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Showing papers in "Business Strategy and The Environment in 2005"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a framework for environmental supply chain strategy decision-making and suggest guidelines for how companies might change their current supply chain practices to successfully integrate environmental issues into their supply chain strategies.
Abstract: The decisions related to managing the supply chain and supply chain strategy are already considered important in many organizations. As more executives adopt environmental practices, supply chain strategies will only increase in importance. In this paper, we review how companies develop environmental supply chain strategies. Our interviews with companies from The United States, The United Kingdom, Japan and Korea, along with prior research, are used to develop a framework for environmental supply chain strategy decision-making. We then use this framework to suggest guidelines for how companies might change their current supply chain practices to successfully integrate environmental issues into their supply chain strategy. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

527 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, three sets of interrelated factors prevent but also stimulate the widespread adoption and diffusion of clean technology: these are factors external and internal to the firm, conditions of the potential adopters and characteristics of the environmental technology.
Abstract: Technological change has a relevant role to play in the transition towards a sustainable industry. However, slow diffusion of clean technologies can be observed in OECD countries. The analysis of the determinants and barriers to clean technology adoption should be a main goal of economists and social scientists. This paper shows that three sets of interrelated factors prevent but also stimulate the widespread adoption and diffusion of clean technology: these are factors external and internal to the firm, conditions of the potential adopters and characteristics of the environmental technology. These factors are included in the so-called ‘triangular model’, which is further applied to the analysis of clean technology adoption in the pulp and paper industry in Spain. The empirical study shows that clean technology adoption decisions are the result of an interaction between these factors, often involving contradictory signals for the potential adopter. The paper closes with some public policy recommendations for the effective and efficient promotion of clean technology diffusion. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

336 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors bring together previous environmental management research regarding individual and institutional level drivers of environmental stewardship to develop a model and series of questions regarding proactive environmental behavior in the US wine industry.
Abstract: Industry transformation related to environmental stewardship proceeds through multiple stages, and there is as of yet no clear understanding of the importance of certain drivers of transformation at different stages. We bring together previous environmental management research regarding individual- and institutional-level drivers of environmental stewardship to develop a model and series of questions regarding proactive environmental behavior in the US wine industry. A qualitative research method, including interviews and focus groups, is used to test the model. At the early stage of environmental transformation in the wine industry, we find that managerial attitudes and norms, existing regulations, employee welfare and competitive pressures are all strong drivers of proactive environmental behavior. However, our multi-level analysis suggests that drivers of environmentalism vary in relevance and relative importance and that future environmental management research needs to consider the relationship between drivers of environmentalism and the stage of an industry's environmental transformation. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

299 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the role of supply chain management in environmental protection and found a suboptimal situation for three elements of the supply chain: transformation of materials, information flows and supply chain relationships.
Abstract: The increasingly important economic role of supply chain management provides the backcloth against which this article examines what contribution the function can make to environmental protection. Theoretical perspectives on greener supply are developed and then tested against a sample of manufacturing companies. Environmental policy documents published by the sample companies seem to offer surface evidence for a proactive supply chain management role in environmental protection. Yet a more detailed examination of the three elements that constitute supply chain management - the management of the transformation of materials, the management of information flows and the management of supply chain relationships - finds a suboptimal situation for all three areas. In part this gap can be explained by limits in the technical capabilities of the supply chain. More important, however, are structural constraints that prevent the supply chain manager from actively searching for environmentally friendlier alternatives.

273 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of existing theories on new product development is presented to explain the complexity of greening and the challenges product development teams face in their attempts to incorporate environmental issues into product development.
Abstract: Studies dealing with environmental issues in product development have made significant progress explaining how firms can develop greener products that succeed on the market. Intriguingly, although a large number of tools and methods have been developed that supposedly help firms develop greener products, it is less common to draw on established theories on product innovation. This may explain why firms that have tried to develop more sustainable products have had mixed experiences. Environmental new product development (ENPD) and new product development (NPD) literature is reviewed to develop a model that helps explain the complexity of greening and the challenges product development teams face in their attempts to incorporate environmental issues into product development. This paper emphasizes that scholars need to incorporate environmental issues into established theories on NPD. Adapting existing theoretical models may help practitioners in their struggle to integrate the E into NPD. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

153 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) carried out a one year project with 22 SMEs in four Asian countries to investigate whether practical methods exist for resolving this dilemma and found that well targeted, enterprise-specific efforts to meet corporate social responsibility (CSR) requirements can make a positive contribution to both short-term profitability and longer-term competitiveness.
Abstract: Many developing country small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that are exporters see themselves facing a dilemma. They do not know how to respond to the rising social and environmental requirements of global buyers and supply chains and fear that were they to do so they would lose their competitive edge. However, they are aware that if they do not meet these requirements, they will not be able to access new foreign markets and may lose the contracts they already have. To investigate whether practical methods exist for resolving this dilemma, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) carried out a one year project with 22 SMEs in four Asian countries. The results suggest that well targeted, enterprise-specific efforts to meet corporate social responsibility (CSR) requirements can make a positive contribution to both short-term profitability and longer-term competitiveness. The ‘business case’ for CSR appears strongest in the environmental area, but measures in that area can act as a ‘starter motor’ for tackling more systemic ‘social’ problems. Furthermore, tackling social issues at the workplace can feed back positively to improve the sustainability of the environmental improvement measures. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

149 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it is posited that education for sustainability challenges the rationality of the capitalist paradigm of production and consumption, thereby providing a challenge for the tertiary curriculum in general and for the business curriculum in particular.
Abstract: The critical theorization of education for sustainability developed from the earlier political conception of ‘education for the environment’. This critical perspective underpins the theory of education for sustainability that the paper introduces, and informs the goals, structure and content of the post-graduate course that it describes. It is posited that education for sustainability challenges the ‘rationality’ of the capitalist paradigm of production and consumption, thereby providing a challenge for the tertiary curriculum in general and for the business curriculum in particular. A ‘window’ is provided on the way in which theory drives the narrative of sustainability in the course, ‘Business and Sustainability’, and a brief overview of the course introduces the pedagogical approach based in action methods as well as insights from student self-reflection and course evaluation. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

135 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was concluded that despite the variety of replacement motivations people basically want a well functioning and up to date product that meets their altering needs, which requires the development of dynamic and flexible products, which implies designing for variability and product attachment and preparing the product for future repair or upgrading.
Abstract: This article investigates the possibility of influencing product lifetime through product design. First, the results of a literature study on consumer behavior are presented. These show that surprisingly few researchers have focused specifically on the arousal of the need to replace a product. Therefore, empirical data about motives for product replacement were acquired through a combination of qualitative investigation and a quantitative survey. This resulted in a model of factors influencing the replacement decision and in a replacement typology. Finally, possible design directions for longer lasting products were explored. It was concluded that despite the variety of replacement motivations people basically want a well functioning and up to date product that meets their altering needs. This requires the development of dynamic and flexible products, which implies designing for variability and product attachment and preparing the product for future repair or upgrading. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

121 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a comparative sustainability rating of mutual funds based on the assessment of the research processes in the fund management as well as investigation of the fund portfolio in terms of composition and sustainability performance.
Abstract: During the last decade, the idea of sustainable investments hit the market. Investors both private and institutional started to supplement financial considerations with social and ecological ones. Meanwhile the supply of mutual funds in the ‘green’ investment sector increased enormously. Currently in Europe about 300 mutual funds are available that are managed according to sustainability and social responsibility. Potential investors face the difficulty of keeping track of the various funds and choosing among them based on a reliable comparative assessment. This paper outlines the basic principles and methods on which such a comparative sustainability rating is based. The method was designed to be analogous to rating of the funds financially. The sustainability rating is based on assessment of the research processes in the fund management as well as investigation of the fund portfolio in terms of composition and sustainability performance. It should support investors in their investment choices by offering them a third party view. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a thematic balanced scorecard format was used to address environmental and social performance evaluation of 13 large companies operating in Portugal, and companies were categorized as to their actual performance status using a predefined performance framework.
Abstract: A thematic balanced scorecard format was used to address environmental and social performance evaluation of 13 large companies operating in Portugal. Financial aspects of environmental and social company activities are also included. Companies were categorized as to their actual performance status using a predefined performance framework. Three categories were found: compliance with the law while emphasizing pollution control, pollution prevention and eco-efficiency. Management tools and procedural matters were found to be most relevant for categorization. Often, reported information did not allow for quantitative evaluation of environmental burden reduction. Use of the thematic balanced scorecard format was useful to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of links between objectives and measurements, initiatives and achievements. Improvement as to environmental performance was found to be paralleled by increased social performance, suggesting that a multi-level ‘sustainability’ performance categorization of these Portuguese companies is feasible. Driving forces for environmental management initiatives were found to differ by category of performance. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

110 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the learning experiences gained by 19 Dutch companies when implementing the concept of corporate social responsibility in their own business practices and concluded that learning processes took place at individual level and, in certain cases, at group level.
Abstract: This article analyses the learning experiences gained by 19 Dutch companies when implementing the concept of corporate social responsibility in their own business practices. It is concluded that learning processes took place at individual level and, in certain cases, at group level. Learning at the level of the organization as a whole was still one bridge too far for practically all companies. Moreover, the analysis showed that transferring first-order learning experiences turned out to be relatively easy. Getting across the fundamentals behind corporate social responsibility that could lead to second-order learning was much harder. Much depended on the extent to which the concept of corporate social responsibility had become an integral part of the business culture. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptual framework for operationalizing perceived legitimacy is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of various pedagogical approaches to integrating sustainability into business school curricula. But this framework can be used to develop survey instruments and simulations that evaluate the impact of various approaches.
Abstract: Environmental sustainability has begun to penetrate the business school curriculum. Whether it ultimately becomes a key component of managerial decision-making models will depend upon whether it is perceived as legitimate within the context of profit-making enterprises. This paper draws upon the cognitive psychology and organizational legitimacy literatures to develop a conceptual framework for operationalizing perceived legitimacy. This framework can be used to develop survey instruments and simulations that evaluate the effectiveness of various pedagogical approaches to integrating sustainability into business school curricula. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore what underlies CSOs' approaches to interaction with business, and find that, based on their background and tactics for business interaction, CSOs can be divided into Preservers, Protesters, Modifiers and Scrutinizers.
Abstract: Cross-sectoral partnerships have increasingly been promoted as a solution to environmental and social problems. This presupposes participation of civil society organizations (CSOs). The article probes whether the partnership idea is prevailing among CSOs. The purpose of the study is to explore what underlies CSOs' approaches to interaction with business. The study finds that, based on their background and tactics for business interaction, CSOs can be divided into Preservers, Protesters, Modifiers and Scrutinizers. Among these, solely the Preservers have a strategy of engaging in partnerships with business. The Protesters, Modifiers and Scrutinizers, on the other hand, take on a strategy of independence. This finding indicates that corporations that seek to successfully partner with CSOs should be wary that such collaboration is not in line with the strategy of all CSOs, and that for the same reasons the prevailing partnership promotion might be problematic. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the underlying drivers of corporate organizational behavior from the theoretical perspectives of both legitimacy and stakeholder needs, and discuss the challenges of gaining insight into why corporations embrace public-private partnerships.
Abstract: Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organizations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporations react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government on the responsible nature of their business practices. The corporate awakening towards a broader role of business in society and the trend of corporations embracing partnerships has led many to question the driving factors that motivate corporations to pursue partnerships. In this paper, the authors examine the underlying drivers of corporate organizational behaviour from the theoretical perspectives of both legitimacy and stakeholder needs, and discuss the challenges of gaining insight into why corporations embrace public–private partnerships. These theoretical perspectives are used to gain a deeper understanding of the corporate drivers that motivated TOTAL S.A. to approach UNESCO for cooperation on community development programmes in Myanmar. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the idea that businesses are being moved to proactively manage their political activities and influence in relation to their often-expressed responsibility for promoting sustainable development, which they define as managing the political bottom line.
Abstract: This paper explores the idea that businesses are being moved to proactively manage their political activities and influence in relation to their often-expressed responsibility for promoting sustainable development, which we define as managing the ‘political bottom line’. We argue that three key drivers account for this shift: first, the growing criticism of voluntary corporate responsibility initiatives; second, the increasing awareness and targeting of corporate political activities, and third, a realization among certain corporate executives and financiers that, without changes to public policies, an individual company's own voluntary responsibility may not deliver sufficient commercial returns. We describe several initiatives on public policy dimensions of sustainable development, which indicate that some companies are beginning to manage their political power in light of societal concerns. In conclusion, we discuss the potential and limits of a ‘political bottom line’ concept by critiquing the mainstream triple bottom line discourse.Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptualization of sustainability, design and contemporary consumption is presented, by sketching out how effective production systems have created an abundance of products, and the authors aim to conceptualize the relationship between design, sustainability, and consumption.
Abstract: This paper strives for a conceptualization of sustainability, design and contemporary consumption. By sketching out how effective production systems have created an abundance of products, the paper ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors draw on the stakeholder influence literature to propose and empirically test hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect pathways of perceived influence that stakeholders exercise within the domain of corporate sustainability.
Abstract: We draw on the stakeholder influence literature to propose and empirically test hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect pathways of perceived influence that stakeholders exercise within the domain of corporate sustainability. Our results allow us to examine the interaction between different types of stakeholder pressure and different types of stakeholder influence strategy. We show that stakeholders who do not control resources critical to the focal firm's operations are able to pressure a firm indirectly via other stakeholders on whose resources the firm is dependent. We contribute to the stakeholder perspective by showing how stakeholders who are affected by the focal firm's operations can enhance their salience via stakeholders who can affect the firm. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that past efforts at increasing recycling have been based on an implied model of consumer recycling behavior that is not supported by what happens in practice and disentangled thinking about recycling behavior from academic thinking about green consumerism.
Abstract: A waste disposal problem of looming proportions, coupled with a lack of sufficient public engagement in the preferred alternative to disposal, which is recycling, continues to perplex English policy-makers. Based on both a literature review across a wide range of disciplines and a national survey of consumer attitudes towards their own participation in recycling, this paper finds that past efforts at increasing recycling have been based on an implied model of consumer recycling behaviour that is not supported by what happens in practice. By disentangling thinking about recycling behaviour from academic thinking about green consumerism, the paper considers the waste and recycling problem from a different angle. It suggests that research on the personal values of people who recycle could be utilized in marketing communications that show these values being fulfilled by recycling. Focusing greater marketing attention on people who already claim to recycle, and helping them through better communication and improved practical help, could achieve much higher levels of reclaimed materials. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a module designed to deliver education for sustainability within the framework of the new generation of global executive MBAs, which addressed the paradoxes that arise among stakeholders who populate global supply chains.
Abstract: This paper reports on a module designed to deliver education for sustainability within the framework of the new generation of global executive MBAs. The module described was taught as part of OneMBA, an executive MBA involving five business schools located in Hong Kong, Brazil, Mexico, the USA and Europe. The paper describes the key skills, insights and pedagogy used in this module. Conceptual and theoretical material, cases, role-plays and site visits were developed to provide an understanding of sustainability and its relationship with supply-chain management. Emphasis was placed on sustainability as a context-specific approach, the deployment of systems thinking skills, and stakeholder engagement. The module addressed the paradoxes that arise among stakeholders who populate global supply chains. Sustainability was considered from global, European and local perspectives in Rotterdam and Gdansk through a project that considered extending Unilever’s sustainable agriculture initiative to Poland. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
Olivier Boiral1
TL;DR: In this article, an empirical study of the preventive and behavioural aspects of environmental management in the Canadian chemical industry is presented, which shows that significant results, often exceeding managers' expectations, could be obtained through the operators' involvement.
Abstract: In contrast to most environmental engineering processes, the effectiveness of employee involvement in pollution reduction seems uncertain, ambiguous and far from being clearly established. For companies whose environmental policies have long rested on technical investments, this uncertainty raises several essential questions, namely ‘what is the true effectiveness of this approach?’, ‘to what degree does employee involvement, most specifically operator involvement, make it possible to significantly and measurably reduce environmental impacts?’ and ‘what type of change could this induce in company operations?’. This article proposes answers to these questions based on an empirical study of the preventive and behavioural aspects of environmental management in the Canadian chemical industry. Conducted in three chemical factories from the Montreal region, the case studies show that significant results, often exceeding managers' expectations, could be obtained through the operators' involvement. However, these results and the precise organizational changes that caused them were difficult to identify, measure and foresee. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of sustainable consumption is gaining interest as a key factor of sustainable development as mentioned in this paper, which evokes issues of vested interests in continued economic growth versus change in lifestyle towards a less consumptive balance of work and leisure.
Abstract: The concept of ‘sustainable consumption’ is gaining interest as a key factor of sustainable development. This evokes issues of vested interests in continued economic growth versus change in lifestyle towards a less consumptive balance of work and leisure. It is shown that such a development is attractive to many people. It may still be stalled by various interest groups who actually thrive on an ‘organized dissatisfaction’. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report their empirical research on the prerequisites for properly functioning negotiated agreements between the same organizations and the Ministry of the Environment and regional governments in the Netherlands.
Abstract: Since the late 1980s, Dutch environmental policy has built on close collaboration with industry, meaning: between industry on one side and governments on the other side. Through negotiations between sectors of industry, and the Ministry of the Environment and regional governments, agreements have been sought concerning the contribution of specific sectors to often ambitious environmental policy goals. After concluding agreements representatives of the same organizations frequently form committees to guide and maintain the implementation. Since 1989 more than 70 agreements have been reached. During 2002/2003 we were commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of the Environment to carry out the official evaluation of the negotiated agreements. Business leaders all over the world regard the Dutch approach as a promising example of how public policy can accommodate corporate social responsibility endeavours into business itself. In the Netherlands business support for this policy strategy is still extremely strong, but what are the prerequisites for properly functioning negotiated agreements? This article reports our empirical research on the subject. Copyright


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Public-private partnerships represent a new form of network governance, potentially offering flexibility, economic efficiencies and non-governmental participation in policy development such partnerships can be viewed in terms of sustainable development, achieving two of its three tenets - economic and social growth as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Public-private partnerships represent a new form of network governance, potentially offering flexibility, economic efficiencies and non-governmental participation in policy development Such partnerships can be viewed in terms of sustainable development, achieving two of its three tenets - economic and social growth Combining growth and participation has particular appeal in transition economies such as Hungary's, where both need stimulation However, policy-making at the national level in Hungary inhibits participation One key element of partnerships is trust In transition economies such as Hungary, public- and private-sector actors have not had the time to develop the relationships necessary to create partnerships based on joint decision-making

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Sustainable Enterprise Academy as discussed by the authors is an executive education initiative founded by the Schulich School of Business at York University (Canada) with the active support of a number of academic collaborators, five corporations and several business and civil society organizations.
Abstract: This paper describes the introduction of ‘sustainability’ as a novel strategic paradigm to senior executive learning. Specifically, we describe the Sustainable Enterprise Academy, an executive education initiative founded by the Schulich School of Business at York University (Canada) with the active support of a number of academic collaborators, five corporations and several business and civil society organizations. The Academy is dedicated to business transformation through the application of a strategic sustainability paradigm, which assumes the desirability of business simultaneously creating economic, social and environmental value. The paper recounts the Academy’s journey between 1999 and 2003, during which time five successful senior executive Business Leader Seminars were held ‐ four in Canada and one in the US. Evaluation data from participants are presented and lessons learned described. The paper also explores future avenues of development for the Academy. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an eight-step circle for environmental performance measurement called EPM-KOMPAS is presented, which follows the typical characteristics of an (economic) performance measurement system.
Abstract: It is more important than ever for a company to know and analyse the performance and results of its management system. This is why one of the focuses of recent environmental management research has been on the identification and analysis of the actual results of environmental management. There is a need to determine consistent criteria for recording, measuring and assessing the environmental performance (as demanded by the international standard ISO 14031). Therefore the concept of environmental performance measurement (EPM) includes not only the record of the environmental results of a company, but also their assessment. In this paper an eight-step circle for environmental performance measurement called EPM-KOMPAS is presented, which follows the typical characteristics of an (economic) performance measurement system. An empirical study of the mechanical engineering industry in Germany has already shown that the data required by the EPM-KOMPAS instrument are available (Gunther and Sturm, 2002). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a more context-sensitive street design for sustainable urban environments by considering the users' historical and cultural diversity in the development of a more responsive street regulation and standards and incorporating the two interacting spatial components: movement, satisfying the basic need for mobility; and non-movement, complementing movement to achieve a more effective and sustainable space.
Abstract: Users are a potential source of behavioral change when led to experience alternative design strategies that aim to encourage a more sustainable lifestyle. Thus, ‘sustainability-oriented’ street design takes on an active role in creating spaces that cater to users by considering the whole spectrum of pedestrian needs, considering the users' historical and cultural diversity in the development of a more responsive street regulation and standards and incorporating the two interacting spatial components: movement, satisfying the basic need for mobility; and non-movement, complementing movement to achieve a more effective and sustainable space. The paper will touch on the dichotomy of space perception between the East and the West, based on the premise that city morphology has been influenced largely by its ecology, resulting in two city formations: the organic city form and the planned city system. It will wrap up with initial recommendations on achieving a more context-sensitive design. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.