scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Canadian Ethnic Studies in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined the economic integration of Chinese immigrants in Calgary and Edmonton and found that recent immigrants have encountered multi-faceted barriers, particularly in employment and language, after immigrating to Canada.
Abstract: In examining the economic integration of Chinese immigrants in Calgary and Edmonton, this study reveals that recent immigrants have encountered multi-faceted barriers, particularly in employment and language. Furthermore, they have experienced deskilling and devaluation of their prior learning and work experience after immigrating to Canada. As a consequence, many have suffered unemployment and underemployment, poor economic performance, and downward social mobility, which have adversely hindered their integration process. Immigrants’ negative experience can be attributed to a triple glass effect consisting of a glass gate, glass door , and glass ceiling . While a glass gate denies immigrants’ entrance to guarded professional communities, a glass door blocks immigrants’ access to professional employment at high-wage firms. It is the glass ceiling which prevents immigrants from moving up to management positions because of their ethnic and cultural differences. This study calls for the adoption of an inclusive framework that works toward recognitive justice in balancing freedom of mobility with recognition and full membership in Canada. Abstract: Un examen de l’integration economique des immigres chinois a Calgary et a Edmonton revele dans cette etude que ceux qui sont arrives recemment se heurtent a des obstacles sur plusieurs fronts, en particulier en ce qui concerne la langue et l’emploi. De plus, suite a leur immigration au Canada, ils ont vecu une dequalification et une devaluation de leur education et de leur experience professionnelle passees. En consequence, beaucoup d’entre eux ont subi le chomage et le sous-emploi, des mecomptes sur le plan financier et une mobilite sociale vers le bas qui ont nui a leur processus d’integration. On peut attribuer l’experience negative des immigres a l’effet d’une triple barriere invisible , a savoir une entree , une porte et un plafond de verre . Alors que la premiere refuse aux immigres l’accession a des communautes professionnelles tenues comme des chasses gardees, la deuxieme bloque l’acces a une situation dans des firmes a hauts revenus. Mais c’est le troisieme qui empeche les immigres d’atteindre des postes de cadres, du fait de leurs differences ethniques et culturelles. Cette etude est un appel pour l’adoption d’un cadre de travail inclusif qui montre la voie vers une justice recognitive faisant la part entre liberte de mobilite et appartenance pleine et entiere au Canada.

84 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a brief review of the social exclusion literature, as well as descriptive data on several aspects of age and immigration, followed by logistic regressions for five dimensions of economic exclusion, to examine who is made socially excluded in economic terms in Canada.
Abstract: Through the use of a social exclusion framework and analysis of recent data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (2009), a national longitudinal database, this empirical research investigates the mechanisms through which social groups are made and socio-economic outcomes are determined in Canada today. Our objective is to explore and describe the social characteristics and personal attributes that intersect to direct divergent economic realities. To this end, we initially present a brief review of the social exclusion literature, as well as descriptive data on several aspects of age and immigration. This is followed by logistic regressions for five dimensions of economic exclusion, to examine who is made socially excluded in economic terms in Canada. Subsequently, to progress the analysis from a focus on the individual effects of specific social attributes, we calculate the combined odds of two dimensions of economic exclusion (low individual earnings and insecure employment) for eight prototypes of individuals, to highlight the intersecting effects of social dynamics related to age, gender, visible minority status and immigrant status, and to ultimately explore who gets ahead and who falls behind in the Canadian labour market. We conclude with a discussion of policy and research implications. Resume: A partir d’un cadre d’exclusion sociale et de l’analyse de donnees recentes de l’Enquete sur la dynamique du travail et du revenu de 2009, une base de donnees longitudinale et nationale, cette recherche empirique etudie les mecanismes de formation des groupes sociaux et d’identification des enjeux socio-economiques d’aujourd’hui au Canada. Notre objectif est d’explorer et de decrire les caracteristiques sociales et les attributs personnels qui s’entrecoupent pour adresser des realites pecuniaires divergentes. A cette fin, nous presentons d’abord une breve revue de la documentation sur l’ostracisme social, ainsi que des donnees descriptives sur plusieurs aspects de l’âge et de l’immigration. Puis, nous en venons aux regressions logistiques pour cinq dimensions de l’exclusion economique, afin d’examiner qui est socialement l’objet d’un rejet en termes financiers au Canada. Ensuite, pour faire avancer l’analyse a partir d’une focalisation sur les effets individuels d’attributs sociaux specifiques, nous calculons les probabilites de deux composantes de cette exclusion economique (de bas revenus individuels et un travail precaire) pour huit prototypes d’individus, afin de mettre en lumiere les effets croises de dynamiques sociales reliees a l’âge, au genre, au statut de minorite visible et a celui d’immigre, et pour finalement explorer qui passe devant et qui reste en arriere dans le marche du travail. Nous concluons avec un examen des implications a etudier dans les domaines des politiques et de la recherche.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored current issues in English as a Second Language (ESL) policies and programs for adult immigrants in Canada from a critical multiculturalism perspective, and explored current trends and issues in language programs for adults.
Abstract: This paper explores current issues in English as a Second Language (ESL (1)) policies and programs for adult immigrants in Canada from a critical multiculturalism perspective. In the context of Canadian policies on immigration, bilingualism, and multiculturalism, the paper first provides an overview of language education in Canada historically. Current trends and issues in language programs for adult immigrants are then explored by examining discourses of integration at the level of both policy and practice, by looking at problems of teaching Canadian values, and by critiquing the emphasis on employability in language programs. Implications for language education for adult immigrants are also discussed. Resume Dans cet article, nous explorons les questions actuelles dans la politique et les programmes pour immigrants adultes au Canada concernant I'anglais, langue seconde (ALS(2)), et ce a partir d'une perspective critique et multiculturelle. Dans le contexte des mesures gouvernementales canadiennes en immigration, en bilinguisme et en multiculturalisme, cet article offre d'abord un survol historique de l'enseignement des langues au Canada. Puis, nous explorons les tendances et les problemes actueis dans les programmes de langue pour les immigrants adultes, en etudiant les discours d'integration au niveau a la fois de la politique et de la mise en pratique, en notant les probiemes de l'enseignement des valeurs canadiennes et en critiquant l'emphase portee dans les programmes en question pour en faire un outil. Nous y examinons aussi les implications que cela entraine pour l'apprentissage des langues chez les adultes immigrants. INTRODUCTION Canada has a tradition of actively recruiting immigrants from abroad for its long-term economic and political interests. Canada's full economic benefits of immigration depend on the integration of immigrants. Numerous ESL programs exist for adult immigrants in NGOs and educational institutions across the country to help immigrants integrate into Canadian society and to foster good language skills (Derwing and Thompson 2005). Current immigration and adult immigrant language policies endorse a conceptual framework of integration, but the policy in practice is problematic. Many language programs for adult immigrants tend to focus on teaching Canadian values, thus ignoring the complexity and ambiguity of the cultural experience of most newcomers. These programs also emphasize presentability and employability of immigrants through processes such as anglicizing one's names, acquiring 'soft skills' and 'fitting in' the Canadian work place. From Fraser's (2009) recognitive justice perspective, current policies and programs for adult immigrants are seriously compromised. The purpose of this article is to examine how the shift in Canada's immigration policies parallels with the shift in language policies and programs for adult immigrants and the limitations of the emphasis on employment preparation in current ESL programs. Canadian policies on immigration, bilingualism, and multiculturalism have all interacted with larger global trends to produce the current state of language programs for adult immigrants. Accordingly, these three policy areas are central to any discussion of language programs for adult immigrants. This article starts with a discussion of these three policy areas. IMMIGRATION CONTEXT In the quest to understand the constellation of language policies and programs for adult immigrants, it is necessary to examine Canada's immigration policy in the historical context because "the marginal positioning of the Other was maintained through the operation of immigration and multicultural policies" (Haque 2012, 24). Canadian immigration policy in history was unambiguously racist, explicitly discouraging or barring outright "non-white, non-European ... immigration" (Taylor 1991, 2). According to Li (2003a), immigration to Canada since the late nineteenth century can be classified into four phases, each governed by a state policy that defined and welcomed a particular class of desirable immigrants and restricting the entry of those considered undesirable (Li 2003a). …

47 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article conducted a qualitative study with 70 newcomer refugee youth aged 16 to 24 from the Afghan, Karen and Sudanese communities in Toronto and found that these changes did not necessarily lead to family conflict and distancing, and other factors such as lack of time together or low levels of family support seemed to be the contributing factors.
Abstract: Research with immigrant and refugee families consistently documents acculturation gaps and role reversals between migrant youth and their parents. However, debate exists over whether these necessarily lead to family conflict and distress. This question was explored in this community-based qualitative study through focus groups and interviews with 70 newcomer refugee youth aged 16 to 24 from the Afghan, Karen and Sudanese communities in Toronto. Thematic analysis revealed that youths’ responsibilities increased following migration, often involving service navigation, language interpretation, and providing financial and emotional support, in addition to household chores and pursuing education and employment. Several youth explicitly took on parental roles in the absence of a parent. These changes did not necessarily lead to conflict, and where family conflict and distancing occurred, other factors such as lack of time together or low levels of family support seemed to be the contributing factors. Youth were clearly “resettlement champions” for their families, which increased family-level well-being, often at the cost of individual-level well-being. Policy implications are discussed. Resume: Une recherche documentee sur les familles d’immigres et de refugies montre de maniere consistante des ecarts dus a l’acculturation ainsi que des renversements de role entre les jeunes immigres et leurs parents. Il y a cependant un debat sur la question de savoir si ceci doit forcement mener a des conflits familiaux et a une certaine detresse. Cette question a fait l’objet d’une etude qualitative realisee dans les communautes afghanes, karenes et soudanaises de Toronto a partir de groupes cibles et d’entrevues menees avec 70 jeunes refugies nouvellement arrives et âges de 16 a 24 ans. Une analyse thematique a revele que les responsabilites de ces jeunes augmentaient suite a l’immigration, souvent afin d’aider les leurs a s’orienter dans les services, a leur servir d’interprete et a leur apporter un soutien financier et emotionnel, et ce en plus de tenir la maison, de continuer des etudes et de gagner leur vie. Plusieurs d’entre eux ont pris explicitement le role de parents en l’absence de l’un d’entre eux. Ces changements n’ont pas automatiquement provoque de conflits sauf que, la ou il y en a eu dans la famille ou qu’elle a souffert de distanciation, d’autres facteurs tels que le manque de temps en commun ou un bas niveau de support familial semblent y avoir contribue. Les jeunes sont clairement les «champions du reetablissement» pour les leurs, ameliorant le bien-etre familial, souvent au prix d’un mieux-vivre individuel. Il s’agit donc de voir ce que cette situation implique au niveau des politiques a leur egard.

45 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors draw on a range of primary and secondary research to review the objective and subjective evidence on immigrant integration in Australia across a wide range of indicators and conclude that despite the intentions of the architects of post-war immigration policy to use immigration to consolidate Australia's White, Collins 1991; Jupp 2002, the Australian regional net has drawn a large number of immigrants from all cities, Australian regional network has drawn from all continents, and the Australian national character has drawn all the immigrants.
Abstract: Australia has been a major immigration nation for over six decades, with immigration central to nation building in Australia. In the past two decades, the character of the Australian immigration intake has changed considerably while the issues of immigration and multiculturalism have been controversial at the level of public opinion and national politics. But what has happened to immigrants themselves in Australia? This article draws on a range of primary and secondary research to review the objective and subjective evidence on immigrant integration in Australia across a wide range of indicators. The central research question of this article is: to what extent are immigrants integrated into economic, social, cultural and political Iife in Australia and how successful has Australian multiculturalism been in achieving the objective of immigrant integration? Taking Kymlicka's (2012) conceptualization of, and comparative measurement of, immigrant integration as a point of departure, this article argues that despite the fact that Kymlicka's conceptualization of integration is constrained by a focus on the policy and institutional structures of immigrant integration rather than on the outcomes and experiences of immigrant settlers in these societies, his overall conclusion about the relative success of Australian immigrant integration and the central role of multiculturalism to that outcome is well supported by the evidence. Resume Depuis plus de soixante ans, I'Australie est une nation de premier plan dans I'accueil des immigrants, alors que ceux-ci sont au cceur meme de sa construction. Au cours des deux dernieres decennies, le caractere de ces nouveaux arrivants a cependant change considerablement, alors que les problemes d'immigration et de multiculturalisme ont fait I'objet de controverses tant dans I'opinion publique que dans les politiques nationales. Mais qu'arrive-t-il en fait aux immigres eux-memes en Australie? Cet article s'appuie sur toute une recherche primaire et secondaire afin de reviser I'evidence objective et subjective concernant leur integration en faisant appel a un vaste eventail d'indicateurs. La question centrale de cet article, c'est de savoir a quel point ces nouveaux venus sont-ils inseres dans la vie economique, sociale, culturelle et politique du pays, et a quel point le multiculturalisme australien a-t-il reussi a atteindre I'objectif de cette insertion. Nous partons de la conceptualisation et des donnees comparatives de I'integration des immigres chez Kymlicka (2012) pour soutenir que, maigre les limites imposees a cette conceptualisation par I'accent mis sur la politique et les structures institutionnelles de I'integration en question plutot que sur les resultats et les experiences des colons immigres dans ces societes, sa conclusion generale sur le succes relatif obtenu en Australie sur cette question et le role central du multiculturalisme dans ce resultat s'accorde bel et bien avec l'evidence. INTRODUCTION Australia is a traditional settler immigration nation with a strong and sustained history of immigration that has been central to nation building. As Markus et al. (2009, 152) put it, "Australia is one of the few nations to be built by planned immigration." Data from the 2011 Australian census shows that one in four (24.6%) of the Australian population are first-generation immigrants while 43.1% are either first-or second-generation immigrants (ABS 2012). In Australia's major cities, the majority of the population is comprised of first-or second-generation immigrants (Sydney and Perth 61%, Melbourne 58%). Despite the intentions of the architects of post-war immigration policy to use immigration to consolidate Australia's White, British character (Collins 1991; Jupp 2002), the Australian immigration net has drawn in immigrants from all corners of the globe. As a result, Australian cities and, increasingly, Australian regional towns, are cosmopolitan in character. …

43 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report on one segment of a research project that was funded by the former Prairie Metropolis Centre, which utilizes a large quantitative data set in Canada, the Ethnic Diversity Survey, to develop a specific index to measure the social, cultural, and civic integration of immigrants in Canada and then selectively applies it for some comparative analyses.
Abstract: This paper reports on one segment of a research project that was funded by the former Prairie Metropolis Centre. The research utilizes a large quantitative data set in Canada, the Ethnic Diversity Survey, to develop a specific index to measure the social, cultural, and civic integration of immigrants in Canada and then selectively applies it for some comparative analyses. The paper begins with a definition of integration and then reviews the literature on measuring immigrant integration in Europe and the United States as well as the relevant Canadian literature that foregrounds the variables that we considered for a Canadian immigrant integration index. We then explain how, using factor analysis, our immigrant integration index is developed for Canada. Finally, the paper applies this social integration index and presents some of the results where this index is applied. More specifically, this last part of the paper presents comparative social integration index scores and analysis for: 1) nativity (comparing immigrants to the Canadian-born); 2) generational status; 3) racialized (visible) minority status; and 3) nativity by generation and racialized (visible) minority status. While there are statistically significant differences in all of these comparisons, one of our major findings is that integration, as measured by our index, is not that different between immigrants and the Canadian-born. Abstract: Cet article presente un segment d’un projet de recherche fonde par le Prairie Metropolis Center . L’Enquete sur la diversite ethnique, une large bande de donnees collectees au Canada, nous permet de developper un repertoire precis pour mesurer l’integration sociale, culturelle et civique des immigres dans ce pays, puis de l’appliquer selectivement pour en tirer quelques analyses comparatives. Apres avoir defini l’integration, nous examinons ce qui a ete publie sur ces mesures en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, ainsi que ce qui est pertinent au Canada en faisant ressortir les variables que nous avons prises en consideration pour notre repertoire. Ensuite, nous expliquons comment nous developpons celui-ci en employant une analyse factorielle. Enfin, nous l’appliquons en ce qui concerne l’integration sociale et, la ou nous l’avons fait, nous presentons quelques uns de nos resultats. Plus precisement, cette derniere partie de notre article donne cette analyse et ces resultats de maniere comparative pour : 1) la terre natale (comparant les immigres aux Canadiens de naissance); 2) le statut generationnel; 3) le statut racialise des minorites (visibles), et 4) ce meme statut avec le pays de naissance par generation. Alors qu’il y a des d’importantes differences statistiques dans toutes ces comparaisons, un de nos principaux resultats est que l’integration, telle que mesuree par notre repertoire, n’est pas si differente entre les immigres et les Canadiens de naissance.

28 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The work in this paper provides a valuable and unique contribution to the literature on gender, health, and immigration as there is a need for contextualized perspectives on gender and health in migrant populations.
Abstract: the repeated use of the verb “to complicate” in reference to the complexities of migrant health. While the word “complicate” can be defined as making something more complex or intricate, it carries exceptionally negative connotations, the main ones being that complications connote increased difficulties and that complications have few solutions. Complexities are more amenable to change than complications. Too often migrant individuals and communities are subjected to negative stigma. Surely the aim of the research and community efforts is to add clarity to issues and definitions in a manner that results in positive outcomes for immigrant populations. Another concern is that the book seems to have been compiled quickly, preventing adequate editorial review of the introduction and conclusion. An abundance of runon and some incomplete sentences results in lack of clarity and complicates the unpacking of definitions and concepts. Overall this volume is a valuable and unique contribution to the literature on gender, health, and immigration as there is a need for contextualized perspectives on gender and health in migrant populations. The contributions focus on varied qualitative research methods as well as integrative literature reviews. The value of this approach is emphasized by Dossa, who states that research participants’ “...voices are often silenced in the dominant discourses, especially if they are women” (148). This compilation is well worth repeating as it lays an excellent foundation for ongoing exploration of migrant health issues and for synthesis of research approaches. This book will be of most use to researchers and policy makers who are interested in the issues of immigration, gender, and health.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined the economic and non-economic contributions of sponsored parent and/or grandparent immigrants and compared them to immigrants of similar age migrating under other categories of immigration, and found that sponsored parents and or grandparents make significant economic contributions to Canadian society.
Abstract: Canada increasingly favours immigration policies based on human capital theory and economic outcomes. Consequently, while immigration is on the increase there is a downward trend in the number of “family class” entrants admitted to the country. The group most seriously affected is sponsored parents and/or grandparents who are also the most vulnerable to criticisms against family class immigration. The discussion is centered on the perceived lack of potential economic contributions of these immigrants. Such a focus, however, overlooks the feminized nature of this type of immigration and the many non-economic contributions these immigrants make. Using multinomial regression modeling of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada data, we examine economic and non-economic contributions of sponsored parent and/or grandparent immigrants and compare them to immigrants of similar age migrating under other categories of immigration. We find that sponsored parents and/or grandparents make significant economic contributions to Canadian society as well as other non-economic ones that are often overlooked. We also find that their contributions increase over time and are heavily gendered, with female sponsored parents and/or grandparents making more non-economic contributions than their male counterparts or other immigrants of similar age migrating under other categories of immigration. Resume: Le Canada favorise de plus en plus les politiques d’immigration qui sont fondees sur la theorie du capital humain et sur ses retombees economiques. Par consequent, alors que cette immigration est a la hausse, il y a neanmoins une tendance a la baisse du nombre d’entrees obtenues a partir du «regroupement familial». Le groupe le plus serieusement touche est celui des parents et / ou grands-parents parraines, qui sont aussi les plus vulnerables face aux critiques contre cette categorie. La discussion est centree sur le manque percu de contributions economiques potentielles qu’ils peuvent apporter. Une telle approche, cependant, neglige la nature feminisee de ce type d’immigration et leurs nombreuses prestations non monetaires. En utilisant un modele de regression multinominale de l’Enquete longitudinale aupres des immigrants au Canada, nous examinons ces apports et nous les comparons a ceux d’autres immigres d’un âge similaire et provenant d’autres categories. Nous constatons que les parents et / ou grands-parents parraines font d’importantes contributions economiques a la societe canadienne, ainsi que des non-economiques qui sont souvent negligees. Nous constatons egalement qu’au fil du temps leurs prestations augmentent et sont fortement sexuees, les femmes en faisant plus au niveau non monetaire que leurs homologues masculins et que les immigres d’un âge similaire venus par l’entremise d’autres categories d’immigration.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors decomposes the employment earnings of immigrants and native-born Canadians in Canada to see how much of income disparity may be attributed to human capital factors and how much to other factors.
Abstract: The discourse on immigrants’ economic integration often assumes that the human capital of immigrants determines the outcome of successful integration, measured as income parity with the native-born population. This paper decomposes the employment earnings of immigrants and native-born Canadians in Canada to see how much of income disparity may be attributed to human capital factors and how much to other factors. The findings indicate that immigrants have brought high levels of human capital to Canada, often surpassing those of the native-born, but immigrants under-perform in earnings because of other unexplained returns. The findings suggest that there are limits in using immigrant selection policy to increase the human capital content of immigrants as a means to achieve successful economic integration, and that other policies that influence how immigrants, especially those of minority origin, are treated in the labour market should be considered as a means to bridge income disparity. Abstract: Le discours sur l’integration economique des immigres prend souvent pour acquis que le capital humain de ces derniers determine le succes de leur integration, tel que compare aux revenus de la population d’origine. Dans cet article, nous decomposons les salaires des uns et des autres au Canada pour voir a quel point on peut attribuer la disparite de gains au capital humain en question ou a d’autres facteurs. Selon nos resultats, les immigres avaient a leur arrivee une formation et une experience de haut niveau, souvent superieures a celles des Canadiens de naissance, mais ils ont ete sous-retribues a cause de l’absence d’autres benefices non expliques. Ceci suggere que la politique de selection des immigrants a des limites, et qu’il faudrait reconsiderer d’autres strategies pour inflechir la maniere dont le marche du travail les traite, surtout ceux d’origine minoritaire, afin de combler cette inegalite de revenu.

22 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bommes et al. as mentioned in this paper described the integration process as a non-linear process with multiple outcomes for all newcomers, including positive and negative outcomes for newcomers, and concluded that integration is an uneven process that can result in significant success in some institutions, but failure in others.
Abstract: Integration is often touted as the 'gold standard' in the settlement of newcomers. It forms the basis of many government policies on settlement and integration. Programs developed by social service providers use integration as a central formulating concept. Integration is the optimal goal for any society to ensure that all of its members play an active role and feel a part of their community. As readers of Canadian Ethnic Studies already know, integration is a reciprocal process where newcomers are incorporated into a new society. During the process, both the newcomer and host society change as a result of interaction with one another. This change is mutually beneficial; the immigrant makes alterations to their behaviour to "fit in", while the host society changes as a result of the incorporation of newcomers. The passage of time ensures that the newcomers and their children begin to adapt and reconcile their cultural practices, language and religion towards the prevailing culture of the host society. But work must be done to ensure the host society is ready and amenable to accepting the arrival of newcomers as integration takes place at the community level (Bommes 2012). As researchers of immigration already know, the integration process is not linear, since many newcomers report that for every step forward, they take two steps back. Nor is the process balanced. Newcomers may be fully integrated into their employment and occupation yet at the same time, they may feel ostracized by their community. Furthermore, there is no such thing as a fully integrated ethnic group. We cannot say one group is more or less integrated than another. Individuals from the same ethnic group, living in the same community and even living in the same family, report different integration experiences. Mothers may integrate faster than fathers or children, despite the fact that all arrived at the same time. Age differences in the pace at which integration are reported are also prevalent. While it may be true that most children adapt faster than their parents, primarily because school is an institution where all pupils learn and are introduced to their society, this is not always the case. Furthermore, entrance class has an effect on integration. While those arriving in the family class may integrate faster into their communities, those arriving in the business and skilled worker classes tend to integrate faster into employment and economic arenas than others. Still other migrants, namely temporary workers, are not meant to integrate at all. They are supposed to work and return quietly to their country of origin, unless they work in very particular jobs and live in provinces that encourage permanent migration among their temporary migrants. We can thus summarize integration as a non-linear process with multiple outcomes for all newcomers. It is an uneven process that can result in significant success in some institutions, but failure in others. The largely unobtainable ideal of integration, however, is that both the newcomer and the host society change, mostly for the better. The process is not without its problems, the chief one being that inevitably, the majority of the changes are done by the newcomers and virtually none by the host society. Castles and Miller (2009, 35) argue that "virtually all democratic states--and some not so democratic as well--have fast growing immigrant populations" which are tied largely to economic growth. It means that the host society's interest lies mainly in jobs, investment, and employment creation, rather than in the social or cultural aspects of integration. This focus on economic integration over other aspects of integration is understandable. Without a steady income, newcomer families will suffer poverty and the associated issues such as poor health and educational outcomes for themselves and their offspring. However, societies that focus solely or mainly on economic outcomes soon face problems of social and cultural integration. …

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined the housing experiences of Ghanaian and Somali immigrants in Toronto, by exploring the instrumentality of these immigrants' cultures in the complex dynamics of the city's rental market, and found that Ghanaians and Somalis face many housing challenges, some of which are purely economic, while others concern matters such as racial discrimination; a dearth of culturally sensitive housing information; and acute shortages of houses designed to accommodate their large families and some of their cultural needs.
Abstract: Starting from the premise that "culture" has generally been overlooked in the analysis of immigrant housing in Canada, this study examines the housing experiences of Ghanaian and Somali immigrants in Toronto, by exploring the instrumentality of these immigrants' cultures in the complex dynamics of the city's rental market. The study relies on a mixed-methods approach, entailing a questionnaire survey and qualitative in-depth interviews and focus group discussions for the procurement of data. Among other things, we found that Ghanaian and Somali immigrants in Toronto face many housing challenges, some of which are purely economic, while others concern matters such as racial discrimination; a dearth of culturally sensitive housing information; and acute shortages of houses designed to accommodate their large families and some of their cultural needs—including the need for gendered spaces, prayer rooms, and cooking traditional meals at home. The study is significant not only because it deals with a disadvantaged group (i.e., Black Africans in Canada), but also because it brings culture into the discussion of immigrant housing in Canada to modulate the economic reductionism in the prevailing literature. Resume: Partant du principe que «la culture» a generalement ete negligee dans l'analyse du logement des immigrants au Canada, cette etude examine les experiences de logement des immigrants ghaneens et somaliens a Toronto, en explorant l'influence des cultures de ces immigrants dans la dynamique complexe du marche locatif de la ville. L'etude repose sur une approche de methodes mixtes, notamment un questionnaire, des entretiens qualitatifs et des discussions de groupe pour l'acquisition de donnees. Entre autres choses, nous avons constate que les immigrants ghaneens et somaliens a Toronto font face a de nombreux defis en matiere de logement, dont certains sont purement economiques, tandis que d'autres concernent des questions telles que la discrimination raciale; une penurie d'information sur le logement adapte a la culture, et de graves penuries de maisons concues pour accueillir leurs familles ainsi que certains de leurs besoins culturels, y compris le besoin d'espaces sexues, des salles de priere, et la cuisson des repas traditionnels a la maison. L'etude est importante non seulement parce qu'elle traite d'un groupe defavorise (i.e. Africains noirs au Canada), mais aussi parce qu'elle inclut la culture dans la discussion sur le logement des immigrants au Canada pour moduler le reductionnisme economique qui prevaut dans la litterature.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors studies the power of Standard English in the process of formation of devalued immigrant identities in contemporary English Canada and concludes with the argument that those whose identities have been marginalized in the name of substandard language and cultural traits emerge from this process with privilege to interpret and transform the society to which they now belong.
Abstract: This analysis studies the power of Standard English in the process of formation of devalued immigrant identities in contemporary English Canada. Probing the connections between Standard English, colonialism, whiteness and the immigrant experience, this piece moves from an educator's autobiography to the analysis of other immigrant lives to understand the production of a dominant discourse that reaffirms whiteness and the native speaker of English over the identity of the speaker of English as second language. The essay concludes with the argument that those whose identities have been marginalized in the name of substandard language and cultural traits emerge from this process with privilege to interpret and transform the society to which they now belong. Resume: Cette analyse presente le pouvoir normatif de l'anglais standard dans le processus de formation devalorisante de l'identite des immigres habitant aujourd'hui au Canada anglais. Cette etude sonde les liens entre l'anglais normatif, le colonialisme, le fait d'etre un Blanc et ce que vivent les immigres, en partant de l'autobiographie d'un educateur pour analyser ensuite d'autres experiences de vie d'immigres, afin de comprendre comment la production d'un discours dominant sert a reaffirmer la superiorite d'un Blanc de langue maternelle anglaise au Canada et l'inferiorite identitaire d'une personne dont l'anglais est la langue seconde. Cet essai permet de conclure que ceux qui ont ete marginalises sous le pretexte de l'inferiorite de leur langue et de leur culture, emergent de ce processus en ayant l'avantage de pouvoir scruter et transformer la societe dont ils font desormais partie.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used data collected from two sources: a national study of newly-arrived newcomer youth living in Toronto, Hamilton, Winnipeg and Vancouver using qualitative interviews, and a quantitative analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC).
Abstract: Over half of all migrants to Canada are under 29 years of age and one quarter arrive as refugees. Studies on occupational achievements and labour market status have been largely ignored in favour of studies on adult migrants rather than on youth. This paper uses data collected from two sources: a national study of newly-arrived newcomer youth living in Toronto, Hamilton, Winnipeg and Vancouver using qualitative interviews, and a quantitative analysis of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). The focus of this paper is to use these datasets to better understand the high school trajectory of recently arrived newcomer youth and compare their experiences. We are particularly interested in the influence of education attained in Canada compared to education attained outside of Canada and the differences, if any, in labour market outcomes. The findings reveal distinctly slower trajectories through high school among those arriving as refugees, those lacking English or French language instruction prior to arrival, and issues with grade placement. These are identified as significant barriers to entering post-secondary education and to subsequent labour market success. Resume: Parmi les immigrants au Canada, plus de la moitie ont moins de 29 ans et un quart sont des refugies. Les etudes sur ce qu’ils ont realise sur le plan professionnel et sur leur statut dans le marche du travail ont ete largement laissees pour compte en faveur de celles portant sur les emigres adultes plutot que sur les jeunes. Cet article s’appuie sur une collecte de donnees provenant de deux sources : une etude nationale sur les jeunes nouveaux arrivants qui vivent a Toronto, Hamilton, Winnipeg et Vancouver et reposant sur des entrevues qualitatives, et une analyse quantitative de l’Enquete longitudinale sur les immigrants au Canada (ELIC). Notre objectif est de se servir de ces donnees pour mieux comprendre la trajectoire scolaire au niveau secondaire de jeunes recemment arrives et de comparer leurs experiences. Nous nous interessons particulierement a l’influence de l’education acquise au Canada par rapport a celle recue a l’etranger et les differences, s’il y en a, pour les possibilites d’emploi. Ce qui se revele nettement, c’est une scolarite secondaire a un rythme plus lent parmi les refugies et ceux qui n’ont pas eu d’enseignement en anglais ou en francais avant de venir ici, et des problemes de niveau scolaire. Ce sont la des obstacles significatifs pour le passage au niveau post-secondaire et pour des chances de succes sur le marche du travail.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper used descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to obtain unadjusted and adjusted period prevalence estimates for Black and White survey participants, and to determine the magnitude of health inequalities between racial groups.
Abstract: This study obtained nationally representative estimates of health-related indicators among native-born Black Canadians, and compared these estimates with those of native-born White Canadians. Data came from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003-2008). Outcomes included smoking status, general health status, body mass index, and chronic conditions (i.e., asthma, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cancer). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to obtain unadjusted and adjusted period prevalence estimates for Black and White survey participants, and to determine the magnitude of health inequalities between racial groups. Estimates were adjusted for various socio-demographic factors to account for potential confounding. After adjustment, Blacks had about 50% lower odds of being current or former smokers (p Resume: Pour cette etude, nous avons obtenu des estimations representatives au niveau national d'indicateurs lies a la sante parmi les Canadiens de naissance noirs, et nous les avons comparees a celles de leurs homologues blancs. Les donnees proviennent de l'Enquete sur la sante des communautes canadiennes 2003-2008. Les resultats incluaient le fait d'etre ou non fumeur, la sante en general, l'index de masse corporelle et les conditions chroniques (par exemple : l'asthme, l'hypertension, le diabete, les maladies cardiaques et le cancer). Des statistiques descriptives et des modeles de regression logistiques ont permis d'obtenir des estimations de prevalence sur un certain temps, corrigees et non corrigees, pour les Noirs et les Blancs ayant fait partie de l'enquete, et de determiner la magnitude des inegalites en matiere de sante entre les deux groupes. Ces estimations ont ete corrigees en fonction de facteurs socio-demographiques varies pour tenir compte de confusion potentielle. Apres ajustement, les Noirs avaient a environ 50% moins de risques que les Blancs d'etre des fumeurs actuels ou passes (p

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated how responses to individual questions vary between the identified subpopulations of interest and made distinctions as to how the responses of these sub-populations vary between urban and rural settings.
Abstract: This portion of this cross-domain study attempts to measure the notion of “welcoming communities” in Canada. Research to this point has used micro-level data from the Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS). Using descriptive statistical methods and single-variable tests of significance on data regarding individual respondents to the EDS, the researchers seek an understanding of responses to the relevant portions of the questionnaire. Specifically, the researchers have investigated how responses to individual questions vary between the identified subpopulations of interest. There are four such populations, comprised of possible combinations over two binary categories: Immigrant and non-immigrant status, and visible minority and non-visible minority. Further distinctions were made as to how the responses of these subpopulations vary between urban and rural settings. Some statistically and practically significant differences were observed between subpopulations and between urban and rural settings. Numerous small sample sizes hampered the comparisons between some categories of respondents, so a second round of analyses was applied in order to identify and apply theoretically sound yet more statistically prudent stratifications of the population for the purposes of this study. Identification of important differences in subpopulation responses at the single-variable level has helped, and will continue to help in understanding the way in which EDS data can be used to describe Canadians’ experiences of welcoming communities. Abstract: Cet article est une partie d’une etude multidisciplinaire ou nous tentons d’evaluer la notion de «communautes accueillantes» au Canada. La recherche s’est servie jusqu’a present des micro-donnees de l’Enquete sur la diversite ethnique (EDE). A partir de methodes statistiques descriptives et de tests d’importance a variable simple sur celles qui traitaient des repondants individuels a l’EDE, les chercheurs tentent de comprendre les informations recueillies dans les parties pertinentes du questionnaire. Plus precisement, ils ont examine comment les reponses aux questions individuelles varient au sein des sous-populations identifiees comme ayant participe a l’enquete. Celles-ci sont au nombre de quatre et se combinent selon deux categories binaires: soit statut d’immigrant et de non-immigrant d’une part, et, d’autre part, appartenance a une minorite, visible et non-visible. D’autres distinctions sont apparues, comme celle sur les variations des reponses selon qu’il s’agit d’un milieu urbain ou rural. Le grand nombre de petits echantillons a bride les comparaisons entre certaines categories de repondants. Une deuxieme serie d’analyses a donc eu lieu afin de relever et de mettre en pratique des stratifications theoriquement solides de la population, qui soient aussi statistiquement plus prudentes pour les buts de cette etude. L’identification d’importantes differences dans les reponses de ces sous-populations a un niveau de variable simple a aide – et continuera a le faire – a comprendre comment on peut utiliser les donnees de l’EDE pour decrire la realite des communautes d’accueil au Canada.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the development of a multicultural coalition and strategies used that promote participation in civic society and suggest that public institutions can successfully create the space for meaningful civic engagement if attention is paid to the diverse understandings of what political participation means in Canadian society from the perspective of ethnic minority communities.
Abstract: An extensive body of literature on participation and civic engagement documents the under-representation of ethnic minorities in the political processes of their adoptive countries and the systemic causes for this occurrence. However, there remains a critical need to understand how to address this issue for the benefit of ethnic minority communities, governments, and society. In this article, the authors describe the development of a multicultural coalition and strategies used that promote participation in civic society. Findings suggest that public institutions can successfully create the space for meaningful civic engagement if attention is paid to the diverse understandings of what political participation means in Canadian society from the perspective of ethnic minority communities. Resume De nombreuses etudes sur la participation et l'engagement civique des minorites ethniques documentent leur sous-representation dans les processus politiques de leurs pays d'adoption et les causes systemiques de ce phenomene. Un besoin critique se fait cependant encere sentir, de comprendre comment faire face a ce probleme pour le benefice de ces communautes, des gouvernements et de la societe. Dans cet article, tes auteurs decrivent le developpement d'une coalition multiculturelle et les strategies employees peur promouvoir cette participation a la societe civile. Nos resultats suggerent que les institutions peuvent ouvrir avec succes un espace a un engagement civique qui ait du sens, si on porte attention a une comprehension diverse de ce que la participation politique signifie dans une societe canadienne qui inclue le point de vue des communautes ethniques minoritaires. INTRODUCTION Canadian cities are global hotspots that attract immigrants from all over the world. As of 2006, 20 percent of the Canadian population consists of foreign-born individuals, with the majority comprising visible minorities from countries outside Europe (Statistics Canada 2008). Canada's population has diverse needs, strengths, and aspirations, yet ethnic minorities continually experience various forms of persistent inequity within society (Lochhead 2005). In particular, this cohort occupies a lower socio-economic status as indicated by a) the double-digit income gap between them and other Canadians (Wang 2010a); b) labour market segmentation where visible minorities are mostly found in manual, semi-skilled work despite higher education qualifications than native-born (Elliot 2008); and c) housing segregation (Wang 2010b). The persistence of racism and discrimination (Jenson 2000) magnifies such disparities and contributes to unequal access to resources and opportunities that perpetuate social exclusion. Social exclusion refers to the social, economic, cultural, and political barriers that can impair the ability of ethnic minorities to participate meaningfully in the labour market, political process, and civic activities of society (Mannila and Reuter 2009). Language barriers, poverty, and lack of familiarity with the political system promote such exclusion (Bird 2005), leading to underrepresentation in community development and political processes. For example, ethnic minorities are underrepresented in public sector and decision-making bodies (Andrew et al. 2008) and underutilize health and social services critical to health and well-being (Galabuzi 2001). Social exclusion is also linked to many and varied negative health outcomes, including coronary heart disease (Raphael 2001), respiratory illnesses, and mental illnesses such as suicide and psychiatric disorders (Stansfeld et al. 1999; Whitley et al. 1999). Consequently, social exclusion has been identified by Canadian researchers and Health Canada as an important social determinant of health (Galabuzi and Labonte 2002; Raphael 2004). Indeed, the overall health of an individual goes beyond even physiological, biological, and psychological factors (da Gloria Miotto Wright 2000). …

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose social age as an analytical framework within which to understand and respond to age and generation in migration contexts and argue that comprehensive social age analysis can lead to greater age sensitivity in migration research, policy and programming.
Abstract: This paper proposes social age as an analytical framework within which to understand and respond to age and generation in migration contexts. It argues that comprehensive social age analysis can lead to greater age sensitivity in migration research, policy and programming. As such, this introduction situates the empirical studies in the special issue and draws on them to test, challenge and inform the social age analytical framework. Le cadre analytique que nous proposons dans cet article pour comprendre et trouver des reponses a la question des âges divers et des generations dans des contextes de migration est l’âge social. Nous soutenons qu’une analyse comprehensive de ce dernier peut mener a une plus grande sensitivite envers la question de l’âge dans la recherche, la politique et la programmation sur la migration. En tant que telle, cette introduction donne dans ce numero special une place aux etudes empiriques, dans lesquelles elle s’appuie pour tester, mettre au defi et alimenter le cadre analytique de l’âge social.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the possibilities of discovering, sharing, and transforming school-community linkages through proactive outreach programs that are of particular relevance to public elementary schools catering to a large refugee and immigrant population.
Abstract: This paper explores the possibilities of discovering, sharing, and transforming school-community linkages through proactive outreach programs that are of particular relevance to public elementary schools catering to a large refugee and immigrant population. The authors argue that community-school linkages, as currently understood and discussed in the literature, are primarily focused on unidirectional relations, but certainly have the potential of furthering the particular needs of these children and their families in more productive ways. A wealth of untapped opportunities and creative capacities exist in the community that provide the potential for ‘bridging and bonding’ social capital where the response is sensitive to power relations that can arise from hegemonic interactions. School-community linkages are crucial for displaced communities further isolated and stigmatized in underserved and deprived pockets of the city. These are particularly evident in Toronto’s post-war suburbs, such as Scarborough, where the concentration of neighbourhood poverty is well documented, but where the energy and creativity in the production of its social and cultural landscape, and the commitment of its citizens, are less noted. Based on an outreach workshop held in one such school, the potential of a sustainable emancipatory school-community framework is explored. Resume: Cet article porte sur les possibilites de decouvrir, partager et transformer les liens entre l’ecole et la communaute par le biais de programmes de communication proactifs qui soient particulierement pertinents pour les etablissements elementaires publics recevant une large population d’immigres et de refugies. Les auteurs affirment que ces liens, tels qu’ils sont actuellement compris et etudies dans les publications universitaires, sont avant tout focalises sur des relations unidimensionnelles, mais qu’ils pourraient certainement servir les besoins particuliers des enfants et de leurs familles de maniere plus productive. Dans ces communautes, une abondance d'occasions inexploitees et de capacites creatives sont susceptibles de procurer un capital social «affectif et relationnel», la ou il y a une reponse receptive aux relations de pouvoir qui peuvent naitre d'interactions hegemoniques. Les liens ecole-communaute sont cruciaux pour les populations encore plus isolees et stigmatisees, deplacees dans des secteurs non desservis et defavorises de la ville. Ceci est particulierement evident dans les banlieues d’apres-guerre de Toronto, telles que Scarborough ou la concentration de quartiers pauvres est bien documentee, mais ou l’energie et la creativite dans l’eclosion de son paysage social et culturel et l’engagement des citoyens ne sont pas autant pris en note. Un atelier de communication qui a eu lieu dans une de ces ecoles, a permis d’explorer le role potentiel d’un cadre ecole-communaute emancipateur durable.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors show that the federal framework of'multiculturalism within a bilingual framework' obscures the realities confronting Francophone minority communities and thus their capacity to integrate newcomers, on both empirical and normative grounds.
Abstract: This paper addresses one particular feature of Canada's accommodation of diversity—the existence of French-language communities outside of Quebec and New Brunswick—to show how there continues to be conceptual difficulties in reconciling Canada's many diversities. More specifically, we are concerned with conceptual ambiguities associated with the place of these minority communities in Canada's constitutive political sociology, and difficulties in promoting a coherent set of policies for their flourishing. Moreover, this paper will not simply rehash arguments about their formal and conceptual status. We are interested in illuminating a recent initiative that seeks to direct immigrants to these communities in the hope of maintaining their overall percentage of the Canadian population. This is a development that has received little attention to date from the perspective of the scholarship of multiculturalism and minority rights, and political theory more generally. We argue that the strategy to target Francophone minority communities as 'sites' of integration represents a false promise for both these communities and immigrants. This article will show that the federal framework of 'multiculturalism within a bilingual framework' obscures the realities confronting Francophone minority communities and thus their capacity to integrate newcomers, on both empirical and normative grounds. Resume: Cet article porte sur un cas particulier de l'accommodement canadien de la diversite - l'existence de communautes francophones en dehors du Quebec et du Nouveau-Brunswick - pour montrer comment des difficultes conceptuelles a reconcilier les multiples aspects de cette diversite sont encore presentes. Plus precisement, ce qui nous concerne, ce sont les ambiguites de la sociologie politique constitutive du Canada envers la place donnee a ces communautes minoritaires et les difficultes promouvoir un ensemble coherent de politiques en faveur de leur epanouissement. De plus, il ne s'agit pas ici de simplement repeter les arguments sur leur statut formel et conceptuel. Ce qui nous interesse, c'est d'eclairer une initiative recente qui tente de diriger des immigrants vers elles dans l'espoir de maintenir leur pourcentage general de la population canadienne. Ce developpement a recu peu d'attention du point de vue de la recherche sur le multiculturalisme et les droits des minorites, ainsi que sur la theorie politique en general. Nous soutenons que la strategie de viser les minorites francophones comme «lieux» d'integration represente une fausse promesse, aussi bien pour ces communautes que pour les immigrants. Nous montrons dans cet article que les modalites federales du «multiculturalisme dans un cadre bilingue» cachent les realites auxquelles elles sont confrontees et, donc, leur capacite a integrer les nouveaux-venus, aussi bien pour des raisons empiriques que normatives.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the extent to which university professors in Canada are supportive of policies that set targets for admission to colleges and universities and that help increase employment opportunities for racial and ethnic minorities in the wider market.
Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which university professors in Canada are supportive of policies that set targets for admission to colleges and universities and that help increase employment opportunities for racial and ethnic minorities in the wider market. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that support for equity legislation is primarily accounted for by professors' ideological orientation and less so by their collective or self-interest. Using a large study conducted in 2001, we showed that the most important explanation for support for race-directed equity legislation is rooted in the perception of discrimination and a left-oriented ideology which includes egalitarianism, union support, and strike militancy. As well, the analysis revealed that racialized minorities are more, and higher income individuals are less, supportive of race-targeted equity policies. The policy implication of results is discussed. Resume: Dans cet article, nous recherchons a quel point les professeurs d'universite au Canada soutiennent des politiques d'objectifs a atteindre concernant l'admission de minorites raciales et ethniques dans les institutions post-secondaires afin de les aider a obtenir plus de possibilites d'emploi dans le marche en general. Plus precisement, nous avons teste l'hypothese selon laquelle c'est surtout l'orientation ideologique des professeurs qui les mene a tenir compte d'un soutien a une legislation sur l'equite, plutot que leur interet collectif ou personnel. A partir d'une grande etude conduite en 2001, nous montrons que l'explication la plus frequente pour soutenir une telle legislation qui vise la question raciale, est ancree dans la perception d'une discrimination et d'une ideologie de gauche qui inclut l'egalitarisme, le soutien aux syndicats et un militantisme pro-greves. De meme, notre analyse revele que les minorites racialisees sont plus en faveur de politiques d'equite envers les races, alors que les personnes a revenus plus eleves le sont moins. Les implications de ces politiques font l'objet d'un debat.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Clark-Kazak et al. as discussed by the authors used interviews with service providers and older adult abuse victims in the Toronto Punjabi and Tamil communities to answer questions regarding the causes of family violence, barriers to obtaining services, and proposed solutions.
Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the intersections of age, generation, immigrant status, and racialization. In particular, it will bring into the discussion: (1) the perspectives of victims and service providers on the causes of, barriers to, and alleviation of abuse of older adults; and (2) continuities and changes in the social meanings of age, including the intersectionalities between age and other social hierarchies, such as immigrant status and membership in a racialized group. Using data obtained from a study consisting of interviews of service providers, and older adult abuse victims in the Toronto Punjabi and Tamil communities, this paper seeks to answer questions regarding the causes of family violence, barriers to obtaining services, and proposed solutions. The main themes arising from the respondents' views fall within structural and cultural categories, with language barriers, the role of culture, and stigmatization among others emerging as key factors. Importantly, the data suggests that there exists a disconnect between victims and service providers, with the majority of victims supporting an anti-racist approach, while the majority of service providers fall within the multicultural model. This study suggests that the problem of abuse of older adults is compounded by deficient service provision and government policy. The recommended solution is to reach beyond culturally and linguistically specific services toward full engagement with immigrant communities, to prevent further harm toward older immigrant adults. Resume Cet article contribue a la recherche menee aux points de croisement de l'age, de la generation, du statut d'immigre et de la racialisation. II enrichit particulierement le debat portant sur: 1) les perspectives des victimes et des fournisseurs de services sur ce qui cause, entrave ou reduit les abus envers les personnes agees, et 2) la continuite et les changements au sens social de la vieillesse, y inclus les intersectionalites entre l'age et d'autres hierarchies sociales, telles que le statut d'immigre ou l'appartenance a un groupe racialise. Nous nous fondons sur les donnees recueillies dans une etude menee a partir d'entrevues avec des prestataires de services et des aines victimes d'abus dans les communautes punjabies et tamiles de Toronto, pour tenter ici de repondre aux questions sur les causes de la violence familiale, les obstacles a l'obtention de services et les solutions proposees. Les principaux themes souleves du point de vue des repondants tombent dans des categories structurelles et culturelles, dont les facteurs cles qui emergent parmi d'autres sont la barriere de la langue, le role de la culture et la stigmatisation. Il est important de souligner que les donnees indiquent un fosse entre les victimes et les pourvoyeurs de services, la majorite des unes supportant une approche antiraciste, alors que les autres s'inscrivent en majorite dans le modele multiculturel. Cette etude donne a penser que le probleme de l'abus de personnes agees est aggrave par une offre de services et une politique gouvernementale deficientes. La solution recommandee est d'aller au-dela de services specifiquement culturels et linguistiques pour s'engager totalement aupres des communautes immigrees afin d'eviter que les torts envers leurs aines continuent. INTRODUCTION Age and generation have socially constructed meanings that are culturally specific and that change over time and across location (Clark-Kazak 2009). Thus, in the migration process, typical age-related constructs and intergenerational relations and hierarchies may undergo shifts and renegotiations (Clark-Kazak 2009). While intergenerational relations in immigrant families can be both harmonious and conflictridden (Tyyska 2007), focusing on the latter allows for an examination of the continuities and changes in intergenerational relations and age-related status. In this paper, the meanings of age and generation are examined in relation to abuse against older adults by their children and/or their children's partners (inlaws). …

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the factors of inequality of earnings and of poverty relative to Canadian immigrants during the period of 1990 to 2006 and found that immigrants from developing countries have been the most harmed by economic fluctuations.
Abstract: A l'aide des micro-donnees confidentielles des recensements, ce travail examine les facteurs de l'inegalite de revenu et de la pauvrete des immigres au Canada des annees 1990 a 2006. Les resultats montrent que les immigres en provenance des pays en voie de developpement ont ete les plus atteints par les fluctuations economiques. Ils disposent en effet de revenus inferieurs a ceux des Canadiens de naissance et a ceux des immigres venus d'autres pays et, en sus, le rendement de leur capital humain a diminue entre 1991 et 2006. L'importance des flux migratoires venant des pays en voie de developpement a accru l'heterogeneite sociale de la population immigree, aggravant a la fois l'inegalite de revenu entre les immigres du Sud et les autres immigres, et parmi les premiers. Abstract: This paper is based on confidential data from some Censuses and examines the factors of inequality of earnings and of poverty relative to Canadian immigrants during the period of 1990 to 2006. The results of our analysis show that immigrants from developing countries have been the most harmed by economic fluctuations. They have less income than either native-born Canadians or immigrants from other countries; in addition, the return on their human capital has diminished between 1991 and 2006. The importance of migratory flux from developing countries has increased the social heterogeneity of the immigrant population, and has aggravated the inequality of income within the group of immigrants from the South as well as between them and other immigrants.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Based on a 2011 survey of 1,090 minority migrant workers in Lanzhou, a northwestern city of China, the authors examines two aspects of integration: an objective one that measures access to social security benefits, and a subjective one that gauges the belief of inequity in employment opportunity.
Abstract: Past research on China’s migrant workers—those officially registered in agricultural households but work in the city—has shown that China’s hukou system, or registration system, restricts them from obtaining city household registration, without which access to social security is limited. Little research has been done on the integration of migrant workers of minority origin. Based on a 2011 survey of 1,090 minority migrant workers in Lanzhou, a northwestern city of China, this paper examines two aspects of integration: an objective one that measures access to social security benefits, and a subjective one that gauges the belief of inequity in employment opportunity. The paper argues that integration of minority migrant workers in China involves being treated equally in basic benefits as urbanites, and such treatment affects their sense of fairness in the labour market. The findings suggest that integration of minority migrant workers involves not only cultural or economic factors, but also issues of entitlement and sense of inequality. Abstract: La recherche sur les travailleurs migrants chinois - ceux qui ont ete officiellement inscrits dans des familles d’agriculteurs, mais qui travaillaient en ville - a montre que le systeme chinois hukou , ou systeme d’enregistrement, limitait leur capacite a obtenir l’immatriculation dans des familles urbaines, indispensable pour avoir acces a la securite sociale. Il y a eu peu de recherche sur l’integration de travailleurs migrants d’origine minoritaire. A partir de l’enquete de 2011 sur 1.090 d’entre eux a Lanshou, une ville du Nord de la Chine, cet article porte sur deux aspects de leur integration : l’un, objectif, mesure leur acces aux benefices de la securite sociale, l’autre, subjectif, evalue a quel point ils voient de l’iniquite dans leurs perspectives d’emploi. Nous defendons ici le fait que l’integration de travailleurs migrants appartenant a des minorites chinoises comprend le fait d’etre traite comme les autres sur la base de benefices en tant qu’urbains, et que ceci affecte leur sens d’equite dans le marche du travail. Nos conclusions donnent a penser que l’integration de ces travailleurs ne se resume pas a des facteurs culturels et economiques, mais comprend aussi des questions sur les droits et un sens de l’inegalite.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the relationship between bridging and bonding activities for identified immigrant and non-immigres groups and variables selected to measure integration through the creation of common spaces.
Abstract: This paper utilized the analytical file of the Ethnic Diversity Survey (EDS 2002) to examine the relationship between bridging and bonding activities for identified immigrant and non-immigrant groups and variables selected to measure integration through the creation of common spaces. Based on Ager and Strang’s (2004; 2008) model, we hypothesized that both bonding and bridging activities increased the likelihood of outcomes that reflect and create the common spaces increasingly associated with integration. Bridging activities were associated with the creation of common spaces, used here as a marker of integration, in almost every instance, while bonding activities were associated with integration in some but not all instances. Our analysis supports a conceptual model of integration that highlights the development of common spaces radiating outward from self-identified ethnic groups as both a means and a marker for integration. Abstract: Cet article porte sur les relations dans les activites qui favorisent l’affectif et le relationnel pour les groupes d’immigres et de non-immigres identifies par le dossier analytique de l’Enquete sur la diversite ethnique (EDE 2002) sur lequel il s’appuie, et sur les variables selectionnees pour mesurer leur integration par la creation d’espaces communs. A partir du modele d’Ager et Strang (2004, 2008), nous avons pose l’hypothese que ces deux activites suscitent et refletent bien davantage de tels espaces toujours plus lies a l’integration en question. Dans presque tous les cas, celles a caractere relationnel ont ete associees a l’etablissement de terrains communs qui servent de marqueurs d’insertion, tandis que celles a caractere affectif n’ont eu qu’un effet d’inclusion dans certaines circonstances, mais pas dans toutes. Notre analyse soutient un modele conceptuel d’integration qui met en lumiere le developpement d’espaces communs en expansion a partir de groupes se definissant comme ethniques, a la fois comme facteur et comme marqueur inclusifs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Hutterites are a religious sect, an ethnic group, and a communal brotherhood as mentioned in this paper, and they have resisted assimilation and held onto their language, their schools and socialization processes, their clothing and their lifestyle.
Abstract: The Hutterites are a religious sect, an ethnic group, and a communal brotherhood. Since their arrival in North America in 1874, they have resisted assimilation and held onto their language, their schools and socialization processes, their clothing and their lifestyle. Two clan groups of Hutterites relocated to Alberta in 1918. During and after World War Two, the freedom of these Hutterites to buy land on which to establish new colonies was curtailed by legislation. It was not until 1973 that the incoming Lougheed government repealed the Communal Property Act. This paper describes Hutterite expansion during the past thirty-five years and examines the changing context in which their locational decisions have been made. First, the attitudes of the main "actors" - the government, the Hutterites and the people of Alberta - are evaluated, and then some of the issues that have remained contentious are examined. Resume: Les Hutterites sont une secte religieuse, un groupe ethnique et une fraternite communale. Depuis leur arrivee en Amerique du Nord en 1874, ils ont resiste a toute assimilation et garde leur langue, leurs ecoles et leurs processus de socialisation, leur mode vestimentaire et leur style de vie. Deux groupes de clans hutterites se sont relocalises en Alberta en 1918. Pendant et apres la Seconde Guerre mondiale, leur liberte d'acquerir des terres sur lesquelles etablir de nouvelles colonies a ete limitee par la legislation. Ce n'est pas avant 1970 que le nouveau gouvernement Lougheed a rescinde le Loi sur la propriete communale. Dans cet article, nous decrivons l'expansion des Hutterites au cours des trente-cinq dernieres annees et nous examinons les changement du contexte dans lequel leurs decisions de localisation ont ete prises. Nous evaluons d'abord les attitudes des principaux «acteurs» - le gouvernement, les Hutterites et la population albertaine -, et nous nous penchons ensuite sur quelques uns des problemes qui sont restes un objet de contention.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The papers of Bartholomew O'Brien, innkeeper and broker of silver, offer a fresh look at Montreal's Irish Catholic community in the 1840s as discussed by the authors and illustrate the way an individual navigated an "ethnicized" social network and circulated resources between the market economy and the gift economy, spheres that Ferdinand Tonnies termed the Gesellschaft and the Gemeinschaft.
Abstract: The papers of Bartholomew O'Brien, innkeeper and broker of silver, offer a fresh look at Montreal's Irish Catholic community in the 1840s. His interventions illustrate the way an individual navigated an "ethnicized" social network and circulated resources between the market economy and the gift economy, spheres that Ferdinand Tonnies termed the Gesellschaft and the Gemeinschaft (1887). In a city embarked on the revolution of steam power, the two circuits were braided together, and, despite the obsolescence of Tonnies' original formulation, the distinction reveals some persistent features of the invasive nature of capital and human responses to its perennial re-structuring of the urban economy. When the market faltered, each of the several ethnic communities worked to buffer its members through a personal web of trust. The evidence is based on archival sources: O'Brien's own correspondence and daybook, parish registers, and leases and loans conserved in notaries' repertories. Resume: Les papiers de Bartholomew O'Brien, aubergiste et changeur d'argent, offrent une nouvelle perspective sur la communaute irlando-catholique de Montreal. Membre de la generation pionniere, ses interventions au cours des annees 1840 font comprendre comment l'individu naviguait dans un reseau social «ethnicise» pour faire circuler des ressources entre l'economie du marche et l'economie du don, les deux spheres que Ferdinand Tonnies nommait Gesellschaft et Gemeinschaft (1887). Dans une ville qui amorcait une revolution industrielle, les deux circuits s'entrecroisaient. Bient qu'elle soit depassee, la distinction de Tonnies decouvre la nature envahissante du capital et la reponse humaine a la restructuration de l'economie urbaine. Lors d'une defaillance du marche, chaque communaute culturelle s'acharnait a proteger les siens en mobilisant son propre reseau de confiance. L'interpretation est fondee sur des sources archivistiques: un journal de bord tenu par O'Brien, une correspondance et comptabilite, et baux et prets conserves dans les repertoires des notaires.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the hypothesis of a relation of transitivity between the social capital categories in the South Asian associative network and find that women play an active role in their community life.
Abstract: The immigrant associative networks are still not well known. This subject raises two kinds of research questions: What category of social capital they do produce and what is the articulation between the various categories of social capital generated by those networks? For example, is it possible that the social capital produced by the ethnic associations that bond immigrant groups together may allow them to establish links with other networks? We explore these questions with the analysis of the Montreal South Asian group which has contributed to the socio-demographic and cultural transformation of Montreal and is, nowadays, not a well-researched group in Quebec. Our study draws on various statistical sources, including the 2001 and 2006 Canadian censuses for a socio-demographic presentation of this group in Montreal. The research on the South Asian associative network is based on the analysis of 39 interviews with community leaders of the first and second generation carried out in 2006-2007 in Montreal. For comparison, we have also conducted a few additional interviews in Vancouver and Toronto. Research findings suggest that the Montreal South Asian community has achieved good community completeness. Women play an active role in their community life. We have observed that the South Asians associations create some links with other associations and with the host society. We explore the hypothesis of a relation of transitivity between the social capital categories. Resume: Les reseaux associatifs des populations issues de l'immigration sont encore mal connus. Deux grands questionnements de recherche se posent a leur sujet : quel type de capital social produisent-ils et y a-t-il une articulation entre les differentes categories de capital social generees par ces reseaux? Par exemple, le capital social qui unit les membres d'une meme communaute ou groupe, permet-il d'etablir des liens avec d'autres reseaux? Nous avons explore ces questions avec le cas de figure des Sud-Asiatiques qui ont contribue a la transformation sociodemographique et culturelle de Montreal et qui demeurent peu connus au Quebec. Notre etude s'appuie sur differentes sources statistiques, y compris les donnees des recensements de 2001 et de 2006 pour presenter le portrait sociodemographique de ce groupe a Montreal. La recherche sur le reseau associatif se base sur l'analyse de 39 entrevues realisees, de 2006 a 2007, aupres de leaders sud-asiatiques de premiere et de seconde generation dans la region de Montreal. Quelques entretiens complementaires ont ete faits a Vancouver et a Toronto dans un but comparatif. Notre recherche revele que cette communaute a un reseau communautaire assez complet, ou les femmes jouent un role important. Nous avons observe que les associations sud-asiatiques etablissent des liens avec d'autres types d'associations ainsi qu'avec d'autres reseaux. Nous explorons aussi l'hypothese d'une relation de transitivite entre les diverses categories de capital social.