Showing papers in "Bulletin of Materials Science in 2011"
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reported the crystallization of both α and γ-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films by varying preparation temperature using DMSO solvent.
Abstract: The γ-phase poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films are usually prepared using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent, regardless of preparation temperature. Here we report the crystallization of both α and γ-phase PVDF films by varying preparation temperature using DMSO solvent. The γ-phase PVDF films were annealed at 70, 90, 110, 130 and 160°C for five hours. The changes in the phase contents in the PVDF at different annealing conditions have been described. When thin films were annealed at 90°C for 5 h, maximum percentage of β-phase appears in PVDF thin films. The γ-phase PVDF films completely converted to α-phase when they were annealed at 160°C for 5 h. From X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman studies, it is confirmed that the PVDF thin films, cast from solution and annealed at 90°C for 5 h, have maximum percentage of β-phase. The β-phase PVDF shows a remnant polarization of 4.9 μC/cm2 at 1400 kV/cm at 1 Hz.
TL;DR: In this paper, the chitosan-silver oxide encapsulated nanocomposite film was prepared by solution casting method and the prepared film was characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal studies, and UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Abstract: The chitosan–silver oxide encapsulated nanocomposite film was prepared by solution casting method. The prepared film was characterized by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal studies, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The elemental composition of the film was studied by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The antibacterial activity of the composite film against pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured by agar diffusion method. Our observations suggest that chitosan as biomaterial based nanocomposite film containing silver oxide has an excellent antibacterial ability for food packaging applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used P-wave velocity test to predict the geotechnical properties of nine different rock types in the laboratory and their mineralogical composition examined using thin section analysis.
Abstract: P-wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory conditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and effective porosity, slake durability index, saturated and dry density of rock using P-wave velocity (Vp). For this purpose geotechnical properties of nine different rock types were determined in the laboratory and their mineralogical composition examined using thin section analysis. Utilizing the generated data, sets of empirical equations were developed between Vp and relevant quantified rock parameters. The validity of the obtained empirical equations was confirmed using statistical analysis. It is evident that rock texture and mineralogical compositions affect the geotechnical properties of rock materials. Therefore, the best relationship obtained between both E and UCS with Vp in the correlation coefficient of 0·92 and 0·95 in that order. It is concluded that Vp could be practically used for estimating the measured rock properties except dry and saturated density of rocks (r = 0·58 and 0·46 respectively).
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of annealing temperature on the optical, structural, morphological and gas sensing properties of the SnO2 thin films were studied and discussed and discussed.
Abstract: In this work, SnO2 thin films were deposited onto alumina substrates at 350°C by spray pyrolysis technique. The films were studied after annealing in air at temperatures 550°C, 750°C and 950°C for 30 min. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The grain size was observed to increase with the increase in annealing temperature. Absorbance spectra were taken to examine the optical properties and bandgap energy was observed to decrease with the increase in annealing temperature. These films were tested in various gases at different operating temperatures ranging from 50–450°C. The film showed maximum sensitivity to H 2S gas. The H2S sensing properties of the SnO2 films were investigated with different annealing temperatures and H 2S gas concentrations. It was found that the annealing temperature significantly affects the sensitivity of the SnO2 to the H 2S. The sensitivity was found to be maximum for the film annealed at temperature 950°C at an operating temperature of 100°C. The quick response and fast recovery are the main features of this film. The effect of annealing temperature on the optical, structural, morphological and gas sensing properties of the films were studied and discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of the CaO and MgO modifiers when incorporated to the 3D silica structure was explored using IR and Raman spectroscopies.
Abstract: IR and Raman spectroscopies have been utilized to study the structure and vibrational modes of sol–gel-derived binary silicate glasses. The present study is motivated by the immense geological significance and focuses on the MO–SiO 2 (M = Ca, Mg) binary systems in an effort to unveil the role of the CaO and MgO modifiers when incorporated to the 3D silica structure. Glasses in the composition range x =0, 0·1, 0·2, 0·3 and 0·4 prepared by the sol–gel method were compared with the corresponding glasses formed by appropriate mixing of SiO 2 and MO powders through melting and fast cooling. The vibrational spectra of the sol–gel-derived glasses have revealed considerable changes in relative intensities as a function of the MO mole fraction. These changes signify structural modifications on the silica network. The population of the Q 3 species was found to increase for both modified silicate systems. The rate of increase is more pronounced in the CaO–SiO 2 glasses. The extent of network depolymerization in the porous glass is higher at the same content of alkaline earth oxide compared to the bulk glass. The results are indicative of a more ‘defective’ nature of the sol–gel glasses compared to the corresponding melt-quenched ones.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used sol-gel combustion and co-precipitation techniques to produce nickel ferrite nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization and hysteresis.
Abstract: Nickel ferrite nanoparticles of very small size were prepared by sol-gel combustion and co-precipitation techniques. At the same annealing temperature sol-gel derived particles had bigger crystallite size. In both methods, crystallite size of the particles increased with annealing temperature. Sol-gel derived nickel ferrite particles were found to be of almost spherical shape and moderate particle size with a narrow size distribution; while co-precipitation derived particles had irregular shape and very small particle size with a wide size distribution. Nickel ferrite particles produced by sol-gel method exhibited more purity. Sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles were found to be of high saturation magnetization and hysteresis. Co-precipitation derived nickel ferrite particles, annealed at 400°C exhibited superparamagnetic nature with small saturation magnetization. Saturation magnetization increased with annealing temperature in both the methods. At the annealing temperature of 600°C, co-precipitation derived particles also became ferrimagnetic.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of aging on copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of copper plate in water was studied and it was found that the aged nanoparticles converted into Cu@Cu2O nanostructure.
Abstract: Effect of aging on copper nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of copper plate in water was studied. By characterization studies of the aged nanoparticles, it is found that copper nanoparticles converted into Cu@Cu2O nanostructure. The synthesized nanomaterial is characterized with UV-Visible absorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic techniques. TEM image shows that the aged nanoparticles get assembled into cactus like structure and are spherical in shape with average diameter 7 nm and dispersion 2 nm. XRD and FTIR spectrum confirm the formation of Cu@Cu2O in the aged sample. Raman spectrum also confirms the presence of Cu2O nanoparticles. PL spectrum of the aged nanoparticles shows a direct allowed transition with bandgap energy of 2·24 eV. The mechanism for synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles and formation of self-assembly of nanoparticles is also discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of various methods of synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with emphasis on the biological method is presented, where the main aim is to enlist and compare various methods for the synthesis of uniform nanoparticles.
Abstract: Nanoparticles are the materials having dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. They exhibit a high surface/volume ratio leading to different properties far different from those of the bulk materials. The development of uniform nanoparticles has been intensively pursued because of their technological and fundamental scientific importance. A number of chemical methods are available and are extensively used, but these are often energy intensive and employ toxic chemicals. An alternative approach for the synthesis of uniform nanoparticles is the biological route that occurs at ambient temperature, pressure and at neutral pH. The main aim of this review is to enlist and compare various methods of synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with emphasis on the biological method. Biologically induced and controlled mineralization mechanisms are the two modes through which the micro-organisms synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles. In biologically induced mineralization (BIM) mode, the environmental factors like pH, pO2, pCO2, redox potential, temperature etc govern the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. In contrast, biologically controlled mineralization (BCM) process initiates the micro-organism itself to control the synthesis. BIM can be observed in the Fe(III) reducing bacterial species of Shewanella, Geobacter, Thermoanaerobacter, and sulphate reducing bacterial species of Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, whereas BCM mode can be observed in the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) like Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, M. gryphiswaldense and sulphate-reducing magnetic bacteria (Desulfovibrio magneticus). Magnetite crystals formed by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria are epicellular, poorly crystalline, irregular in shapes, having a size range of 10–50 nm super-paramagnetic particles, with a saturation magnetization value ranging from 75–77 emu/g and are not aligned in chains. Magnetite crystals produced by MTB have uniform species-specific morphologies and sizes, which are mostly unknown from inorganic systems. The unusual characteristics of magnetosome particles have attracted a great interdisciplinary interest and inspired numerous ideas for their biotechnological applications. The nanoparticles synthesized through biological method are uniform with size ranging from 5 to 100 nm, which can potentially be used for various applications.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on tensile, flexural and impact properties of unidirectional Roystonea regia natural-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites which are partially biodegradable was investigated.
Abstract: The present paper investigates the effect of fibre content and alkali treatment on tensile, flexural and impact properties of unidirectional Roystonea regia natural-fibre-reinforced epoxy composites which are partially biodegradable. The reinforcement Roystonea regia (royal palm) fibre was collected from the foliage of locally available royal palm tree through the process of water retting and mechanical extraction. The poor adhesion between fibre and matrix is commonly encountered problem in natural-fibre-reinforced composites. To overcome this problem, specific physical and chemical treatments were suggested for surface modification of fibres by investigators. Alkali treatment is one of the simple and effective surface modification techniques which is widely used in natural fibre composites. In the present study both untreated and alkali-treated fibres were used as reinforcement in Roystonea regia epoxy composites and the tensile, flexural and impact properties were determined at different fibre contents. The alkali treatment found to be effective in improving the tensile and flexural properties while the impact strength decreased.
TL;DR: In this paper, an investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fibre abundantly available in India, and their mechanical and machinability characteristics were studied.
Abstract: An investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fibre abundantly available in India. Coir-polyester composites were prepared and their mechanical and machinability characteristics were studied. The short coir-fibre-reinforced composites exhibited the tensile, flexural and impact strength of 16·1709 MPa, 29·2611 MPa and 46·1740 J/m, respectively. The regression equations were developed and optimized for studying drilling characteristics of coir-polyester composites using the Taguchi approach. A drill bit diameter of 6 mm, spindle speed of 600 rpm and feed rate of 0·3 mm/rev gave the minimum value of thrust force, torque and tool wear in drilling analysis.
TL;DR: In this article, the phase formation of zinc aluminate nanoparticles was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermogravimetric analysis, and the optical bandgap of the nanoparticles were determined by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible range.
Abstract: Zinc aluminate nanoparticles with average particle size of 40 nm were synthesized using a sol–gel combustion method. X-ray diffractometry result was analysed by Rietveld refinement method to establish the phase purity of the material. Different stages of phase formation of the material during the synthesis were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermogravimetric analysis. Particle size was determined with transmission electron microscopy and the optical bandgap of the nanoparticles was determined by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible range. Dielectric permittivity and a.c. conductivity of the material were measured for frequencies from 100 kHz to 8 MHz in the temperature range of 30–120°C. The presence of Maxwell–Wagner type interfacial polarization was found to exist in the material and hopping of electron by means of quantum mechanical tunneling is attributed as the reason for the observed a.c. conductivity.
TL;DR: In this article, pH dependent evolution of tungsten oxide (WO3) nanostructures along with physical characteristics is reported along with X-ray diffraction, together with transmission electron microscopic studies have revealed formation of regular polyhedral nanocrystalline structures and fractals.
Abstract: In this work, pH dependent evolution of tungsten oxide (WO3) nanostructures is being reported along with physical characteristics. The synthesis was carried out via an inexpensive solvothermal cum chemical reduction route, with sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (C19H42NBr) as main reactants. The X-ray diffraction, together with transmission electron microscopic studies have revealed formation of regular polyhedral nanocrystalline structures and fractals as one goes from higher pH (= 5·5) to lower pH (= 2) values. The average crystallite size, as calculated through Williamson–Hall plots, was varied within 2·8–6·8 nm for different pH samples. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals in-plane bending vibration δ (W–OH), observable at ∼1630 cm − 1 and strong stretching ν (W–O–W) located at ∼814 cm − 1. Raman spectroscopy has divulged WO3 Raman active optical phonon modes positioned at ∼717 and 805 cm − 1. The thermochromic and photochromic properties of the nanoscale WO3 sample prepared at pH = 5·5, are also highlighted.
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural and electrical properties of multi-walled CNTs-polymer (polyacrylamide) composites with different loadings were investigated.
Abstract: In the present study, we report the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a new natural precursor: castor oil. The CNTs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis of castor oil-ferrocene solution at 850°C under an Ar atmosphere. We also report the synthesis of carbon nitrogen (C-N) nanotubes using castor oil-ferrocene-ammonia precursor. The as-grown CNTs and C-N nanotubes were characterized through scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Graphitic nanofibres (GNFs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition of acetylene (C2H2) gas using Ni catalyst at 600°C. As-grown GNFs reveal both planar and helical morphology. We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs)-polymer (polyacrylamide (PAM)) composites. The MWNTs-PAM composites were prepared using as purified, with ball milling and functionalized MWNTs by solution cast technique and characterized through SEM. A comparative study has been made on the electrical property of these MWNTs-PAM composites with different MWNTs loadings. It is shown that the ball milling and functionalization of MWNTs improves the dispersion of MWNTs into the polymer matrix. Enhanced electrical conductivity was observed for the MWNTs-PAM composites. Graphene samples were prepared by thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide. XRD analysis confirms the formation of graphene.
TL;DR: Aqueous colloids of graphene oxide nanosheets were produced from exfoliation of graphite oxide using a magnetic stirrer and heat treatment in the absence of ultrasonication.
Abstract: Aqueous colloids of graphene oxide nanosheets were produced from exfoliation of graphite oxide using a magnetic stirrer and heat treatment in the absence of ultrasonication. Laser particle measurements showed that the particle size distribution of graphite oxide dispersed in de-ionized water was significantly influenced by treatment time indicating an increasing exfoliation level of graphite oxide. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that single-layer graphene oxide nanosheets with a thickness of ~1 nm were obtained after 72 h of magnetic stirring and heat treatment. These findings provide a new methodology for preparation of single-layer graphene oxide nanosheet colloids.
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of nanosize reinforcements on mechanical milling stages was explored and the results showed that the addition of boron carbide particles accelerate the milling process, leading to a faster work hardening rate and fracture of aluminum matrix.
Abstract: Boron carbide nanoparticles were produced using commercially available boron carbide powder (0·8 μm). Mechanical milling was used to synthesize Al nanostructured powder in a planetary ball-mill under argon atmosphere up to 20 h. The same process was applied for Al–4 wt % B4C nanocomposite powders to explore the role of nanosize reinforcements on mechanical milling stages. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis as well as apparent density measurements were used to optimize the milling time needed for completion of the mechanical milling process. The results show that the addition of boron carbide particles accelerate the milling process, leading to a faster work hardening rate and fracture of aluminum matrix. FE-SEM images show that distribution of boron carbide particles in aluminum matrix reaches a full homogeneity when steady state takes place. The better distribution of reinforcement throughout the matrix would increase hardness of the powder. To study the compressibility of milled powder, modified heckel equation was used to consider the pressure effect on yield strength as well as reinforcing role of B4C particles. For better distribution of reinforcement throughout the matrix, r, modified heckel equation was used to consider the pressure effect on yield strength as well as reinforcing role of B4C particles.
TL;DR: In this paper, structural characterizations of wurtzite zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanostructures synthesized by vapour-liquid-solid technique (VLS) were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses.
Abstract: Structural characterizations of wurtzite zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanostructures synthesized by vapour–liquid–solid technique (VLS) were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Spectral dependence of photoluminescence (PL) was also carried out for optical characterization. PL results indicate that the bandgap energy of bulk ZnS which is 3·68 eV at room temperature changes from 3·7 eV to 3·72 eV depending on the size of the structures. We also supported these results by calculating the bandgap energies theoretically with using the infinite potential well approximation for 1D structures.
TL;DR: In this paper, the ionic conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) based solid polymer blend electrolytes with magnesium nitrate have been prepared by the solution cast technique Impedance spectroscopic technique has been used, to characterize these polymer electrolytes.
Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–polyethylene glycol (PEG) based solid polymer blend electrolytes with magnesium nitrate have been prepared by the solution cast technique Impedance spectroscopic technique has been used, to characterize these polymer electrolytes Complex impedance analysis was used to calculate bulk resistance of the polymer electrolytes The ac-impedance data reveal that the ionic conductivity of PVA–PEG–Mg(NO3)2 system is changed with the concentration of magnesium nitrate, maximum conductivity of 9·63 × 10 − 5 S/cm at room temperature was observed for the system of PVA–PEG–Mg(NO3)2 (35–35–30) However, ionic conductivity of the above system increased with the increase of temperature, and the highest conductivity of 1·71 × 10 − 3 S/cm was observed at 100°C The effect of ionic conductivity of polymer blend electrolytes was measured by varying the temperature ranging from 303 to 373 K The variation of imaginary and real parts of dielectric constant with frequency was studied
TL;DR: In this article, a simple solvothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate as a precursor was used to obtain nanometer-sized α-Fe2O3 particles.
Abstract: Nanometer-sized α-Fe2O3 particles have been prepared by a simple solvothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate as a precursor. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transition electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermal analysis (TG-DTA). XRD indicates that the product is single-phase α-Fe2O3 with rhombohedral structure. Bundles of acicular shaped nanoparticles are seen in TEM images with an aspect ratio ∼ 12; typically 8–12 nm wide and over 150 nm long. The α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles posses a high thermal stability, as observed on thermal analysis traces.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of substrate temperature on micro-structural parameters such as grain size and micro-strain was investigated using X-ray line broadening technique to study the formation of polycrystalline cubic cubic CdO phase with preferential orientation along (111) plane.
Abstract: CdO thin films on glass substrate were prepared by home built spray pyrolysis unit from aqueous solution of Cd(CH3COO)2·2H2O at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate the formation of polycrystalline cubic CdO phase with preferential orientation along (111) plane. X-ray line broadening technique is adopted to study the effect of substrate temperature on microstructural parameters such as grain size and microstrain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film prepared at 250°C consists of spherical shape grains with size in nanometer range and is comparable with the XRD studies.
TL;DR: In this article, a tubular layer of polyphenylenediamine (PpPD)/carboxylic acid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs) nanocomposites were prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization using potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) as an oxidant.
Abstract: Poly(p-phenylenediamine) (PpPD)/carboxylic acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs) nanocomposites were prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization using potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) as an oxidant. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM) and field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE–TEM) showed that a tubular layer of PpPD was coated on the surface of carbon nanotubes with a thickness of 10–20 nm. FT–IR analysis provided an evidence for the formation of nanocomposites. The thermal stability of nanocomposites was improved by addition of c-MWCNTs as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD spectra showed that the crystalline nature of PpPD was not affected much by the addition of c-MWCNTs. As the content of c-MWCNTs was increased, the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased due to the interaction between polymer and nanotubes that enhances electron delocalization.
TL;DR: In this article, a qualitative evaluation of interfacial properties of woven coir-glass hybrid polyester composites was performed using scanning electron micrographs of fractured surfaces for different stacking sequences and the results indicated that coirglass hybrid composites offered the merits of both natural and synthetic fibres.
Abstract: The interest in fibre-reinforced polymer composites is growing rapidly due to its high performance in terms of mechanical properties, significant processing advantages, excellent chemical resistance, low cost, and low density. The development of composite materials based on the reinforcement of two or more fibre types in a matrix leads to the production of hybrid composites. In the present work, woven coir–glass hybrid polyester composites were developed and their mechanical properties were evaluated for different stacking sequences. Scanning electron micrographs of fractured surfaces were used for a qualitative evaluation of interfacial properties of woven coir–glass hybrid polyester composites. These results indicated that coir–glass hybrid composites offered the merits of both natural and synthetic fibres.
TL;DR: In this article, the properties of the (Na0·4Ag0·6)2PbP2O7 compound were studied using complex impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 200 Hz-5 MHz and temperature range (484-593 K).
Abstract: Electrical properties of the (Na0·4Ag0·6)2PbP2O7 compound were studied using complex impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 200 Hz–5 MHz and temperature range (484–593 K). Combined impedance and modulus plots were used to analyse the sample behaviour as a function of frequency at different temperatures. Temperature dependence of d.c. and a.c. conductivity indicates that electrical conduction in the material is a thermally activated process. The frequency dependence of the a.c. conduction activation energy was found to obey a mathematical formula.
TL;DR: In this article, a polycrystalline sample of Zr-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction method by XRD and SEM, and electrical properties (dielectric, ferroelectric and impedance spectroscopy) were measured in wide range of frequency and temperature.
Abstract: A polycrystalline sample of Zr-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3) was prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The effect of Zr (0·15) on the structural and microstructural properties of BaTiO3 was investigated by XRD and SEM. The electrical properties (dielectric, ferroelectric and impedance spectroscopy) were measured in wide range of frequency and temperature. With substitutions of Zr, the structure of BaTiO3 changes from tetragonal to rhombohedral. Lattice parameters were found to increase with substitution. The room temperature dielectric constant increases from ∼ 1675 to ∼ 10586 and peak dielectric constant value increases from ∼ 13626 to ∼ 21023 with diffuse phase transition. Impedance spectroscopy reveals the formation of grain and grain boundary in the material and found to decrease with increase in temperature.
TL;DR: In this paper, the self-propagating low-temperature combustion method was used to produce nanocrystalline particles of zinc ferrite, which were characterized for chemical and phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties.
Abstract: The self-propagating low-temperature combustion method was used to produce nanocrystalline particles of zinc ferrite. The products were characterized for chemical and phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties. The results obtained showed the formation of single-phase zinc ferrite nanoparticles with an average particle size of about 40 nm. As-synthesized powder displayed good magnetic property. Due to the simplicity and low cost of this process, it could also become a valuable starting point for the generation of other mixed and complex ferrites.
TL;DR: In this article, the pore size distribution occurs from multi-peak to bi-peak mode, and lastly to mono peak mode; the porosity decreases but strength increases with decreasing particle size, and the particle size affects strongly on the microstructure and strength.
Abstract: The porous spinel ceramics were prepared from magnesite and bauxite by the pore-forming in situ technique. The characterization of porous spinel ceramics was determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), mercury porosimetry measurement etc and the effects of particle size on microstructure and strength were investigated. It was found that particle size affects strongly on the microstructure and strength. With decreasing particle size, the pore size distribution occurs from multi-peak mode to bi-peak mode, and lastly to mono-peak mode; the porosity decreases but strength increases. The most apposite mode is the specimens from the grinded powder with a particle size of 6·53 μm, which has a high apparent porosity (40%), a high compressive strength (75·6 MPa), a small average pore size (2·53 μm) and a homogeneous pore size distribution.
TL;DR: In this article, the surface roughness of three granites is experimentally investigated for varying process parameters in abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting, and the results show that the water pressure and the abrasive flow rate are the most significant factors influencing the roughness.
Abstract: Abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting is an emerging technology which enables the shaping of practically all engineering materials. However, AWJ cutting may cause roughness and waviness on the cut surface. This significantly affects the dimensional accuracy of the machined part and the quality of surface finish. In this study, the surface roughness of three granites is experimentally investigated for varying process parameters in abrasive waterjet. The philosophy of the Taguchi design is followed in the experimental study. Effects of the control (process) factors on the surface roughness are presented in terms of the mean of means responses. Additionally, the data obtained are evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant process parameters affecting the surface roughness. Furthermore, effects of the material properties on the surface roughness are assessed. It was statistically found that the water pressure and the abrasive flow rate are the most significant factors influencing the surface roughness of granites. Additionally, a consistent relationship between the material grain size and surface roughness of the granites was observed.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the absorption properties of composites containing activated carbon fibres (ACF) and found that carbon fiber activation increases the absorption of the composite, and that the absorption greatly depends on increasing ACF content in the absorbing layer, first increasing and then decreasing.
Abstract: Microwave absorption of composites containing activated carbon fibres (ACFs) was investigated. The results show that the absorptivity greatly depends on increasing ACF content in the absorbing layer, first increasing and then decreasing. When the content is 0·76 wt.%, the bandwidth below −10dB is 12·2 GHz. Comparing the absorption characteristics of the ACF composite with one containing unactivated fibres, it is found that carbon fibre activation increases the absorption of the composite.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors synthesize conducting polyaniline/γ-Fe2O3 (PANI/FE) composites using an in situ deposition technique by placing fine-graded γ-Fe 2O3 in a polymerization mixture of aniline.
Abstract: Conducting polyaniline/γ-Fe2O3 (PANI/FE) composites have been synthesized using an in situ deposition technique by placing fine-graded γ-Fe2O3 in a polymerization mixture of aniline. The composites are characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The electrical properties such as d.c. and a.c. conductivities are studied by sandwitching the pellets of these composites between the silver electrodes. It is observed that the conductivity increases up to a composition of 20 wt.% of γ-Fe2O3 in polyaniline and decreases thereafter. The initial increase in conductivity is attributed to the extended chain length of polyaniline, where polarons possess sufficient energy to hop between favourable sites. Beyond 20 wt.% of γ-Fe2O3 in polyaniline, the blocking of charge carrier hop occurs, reducing conductivity values. The magnetic properties such as hysteresis characteristics and normalized a.c. susceptibility are also measured, which show a strong dependence on content of γ-Fe2O3 in polyaniline. Because of superparamagnetic behaviour of these composites, they may find extensive technological applications, especially for absorbing and shielding applications in microwave frequencies.
TL;DR: In this paper, a composite bone graft material in cylindrical form was prepared using egg shell powder (ESP), bone ash (BA) and gelatin, which was characterized for their FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and mechanical properties.
Abstract: Egg shells which were hitherto discarded as wastes were collected, purified and powdered into a particle size in the range of 5–50 μm. A composite bone graft material in cylindrical form was prepared using egg shell powder (ESP), bone ash (BA) and gelatin. These bone grafts were characterized for their FT–IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and mechanical properties. The mechanical studies indicate that the composite having a stoichiometric ratio of BA (3 g) and ESP (7 g) has shown better mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated the crystallographic nature of BA is akin to hydroxyapatite (HA) and both BA and ESP did not lose their crystalline nature when bone grafts were prepared. This revealed that ESP may be used as a component in bone graft utilizing the solid waste from the poultry industry.
TL;DR: In this paper, the degradation of reactive black-5 (RB-5) dye was investigated using supported TiO2 photocatalyst based adsorbent as a semiconductor photocat catalyst in a batch reactor.
Abstract: In the present study, photocatalytic degradation of reactive black-5 (RB-5) dye was investigated using supported TiO2 photocatalyst based adsorbent as a semiconductor photocatalyst in a batch reactor. The synthesized photocatalyst composition was developed using TiO2 as photoactive component and zeolite (ZSM-5) as the adsorbents. Attempts were also made to optimize the composition of the supported catalyst and to study the reliability of prepared catalyst. The optimum formulation of supported catalyst was found to be (TiO2: ZSM-5 = 0·15:1) which gave the highest efficiency with 98% degradation of 50 mg/L RB-5 solution in 90 min. Effect of different parameters such as initial concentration of dye solution, catalyst amount on the rate of photodegradation was also studied. The reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD, 88%) proves the mineralization of the RB-5 dye along with the colour removal. The supported TiO2 was found to be stable for repeated use.