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Showing papers in "Canadian Journal of Higher Education in 2005"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined how theoretical constructs of refl ective practice were applied in the context of an 8-month UBC Faculty Certifi cate Program on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (FCP).
Abstract: Refl ecting on one’s teaching practice is often an implicit goal for faculty development programs. Yet very little has been documented how programs for diverse groups of university teachers actually engage faculty in such refl ection. This paper examines how theoretical constructs of refl ective practice were applied in the context of an 8-month UBC Faculty Certifi cate Program on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (FCP). The Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) was particularly useful for providing faculty cohort members with a means of looking more deeply at the underlying values and assumptions that constituted their philosophical orientations to teaching. Furthermore, a change in faculty members’ TPI scores indicate that participants refl ected more comprehensively on their teaching at the end of the program, than they did at the beginning of the program. Barriers to facilitating refl ection included inadequate time allocation, unclear expectations and goals for refl ection activities, and varying cultural norms for refl ective teaching practices within academe.

98 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored general issues relating to globalization and higher education; the internationalization of higher education, and particularly the recruitment of international students, and examined through a range of topics around the global development of the market approach to international students and a focus on the current situation regarding the recruitment in the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology in Ontario.
Abstract: This paper explores general issues relating to globalization and higher education; the internationalization of higher education, and particularly the recruitment of international students. This subject is examined through a range of topics around the global development of the market approach to the recruitment of international students and a focus on the current situation regarding the recruitment of international students in the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology in Ontario (CAATs). As the number of international students seeking educational opportunities grows to 7 million over the next 20 years, the ability of the CAATs, the Canadian educational system, and the governments of Ontario and Canada to market the welcoming and safe multicultural Canadian experience, and the excellence of the educational offerings and opportunities in CAATs to potential international students will, in great measure, determine their success and their survival in an increasingly globalized world.

86 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, students, faculty and administrators at a major Canadian university were surveyed to investigate the utility or "consequential validity" of student ratings of instructors, and the results of the present study indicate that while the utility of data from student ratings is quite variable, there is evidence of "consistent validity" particularly from administrators.
Abstract: Students, faculty and administrators at a major Canadian university were surveyed to investigate the utility or "consequential validity" of student ratings of instructors. Of the 1,229 (approximately equal number of males and females) students and alumni, about half (52%) indicated that they had never used the ratings, but of those who did use it, many (47%) reported using it several times to select courses and/or instructors. The majority (84%) of faculty members (n = 357) gave favorable responses about the usefulness of student ratings for improving quality of teaching. Paradoxically, even though faculty members were positive about the student ratings, they did not generally use them to make changes in their teaching. The majority (87%) of administrators (n = 52) stated that they use the student ratings for various purposes including decisions about faculty merit and tenure. Students, faculty and administrators considered the overall course instruction to be the most useful type of information derived from the student ratings. The results of the present study indicate that while the utility of data from student ratings of instructors is quite variable, there is evidence of "consequential validity" particularly from administrators.

79 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used individual data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey to consider economic factors in university participation decisions by persons aged 17-24 from 1976 to 2003, and found that higher tuition levels in the 1990s did reduce the probability of university participation by people aged 17,18 or 19 relative to a province-specific trend increase in university enrollment.
Abstract: The study uses individual data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey to consider economic factors in university participation decisions by persons aged 17-24 from 1976 to 2003. The level of real tuition is one economic factor that may affect the university participation decision. There is also regional variation in the opportunity cost of university attendance; in the reduction in the probability of unemployment after obtaining a university degree; and in the proportion of university budgets used for financial support of students. In addition, there is some national variation by gender and over time in the return to a university education. This study finds that higher tuition levels in the 1990s did reduce the probability of university participation by persons aged 17,18 or 19 relative to a province- specific trend increase in university participation. Before drawing a policy conclusion from this result, it would be necessary to consider what the trend terms represent in the university participation decision.

40 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that introverted, conscientious students living in traditional dormitory-style buildings may be more at risk of feeling "out-of-place" in residence, while those living in suite style buildings reported a greater sense of belonging and higher activity levels.
Abstract: This study was designed to measure affective, behavioural, and cognitive variables in a sample of 3159 first-year students, and to compare these variables by the type of residence building in which the student lived. Students living in suite-style buildings reported a greater sense of belonging, and higher activity levels than students living in dormitory- style buildings. Furthermore, sense of belonging was predicted by high extraversion and low conscientiousness. This suggests that introverted, conscientious students living in traditional dormitory-style buildings may be most at-risk of feeling “out-of-place” in residence.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reflect on their participation in a pedagogy and technology (referred to as PedTech) pilot project, describe some of the relationships that developed between ourselves as researchers and evaluators and our faculty collaborators, and share what they have learned from this experience.
Abstract: It is widely assumed that developments in information and communication technologies are fundamentally transforming and improving higher education. As a part of an ongoing evaluation of technology-supported pedagogy in one university, our three-year research project was designed, on the one hand, to determine if and how selected technologies were beneficial for learning and, on the other hand, to offer professional development for faculty members. In this paper, we reflect on our participation in a pedagogy and technology (referred to as PedTech) pilot project, describe some of the relationships that developed between ourselves as researchers and evaluators and our faculty collaborators, and share what we have learned from this experience. We suggest that a scholarship of teaching approach to evaluating innovations in teaching and learning is one way to support institution-wide adoption.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the nature and extent to which brain drain occurs by examining the geographic migration and mobility patterns over a 10-year period of a large sample of young adults from British Columbia.
Abstract: In recent years, the topic of "brain drain" has gained considerable attention, both in public and intellectual spheres. Despite the media frenzy, few data sets and related studies exist to examine the nature and extent to which brain drain occurs. The purpose of this study is to extend the scope of the way we think about "brain drain," both conceptually and analytically, by examining the geographic migration and mobility patterns over a 10 year period of a large sample of young adults from British Columbia. Through analyses of detailed longitudinal questionnaire data, we examine geographic mobility patterns in relation to (a) B.C. college region of origin, (b) post-secondary educational completion patterns, and (c) gender. Findings reveal that migration patterns are both gendered and geographically complex. Our findings support the claim that brain drain to the U.S. is a mere trickle, not a flood. When examining gender differences of respondents living in the U.S. and outside North America, the vast majority of women who live outside of Canada have earned university credentials, which suggests that global mobility for women appears to be related to university degree completion. These findings challenge the narrow definition of brain drain as simply a Canada - U.S.A. issue where Canada's "best and brightest" are lured from Canada and invite us to consider the implications of intra- and extra-provincial brain drain (and gain), primarily within the confines of Canada.

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discusses different kinds of institutional quality, how quality is formed and how it can be measured, particularly by comparison, and discusses the subtle but fundamental differences between quality and reputation, and concludes with the suggestion that world-class comparisons of research quality and productivity are possible, but that any broader application to the "world-class" quality of universities will be at best futile and at worst misleading.
Abstract: Can all the universities that claim to be “world-class” actually live up to the claim? If they could be, would that be desirable public policy? It could be that there are so many different meanings of “world-class” that the term in practical effect is an oxymoron: the definition of “world” is determined locally when conceptually it should be defined internationally. This paper discusses different kinds of institutional quality, how quality is formed and how it can be measured, particularly by comparison. It also discusses the subtle but fundamental differences between quality and reputation. The paper concludes with the suggestion that world-class comparisons of research quality and productivity are possible, but that any broader application to the “world-class” quality of universities will be at best futile and at worst misleading.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrate how the method of meaning implication discourse analysis can be applied in the context of online collaborative reflective practice of student teachers and present two studies in which online "conversations" of pre-service teachers are analyzed.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the method of meaning implication discourse analysis can be applied in the context of online collaborative reflective practice of student teachers. The method was developed to identify knowledge building in networked contexts. It derives from the model of meaning implication developed by Piaget, and the model of “schematization” proposed by Grize. It also borrows from the knowledge building theory developed by Scardamalia and Bereiter. The method allows understanding knowledge construction as an evolving process of conceptual change and learning through argumentation. We present two studies in which online “conversations” of pre-service teachers are analyzed. Contributions for higher education are discussed.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined manifest anxiety and perceptions of English and French language competence among Anglophone, Francophone and Mixed-heritage elementary education (60%) and secondary education (40%) students (80% female) in their second, third, or fourth year of study at the Faculte Saint Jean (University of Alberta).
Abstract: The authors examined manifest anxiety and perceptions of English and French language competence among Anglophone (n = 35), Francophone (n = 29), and Mixed-heritage (n = 34) elementary education (60%) and secondary education (40%) students (80% female) in their second, third, or fourth year of study at the Faculte Saint Jean (University of Alberta). Participants assessed their language competence differently in English and French. Francophone and Mixed-heritage students felt equally competent in the two languages, but Anglophone students reported much higher language competence in English. Manifest anxiety and self-assessments of language competence were related only among the Anglophone group, with high levels of manifest anxiety associated with both low self-assessments of French language competence and high selfassessments of English language competence—the two being correlated with each other.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that a substantial proportion of students tended to be more interested in acquiring a diploma than the learning that it represents, and younger students devalued learning to a greater extent than older students.
Abstract: This article develops the construct of degree purchasing as an instrumental orientation towards education in which students value education primarily as a vehicle for labour market participation rather than as an avenue for learning. This study of 188 Canadian university students found that a substantial proportion of students tended to be more interested in acquiring a diploma than the learning that it represents. Female students were more instrumentally oriented than male students, and younger students devalued learning to a greater extent than older students. Finally, a degree purchasing orientation was associated with poor study habits, the use of resistance strategies in the classroom, low positive affect, and poor course performance. Implications for higher education and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a qualitative study investigated how students adapt to medical school and found that while students initially found the workload stressful, the implementation of specifi c learning skills facilitated the adjustment to medical education.
Abstract: This qualitative study investigated how students adapt to medical school. Thirty-six medical students completed an e-mail survey exploring the transition from pre-medical to medical education, the use of learning strategies, and self-regulated learning practices. Their responses highlighted the challenges of medical education and the learning skills that lead to the successful mastery of course demands. Respondents identifi ed volume of information as the major transition issue. Key strategies used were establishing balance, selectively targeting information, and controlling stress. Strong metacognitive abilities and other self-regulating activities were identifi ed. Findings indicated that while students initially found the workload stressful, the implementation of specifi c learning skills facilitated the adjustment to medical school. The study provides information on how high achieving students learn when confronted with new academic demands.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the role of the colleges in applied research in the context of Canada's capability for innovation in a globally competitive arena is discussed, focusing upon issues around an expanded mandate related to applied research.
Abstract: This paper discusses the role of the colleges in applied research in the context of Canada's capability for innovation in a globally competitive arena. The analysis focuses upon issues around an expanded mandate related to applied research. To explore the state of readiness of the college sector, it draws upon the results of a survey distributed to 150 college and institute presidents in Canada, as well as upon other recent studies. The discussion ends with suggested policy avenues to maximize the effectiveness of this sector's contribution to the nation's innovation agenda.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the earnings of visible minority graduates and their non-visible minority counterparts who received degrees in 1994 using data from the 1997 Alberta University Graduate Survey and found no evidence of racial discrimination against visible minority members who obtained their post-secondary educational credentials in Alberta.
Abstract: Using data from the 1997 Alberta University Graduate Survey, this study compares earnings of visible minority graduates and their non-visible minority counterparts who received degrees in 1994. The central question is whether investments in human capital in the form of Canadian post- secondary education by visible minority members and other graduates yield similar returns in the Canadian labour market. Multiple regression analysis results indicate that earnings of visible minority graduates do not differ significantly from those of other graduates, although several interesting interaction effects are observed. Overall, this study provides no evidence of racial discrimination against visible minority members who obtained their post-secondary educational credentials in Alberta.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose six conceptions du changement (adaptative, evolutive, transpersonnelle, transformative, societale, interactionnelle) for education.
Abstract: Des ecrits scientifiques presentent souvent le changement comme une constante entrainant des effets d’instabilite. Le present article envisage ce discours comme un discours parmi d’autres en s’appuyant sur la conception du savoir-pouvoir et de discours de Foucault. Il propose six conceptions du changement (adaptative, evolutive, transpersonnelle, transformative, societale, interactionnelle) en s’inspirant de diverses classifications des theories de l’education. Pour chacune de ces conceptions sont precises les intentions, les objets et les indices de changements qu’elles privilegient. Envisager les enjeux du changement sous l’angle de l’interaction de diverses conceptions pourrait constituer une strategie viable dans l’introduction de reformes et dans la planification d’activites de formation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined perceptions of preparedness for post-secondary education in the province of Ontario and found that Grade 12 students reported feeling less prepared overall for the challenges of university, especially in terms of the acquisition of specific academic skills, as well as adjustment to the university social milieu.
Abstract: This study examined perceptions of preparedness for post-secondary education in the province of Ontario. Participants were 272 university students enrolled in the first year of a four-or five-year concurrent teacher education program and represented two distinctive groups: (a) entrants who had completed the old five-year Ontario Academic Credit system, and (b) those who were admitted to university via the new four-year program. They responded to a questionnaire which inquired into the degree to which they believed that their final year of secondary school had adequately prepared them for the transition to university level studies. Although data analysis did not reveal any significant difference between the two groups in terms of academic achievement, Grade 12s reported feeling less prepared overall for the challenges of university, especially in terms of the acquisition of specific academic skills, as well as adjustment to the university social milieu.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a sondage a ete administre a deux reprises a cohorte de 67 etudiantes of l'Annee de baccalaureat inscrites a un cours de didactique de l'ecrit: au debut de la session and a la fin du cours.
Abstract: Cet article a pour objectif de decrire l'evolution des representations des futurs enseignants a propos de l'enseignement du francais ecrit en fonction de leur maitrise linguistique et de l'adequation entre celle-ci et leur perception de competence en francais. Pour ce faire, un sondage a ete administre a deux reprises a une cohorte de 67 etudiantes de lre annee de baccalaureat inscrites a un cours de didactique de l'ecrit: au debut de la session et a la fin du cours. Ce sondage evaluait les croyances relatives a dix themes abordes dans le cadre du cours. De facon generale, a la suite de ce cours, les representations des etudiantes se sont modifiees, de maniere variable selon les conceptions evaluees. La competence linguistique influence la capacite a faire evoluer les representations de maniere positive: plus on est forte en francais ecrit, plus la perception de competence est ajustee et plus on est ouverte a la formation didactique dispensee ; plus on est faible en francais, plus on surestime sa competence et moins on parvient a tirer parti de la formation pour faire evoluer ses representations. Ces resultats sont particulierement importants pour concevoir un programme de formation initiale des maitres voue au succes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigated the direction of university programming in Manitoba over a 35-year period in terms of the perception of growth of the labour market orientation of universities and found that new liberal arts, applied, and mixed programs have increased at roughly the same proportions over the same period in question.
Abstract: This investigation seeks to develop data to help understand the direction being taken in university programming in Manitoba over a 35-year period in terms of the perception of alleged growth of the labour market orientation of universities. The impact of the political party in power is examined, as are features of the post-secondary program approval process developed by the intermediary agencies responsible for university matters in Manitoba. Findings suggest that new liberal arts, applied, and mixed programs have increased at roughly the same proportions over the 35-year period in question. Evidence is found, however, of a more recent emphasis on applied programming, supporting claims that university programming is increasingly becoming labour market oriented.