored in pavements leading to an increase in surface temperatures. Decreasing green cover is further contributing to rise in regional temperatures. Due to this activity, the city experiences urban heat island (UHI). This study presents a critical review of the literature on mitigation measures to combat UHI using reflective pavements with an emphasis on durability properties and impacts of tree canopy. The strategies with a focus on application of chip seals, white toppings, and coatings were discussed. Role of surface reflectance, including those from asphalt and concrete pavements, albedo improvements, and technological trends, application of waste materials, and industrial by-products are presented. Also, urban tree shading systems’ contribution to pavement temperature and microclimate systems is presented. The review shows that the development of mitigation measures using tree shading systems can reduce the pavement temperature during daytime and increase human thermal comfort. The outcomes of this review provide a scope for future studies to develop sustainable and state-of-the-art engineering solutions in the field of reflective coatings and urban forest systems.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study evaluates the cloud computing implementation and its Critical Success Factors (CSFs) towards ensuring sustainable construction projects in Nigeria and indicated that reliable data storage, performance as well as cost of accessibility and availability were the four most significant CSFs to cloud computing applications.
Abstract: Cloud Computing has become a valuable platform for sustainability in many countries. This study evaluates the cloud computing implementation and its Critical Success Factors (CSFs) towards ensuring sustainable construction projects in Nigeria. Data were collected from previous literature, supplemented by a quantitative approach via a questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 104 construction professionals while cloud computing CSFs were examined using Relative Importance Ranking (RII) and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). The results show that cloud computing’s awareness level is 96.2%, which means that the respondents are aware of cloud computing concept. Furthermore, the result shows that most of the respondents are adopting the concept. The analysis of the CSFs indicated that reliable data storage, performance as well as cost of accessibility and availability were the four most significant CSFs to cloud computing applications. Analysis of the CSFs through EFA generated four main components which include human satisfaction, organization, client’s acceptance, and industry-based. Consequently, this study contributed to existing body of knowledge by highlighting the cloud computing CSFs for achieving sustainable construction project. As such, the results could be a game-changer in the construction industry—not only in Nigeria but also in developing nations where construction projects are implemented through similar style and procedure. This study would be a benchmark for supporting decision-makers to improve data fragmentation, in which the use of data is paramount to the execution of construction works. Finally, the results of this study would be useful for enhancing sustainability and general management of construction projects through cloud computing implementation.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research constitutes the first study to critically synthesise extant literature for evaluation of blockchain solutions’ implication on SCR metrics and provides a basis for the novel theoretical framework for implementation that will be valued by software developers and adopting organizations.
Abstract: Using a systematic review of literature, this study identifies the potential impact of blockchain solutions for augmenting supply chain resilience (SCR) to cybercrime. This rich literature synthesis forms the basis of a novel theoretical framework that provides guidance and insight for blockchain adopters and vendors as well as delineate palpable benefits of this novel technology. An interpretivist philosophical design and inductive reasoning are adopted to conduct the systematic review of literature. A total of 867 papers were retrieved from Scopus database between the years of 2016 and 2020 and subsequently analysed via abductive reasoning, grounded theory and a thematic meta-analysis; where the latter was achieved using a scientometric approach and software tools such as VOS viewer and NVivo. Scientometric analysis revealed the most prolific countries, sources, publications and authors who reside at the vanguard of blockchain developments and adoption. Subsequent grounded theory analysis identified six main clusters of research endeavour viz: “case study”, “challenges and opportunity”, “traceability”, “smart contract” “blockchain and IoT” and “data security”. From 28 SCR metrics identified within literature, five were found to have been positively impacted by blockchain technology solutions, namely: “visibility”, “collaboration”, “integration”, “risk management” and “information sharing.” Prominent applications of blockchain technology in practice were “traceability systems” and “smart contracts” which are often implemented separately or in combination and primarily in food supply chains. This research constitutes the first study to critically synthesise extant literature for evaluation of blockchain solutions’ implication on SCR metrics. New perspectives obtained provided a basis for the novel theoretical framework for implementation that will be valued by software developers and adopting organizations, whilst creating new direction for researchers interested in blockchain technology.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that the main drivers of Construction 4.0, which originated from the 4IR, are BIM, IoT, and BD, but with specific implementations, and the state-of-the-art review presented in this paper suggests that BIM is in transition, adopting Construction 5.0 to become BIM 4.
Abstract: This paper presents a systematic review of Construction 4.0 in the context of the building information modeling (BIM) 4.0 premise. It comprises a review of the industry in the pre-fourth industrial revolution (4IR) age, the current and anticipated development of the 4IR, Construction 4.0’s origin and applications, and the synergy of its main drivers, i.e., the synergy of BIM with the internet of things (IoT) and big data (BD). The main aim of the paper is to determine the Construction 4.0 drivers and to what extent are they initialized by the 4IR, their development and their synergy with BIM, and the direction of BIM’s implementation in the construction phase. It was found that the main drivers of Construction 4.0, which originated from the 4IR, are BIM, IoT, and BD, but with specific implementations. The results of the analysis of BIM with IoT and/or BD revealed that the integrative approaches combining the aforementioned drivers show signs of project enhancement by providing significant benefits, such as improved real-time monitoring, data exchange and analysis, construction planning, and modeling. Furthermore, it was revealed that the main drivers are mostly applied in the project’s preconstruction phase, which is continuously developing and becoming more automated. The state-of-the-art review presented in this paper suggests that BIM is in transition, adopting Construction 4.0 to become BIM 4.0.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main conclusions found in this study were: the vast majority of research uses subjective measures and/or a combination of methods to evaluate productivity; performance/productivity can be attained within an ampler temperature range; few studies present ways of calculating productivity.
Abstract: The thermal environment is one of the main factors that influence thermal comfort and, consequently, the productivity of occupants inside buildings. Throughout the years, research has described the connection between thermal comfort and productivity. Mathematical models have been established in the attempt to predict changes in productivity according to thermal variations in the environment. Some of these models have failed for a number of reasons, including the understanding of the effect that several environment variables have had on performance. From this context, a systematic literature review was carried out with the aim of verifying the connection between thermal comfort and productivity and the combinations of different thermal and personal factors that can have an effect on productivity. A hundred and twenty-eight articles were found which show a connection between productivity and some thermal comfort variables. By means of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 articles were selected for a final analysis. The main conclusions found in this study were: (i) the vast majority of research uses subjective measures and/or a combination of methods to evaluate productivity; (ii) performance/productivity can be attained within an ampler temperature range; (iii) few studies present ways of calculating productivity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper critically reviews the achievements and limitations of the current research onStructural optimization, which provide guidelines for future research on structural optimization in the field of civil engineering.
Abstract: Since tremendous resources are consumed in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, the sustainability and efficiency in this field have received increasing concern in the past few decades. With the advent and development of computational tools and information technologies, structural optimization based on mathematical computation has become one of the most commonly used methods for the sustainable and efficient design in the field of civil engineering. However, despite the wide attention of researchers, there has not been a critical review of the recent research progresses on structural optimization yet. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to comprehensively review the previous research on structural optimization, provide a thorough analysis on the optimization objectives and their temporal and spatial trends, optimization process, and summarize the current research limitations and recommendations of future work. The paper first introduces the significance of sustainability and efficiency in the AEC industry as well as the background of this review work. Then, relevant articles are retrieved and selected, followed by a statistical analysis of the selected articles. Thereafter, the selected articles are analyzed regarding the optimization objectives and their temporal and spatial trends. The four major steps in the structural optimization process, including structural analysis and modelling, formulation of optimization problems, optimization techniques, and computational tools and design platforms, are also reviewed and discussed in detail based on the collected articles. Finally, research gaps of the current works and potential directions of future works are proposed. This paper critically reviews the achievements and limitations of the current research on structural optimization, which provide guidelines for future research on structural optimization in the field of civil engineering.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review analysis on occupant behavior and different modeling approaches using the Scopus and Science Direct databases focuses on the current understanding of occupant behavior, existing behavior modeling approaches and their limitations, and key influential parameters on building energy conservation.
Abstract: Energy consumption in buildings depends on several physical factors, including its physical characteristics, various building services systems/appliances used, and the outdoor environment. However, the occupants’ behavior that determines and regulates the building energy conservation also plays a critical role in the buildings’ energy performance. Compared to physical factors, there are relatively fewer studies on occupants’ behavior. This paper reports a systematic review analysis on occupant behavior and different modeling approaches using the Scopus and Science Direct databases. The comprehensive review study focuses on the current understanding of occupant behavior, existing behavior modeling approaches and their limitations, and key influential parameters on building energy conservation. Finally, the study identifies six significant research gaps for future development: occupant-centered space layout deployment; occupant behavior must be understood in the context of developing or low-income economies; there are higher numbers of quantitative occupant behavior studies than qualitative; the extensive use of survey or secondary data and the lack of real data used in model validation; behavior studies are required for diverse categories building; building information modeling (BIM) integration with existing occupant behavior modeling/simulation. These checklists of the gaps are beneficial for researchers to accomplish the future research in the built environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic review and bibliometric analysis focusing on a juxtaposition of sustainable, innovative and affordable housing concepts was carried out based on the relevant literature, which led to the identification and clustering of CSFs for these housing concepts at individual levels and as a collective (SIAH).
Abstract: The actualization of affordable housing remains a challenge. This challenge is exacerbated by the increasing societal demand for the incorporation of sustainability principles into such housing types to improve levels of occupant health and well-being whilst avouching the desired levels of affordability. Innovative technologies and practices have been described as beneficial to the effectuation of sustainable affordable housing. However, knowledge concerning the deployment of innovative technologies and practices in sustainable affordable housing (sustainable, innovative, affordable housing—SIAH) delivery remains nascent. Consequently, there is a lack of a common ontology among stakeholders concerning how to realize SIAH. This study aims to contribute toward the development of this body of knowledge through the establishment of the critical success factors (CSFs) for effective SIAH implementation. To achieve this objective, a systematic review and bibliometric analysis focusing on a juxtaposition of sustainable, innovative and affordable housing concepts was carried out based on the relevant literature. This led to the identification and clustering of CSFs for these housing concepts at individual levels and as a collective (SIAH). The findings of the study consisted of the establishment of four distinct yet interrelated facets through which SIAH can be achieved holistically, namely, housing design, house element, housing production method and housing technology. A total of 127 CSFs were found to be aligned to these facets, subsequently clustered, and conclusively used for the development of a SIAH CSF framework. The most frequently occurring CSFs with predominant interconnections were the utilization of energy-efficient systems/fittings, tenure security, a comfortable and healthy indoor environment, affordable housing price in relation to income and using water-efficient systems/fittings CSFs, and establishing the emergent SIAH CSF framework. The framework in this study is useful in the documentation of SIAH features for construction projects and further studies into SIAH CSFs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results of the study show that hybrid approaches are a promising line of research in the field of evaluation and urban design, applied to cultural heritage.
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to illustrate, through a case study, a multilevel decision-making process able to support the decision maker in optimizing investment choices for the efficient allocation of public resources, with specific reference to recovery and adaptation to the reuse of unused historical public heritage. During the evaluation process, two methods in particular were combined according to a multiphase design: (i) a multi-criteria analysis to identify the Highest and Best Use among alternative reuse scenarios and (ii) a Discounted Cash Flow Analysis to support verification of the financial feasibility of the investment, in the hypothesis of an enhancement concession in a public–private partnership. Each method was applied in parallel to the evolution of the different design scenarios. The results of the study show that hybrid approaches are a promising line of research in the field of evaluation and urban design, applied to cultural heritage.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Future research on the topic should conceptualize smart cities as an emergent socio-techno phenomenon, a novel review framework that analyzes how smart city infrastructure is related to the urbanization process while presenting developments in IoT sensor networks, big data analysis of the generated information, and green construction.
Abstract: In recent years, there has been significant focus on smart cities, on how they operate and develop, and on their technical and social challenges. The importance of infrastructure as a major pillar of support in cities, in addition to the rapid developments in smart city research, necessitate an up-to-date review of smart cities’ infrastructure issues and challenges. Traditionally, a majority of studies have focused on traffic control and management, transport network design, smart grid initiatives, IoT (Internet of Things) integration, big data, land use development, and how urbanization processes impact land use in the long run. The work presented herein proposes a novel review framework that analyzes how smart city infrastructure is related to the urbanization process while presenting developments in IoT sensor networks, big data analysis of the generated information, and green construction. A classification framework was proposed to give insights on new initiatives regarding smart city infrastructure through answering the following questions: (i) What are the various dimensions on which smart city infrastructure research focuses? (ii) What are the themes and classes associated with these dimensions? (iii) What are the main shortcomings in current approaches, and what would be a good research agenda for the future? A bibliometric analysis was conducted, presenting cluster maps that can be used to understand different research trends and refine further searches. A bibliographic analysis was then followed, presenting a review of the most relevant studies over the last five years. The method proposed serves to stress where future research into understanding smart systems, their implementation and functionality would be best directed. This research concluded that future research on the topic should conceptualize smart cities as an emergent socio-techno phenomenon.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report and visualize the initial analytical results of 60 existing PED projects in Europe about their main characteristics, including geographical information, spatial-temporal scale, energy concepts, building archetypes, finance source, keywords, finance model and challenges/barriers.
Abstract: Positive Energy District (PED) is recently proposed to be an integral part of a district/urban energy system with a corresponding positive influence. Thus, the PED concept could become the key solution to energy system transition towards carbon neutrality. This paper intends to report and visualize the initial analytical results of 60 existing PED projects in Europe about their main characteristics, including geographical information, spatial-temporal scale, energy concepts, building archetypes, finance source, keywords, finance model and challenges/barriers. As a result, a dedicated date base is developed and it could be further expanded/interoperated through an interactive dashboard. It is found that Norway and Italy have the most PED projects so far. Many PED projects state a ‘yearly’ time scale while nearly 1/3 projects have less than 0.2 km2 area in terms of spatial scale. The private investment together with regional/national grants is commonly observed. A mixture of residential, commercial and office/social buildings are found. The most common renewable energy systems include solar energy, district heating/cooling, wind and geothermal energy. Challenges and barriers for PED related projects vary from the planning stage to the implementation stage. Furthermore, the text mining approach is applied to examine the keywords or concentrations of PED-related projects at different stages. These preliminary results are expected to give useful guidance for future PED definitions and proposals of ‘reference PED’.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic literature review was performed to classify the strategies to accomplish this aim, followed by a questionnaire survey of 129 construction project stakeholders, which revealed that workshops, lectures, and conference events are used to enhance public awareness and better information on the costs and benefits of sustainable materials.
Abstract: In terms of sustainable growth, Malaysia’s construction industry faces significant challenges, such as construction costs and lack of awareness. To meet these challenges, it is essential to integrate building information modeling (BIM) and sustainable development. As a result, this study aimed to establish strategies for adopting BIM in sustainable building projects. A systematic literature review was performed to classify the strategies to accomplish this aim, followed by a questionnaire survey of 129 construction project stakeholders. Mean score and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted to explore the detailed influence of BIM adoption strategies in sustainable building projects. The results revealed that “workshops, lectures, and conference events are used to enhance public awareness” and “better information on the costs and benefits of sustainable materials” and “strengthened sustainable development” were the most essential strategies to boost sustainable growth in building projects. Furthermore, EFA was conducted to undertake the group analysis, namely, to identify the standardization-related strategy, economic-related strategy, awareness-related strategy, and environment-related strategy. This study paves the way for future scholars, policymakers, and practitioners to investigate the limitations of future studies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study aims to validate a BIM-based framework to streamline the energy analysis of Portuguese buildings, based on the method of the national regulation for the thermal performance of residential buildings, and link the results of the energy simulation with a Building Sustainability Assessment method—SBToolPT-H.
Abstract: This research was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology through the Regional Operation Programme of North (grant number SFRH/BD/145735/2019).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and reinforced with steel fibers was evaluated. And the results revealed that RCA replacement decreased the compressive strength of plain concrete mixtures with more pronounced reductions being perceived at higher replacement percentages.
Abstract: This study evaluates the performance of alkali-activated slag-fly ash blended concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) and reinforced with steel fibers. Two blends of concrete with ground granulated blast furnace slag-to-fly ash ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 were used. Natural aggregates were substituted with RCA, while macro steel fibers with 35 mm of length and aspect ratio of 65 were incorporated in RCA-based mixtures at various volume fractions. Fine aggregates were in the form of desert dune sand. Mechanical and durability characteristics were investigated. Experimental results revealed that RCA replacement decreased the compressive strength of plain concrete mixtures with more pronounced reductions being perceived at higher replacement percentages. Mixtures made with 30%, 70%, and 100% RCA could be produced with limited loss in the design compressive strength upon incorporating 1%, 2%, and 2% steel fibers, by volume, respectively. In turn, splitting tensile strength was comparable to the NA-based control while adding at least 1% steel fiber, by volume. Moreover, higher water absorption and capillary sorptivity and lower ultrasonic pulse velocity, bulk resistivity, and abrasion resistance were reported during RCA replacement. Meanwhile, incorporation of steel fibers densified the concrete and enhanced its resistance to abrasive forces, water permeation, and water transport. Analytical regression models were developed to correlate hardened concrete properties to the 28-day cylinder compressive strength.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed study of the damages and collapses suffered by various masonry churches in the aftermath of the seismic sequence of Central Italy in 2016 is presented, where the damages are first analyzed and then compared with the numerical data obtained through 3D simulations with eigenfrequency and then nonlinear static analyses (i.e., pushover).
Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study of the damages and collapses suffered by various masonry churches in the aftermath of the seismic sequence of Central Italy in 2016. The damages will first be analyzed and then compared with the numerical data obtained through 3D simulations with eigenfrequency and then nonlinear static analyses (i.e., pushover). The main purposes of this study are: (i) to create an adequately consistent sensitivity study on several definite case studies to obtain an insight into the role played by geometry—which is always unique when referred to churches—and by irregularities; (ii) validate or address the applicability limits of the more widespread nonlinear approach, widely recommended by the Italian Technical Regulations. Pushover analyses are conducted assuming that the masonry behaves as a nonlinear material with different tensile and compressive strengths. The consistent number of case studies investigated will show how conventional static approaches can identify, albeit in a qualitative way, the most critical macro-elements that usually trigger both global and local collapses, underlining once again how the phenomena are affected by the geometry of stones and bricks, the texture of the wall face, and irregularities in the plan and elevation and in addition to hypotheses made on the continuity between orthogonal walls.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performance of roof/façade-based BIPV systems and the affecting parameters on cooling/heating loads of buildings are reviewed and an overview of different categories of B IPV is provided, presenting the recent developments and sufficient references.
Abstract: Advances in building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems for residential and commercial purposes are set to minimize overall energy requirements and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The BIPV design considerations entail energy infrastructure, pertinent renewable energy sources, and energy efficiency provisions. In this work, the performance of roof/facade-based BIPV systems and the affecting parameters on cooling/heating loads of buildings are reviewed. Moreover, this work provides an overview of different categories of BIPV, presenting the recent developments and sufficient references, and supporting more successful implementations of BIPV for various globe zones. A number of available technologies decide the best selections, and make easy configuration of the BIPV, avoiding any difficulties, and allowing flexibility of design in order to adapt to local environmental conditions, and are adequate to important considerations, such as building codes, building structures and loads, architectural components, replacement and maintenance, energy resources, and all associated expenditure. The passive and active effects of both air-based and water-based BIPV systems have great effects on the cooling and heating loads and thermal comfort and, hence, on the electricity consumption.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the recent literature on skill and labour shortages in the labour market with special emphasis on the construction sector in the European Union Member States, foreseeing the Construction 4.0 era.
Abstract: This paper reviews the recent literature on skill and labour shortages in the labour market with special emphasis on the construction sector in the European Union Member States, foreseeing the Construction 4.0 era. The free movement of people is one of the rights of all citizens of the EU which also includes the free movement of workers. Labour shortages in the EU are expected to increase in the future due to a declining population and an ageing workforce. In order to recognize and forecast labour shortages, EU Member states use a variety of instruments but they do not answer as to whether it is possible to use migrant labour to appease those shortages. There are several systems used to classify labour shortages in the EU Member states. Most of the countries classify labour shortages in relation to different sectors or occupation groups as well as by skill levels, but in some Member States, classification is made according to the type of employment. Instruments used to measure labour shortages significantly differ from country to country. Several criteria are used for creating lists of shortage occupations and most of the criteria include demand side and supply side criteria. A majority of the Member States are facing labour and skill shortages in various sectors and the construction sector is not an exception. As total employment in the construction sector decreased, so did the share of employed migrants. Labour shortages in the construction sector can be eased by the availability of a labour supply willing to accept unqualified and low-paying jobs. The construction sector seeks low-, medium-, and high-skilled individuals and is most likely the sector where most of the incoming migrants will be working, which has an impact on the development and implementation dynamic of Construction 4.0.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors applied a mixed-method approach (both quantitative and qualitative) to identify and prioritize their most significant social impacts, including anti-social behavior, social cohesion, and lack of social contact with neighbors.
Abstract: There are numerous risks associated with high-rise buildings, which not only affect stakeholders during the design and construction phase but also impact the occupants and the surrounding environment during the post-occupancy phase. While previous studies examined the risks of high-rise building construction, less attention has been paid to the diverse impacts of high-rise buildings on their occupants. To fill this gap, this study applied a mixed-method approach (both quantitative and qualitative) to identify and prioritize their most significant social impacts. First, the possible social impacts of these buildings were identified via a literature review. The interrelationships among the identified factors were then determined by drawing on the opinions of relevant experts. Next, through the quantitative phase, the high-rise residential buildings of District 22 of Tehran were considered as a case study, and according to the opinions of 230 chosen residents, the level of influence of factors on one another was determined. The DEMATEL approach was employed subsequently to analyze the data and identify the most important and influential factors. Finally, through the qualitative phase, in-depth interviews were conducted with residents to explain and validate the results. The most significant and influential impacts identified by this study were anti-social behavior, lack of social cohesion, and lack of social contact with neighbors. This study assists designers and policymakers to adopt strategies that could mitigate the identified impacts and improve occupants’ social wellbeing more efficiently.

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TL;DR: A remote experimental methodology is proposed to explore and quantify the prevailing human reactions and psychological comfort trends for building occupants, with a focus on end-users exposed to structural glass environments.
Abstract: For engineering applications, human comfort in the built environment depends on several objective aspects that can be mathematically controlled and limited to reference performance indicators. Typical examples include structural, energy and thermal issues, and others. Human reactions, however, are also sensitive to a multitude of aspects that can be associated with design concepts of the so-called “emotional architecture”, through which subjective feelings, nervous states and emotions of end-users are evoked by constructional details. The interactions of several objective and subjective parameters can make the “optimal” building design challenging, and this is especially the case for new technical concepts, constructional materials and techniques. In this paper, a remote experimental methodology is proposed to explore and quantify the prevailing human reactions and psychological comfort trends for building occupants, with a focus on end-users exposed to structural glass environments. Major advantages were taken from the use of virtual visual stimuli and facial expression automatic recognition analysis, and from the active support of 30 volunteers. As shown, while glass is often used in constructions, several intrinsic features (transparency, brittleness, etc.) are responsible for subjective feelings that can affect the overall psychological comfort of users. In this regard, the use of virtual built environments and facial expression analysis to quantify human reactions can represent an efficient system to support the building design process.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used an eight-point loading scheme that simulated a load uniformly distributed over the beam span and found that failure of wood composite beams had a plastic nature and occurred only along normal sections This excluded the possibility of brittle fracture from shear stresses and ensured the operational reliability of structures as a whole.
Abstract: Wooden multi-span beams with steel reinforcement were studied experimentally on a stationary stand using an eight-point loading scheme that simulated a load uniformly distributed over the beam span The studies were carried out on beams with a span of 48 m with a cross-sectional area of 40 mm × 80 mm, reinforced in the stretched zones of the cross-section with rods made of hot-rolled steel reinforcement of A400 class The rational zones for the location of reinforcements in the tensioned and compressed zones of the beams were determined The rational placements of reinforcement in the support and span zones was based on the numerical simulation of the volumetric stress state calculated using the finite element method It was experimentally confirmed that the failure of wood composite beams had a plastic nature and occurred only along normal sections This excluded the possibility of brittle fracture from shear stresses and ensured the operational reliability of structures as a whole It was shown that the proposed rational reinforcement of wooden beams increased their bearing capacity by 175% and reduced bearing deformability by 85% The results obtained indicated high efficiency of the application of the developed method of reinforcement in beams of roofs and floors of buildings

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TL;DR: In this article, a pre-demolition waste audit was performed for an unused shopping center building in the town Snina in Slovakia and a comparison of economic parameters (waste disposal costs and transport costs) of the recommended CDW management was performed.
Abstract: The issue of sustainability has long been the subject of interest in architecture engineering and the construction sector. All three aspects of sustainability—economic, environmental, and social—can be affected through appropriate construction waste management. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) is one of the largest worldwide waste streams, therefore, it is given great attention by all stakeholders (investors, contractors, authorities, etc.). Research studies show that one of the main barriers to insufficient CDW recovery is inadequate policies and legal frameworks to manage CDW. It is also one of European Union’s (EU) environmental priorities. The aim of the article was to confirm the economic potential of construction and demolition waste audit processing through a case study. A pre-demolition waste audit was processed for an unused shopping center building in the town Snina in Slovakia. Subsequently, a comparison of economic parameters (waste disposal costs and transport costs) of the recommended CDW management was performed. This comparison confirmed the economic benefits of environmentally friendly construction waste management methods according to the waste audit results, which would also increase the sustainability of construction projects. Additionally, the cost parameters of selected waste disposal methods could be another dimension of building information modeling.

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TL;DR: This study concludes that 4-D BIM-enabled VR visualization can improve information flow and knowledge exchange in a multilingual environment where jobsite crew do not speak a common language and cannot understand written safety instructions, manuals, and documents in any common language due to linguistic diversity.
Abstract: Effective safety management is a key aspect of managing construction projects. Current safety management practices are heavily document-oriented that rely on historical data to identify potential hazards at a construction job site. Such document-bound safety practices are prone to interpretative and communication errors in multilingual construction environments, such as in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Applications of Building Information Models (BIM) and Virtual Reality (VR) are claimed to improve hazards identification and communication in comparison to 2-D static drawings by simulating job-site conditions and safety implications and thus can interactively educate the job-site crew to enhance their understanding of the on-site conditions and safety requirements. This paper presents findings of a case study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 4-Dimensional (4-D) BIM and VR in simulating job-site safety instructions for a multilingual construction crew at a project in the UAE. 4-D BIM-enabled VR simulations, in lieu of the Abu Dhabi Occupational Safety and Health Center (OSHAD) code of practice, were developed and tested through risk assessment and safety training exercises for the job-site crew. The results showed a significant improvement in the job-site crew’s ability to recognize a hazard, understand safety protocols, and incorporate proactive risk response in mitigating the hazards. This study concludes that 4-D BIM-enabled VR visualization can improve information flow and knowledge exchange in a multilingual environment where jobsite crew do not speak a common language and cannot understand written safety instructions, manuals, and documents in any common language due to linguistic diversity. The findings of this study are useful in communicating safety instructions, and safety training, in the UAE, as well as in international projects.