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JournalISSN: 0318-6431

Canadian Journal of Sociology 

About: Canadian Journal of Sociology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Politics & Social movement. It has an ISSN identifier of 0318-6431. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 765 publication(s) have been published receiving 13157 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: * Contents * Foreword - John Gaventa * Part 1: Science and Citizenship * 1. Introduction: Science, citizenship and globalization - Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones and Brian Wynne * 2. Science and citizenship in a global context - Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones * Part 2: Beyond risk: defining the terrain * Commentary - Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones and Brian Wynne * 3. The post-normal science of safety - Jerry Ravetz * 4. Are scientists irrational? Risk assessment in practical reason - Frank Fischer * 5. Risk as globalizing 'democratic' discourse? Framing subjects and citizens - Brian Wynne * 6. Knowledge, justice and democracy -Shiv Visvanathan * Part 3: Citizens engaging with science * Commentary - Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones, Brian Wynne * 7. Myriad stories: Constructing expertise and citizenship in discussions of the new genetics - Richard Tutton, Anne Kerr and Sarah Cunningham-Burley * 8. AIDS, science and citizenship after apartheid - Steven Robins * 9. Demystifying occupational and environmental health: Experiences from India- Murlidhar V. * 10. Absentee expertise: Science advice for biotechnology regulation in developing countries - Kees Jansen and Esther Roquas * 11. Interrogating China's biotechnology revolution: Contesting dominant science policy cultures in the risk society - James Keeley * 12. Environmental perception and political mobilization in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo: A comparative analysis - Angela Alonso and Valeriano Costa * 13. 'Let Them Eat Cake': GM Foods and the Democratic Imagination - Sheila Jasanoff * 14. Plant biotechnology and the rights of the poor: A technographic approach - Paul Richards * Part 4: Participation and the politics of engagement * Commentary - Melissa Leach, Ian Scoones, Brian Wynne * 15. Opening up or closing down? Analysis, participation and power in the social appraisal of technology - Andy Stirling * 16. Geographic information systems for participation - John Forrester and Steve Cinderby * 17. Democratizing science in the UK: The case of radioactive waste management - Jason Chilvers * 18. Genetic engineering in Aotearoa New Zealand: A case of opening up or closing down debate? - Audley Genus and Tee Rogers-Hayden * 19. Exploring food and farming futures in Zimbabwe: A citizens' jury and scenario workshop experiment - Elijah Rusik

400 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: . Les sciences sociales ont invente toute une serie de concepts pour surmonter l'opposition entre action individuelle et collective. Un des apports de l'anthropologie des sciences et des techniques (AST) est de montrer que cette opposition ne constitue qu'une des configurations construites par l'action et sa distribution. Pour restituer la diversite de ces configurations l'AST a elabore quatre principes. Le premier affirme le caractere heterogene du social. Le deuxieme conduit a considerer que toute entite est une realite assimilable au reseau des elements heterogenes. Le troisieme affirme que les entites sont a geometrie variable et qu'elles reorientent l'action dans des directions imprevisibles. Le quatrieme propose que tout arrangement social stabilise est a la fois un point (un individu) et un reseau (un collectif). L'analyse sociologique, si elle veut surmonter l'opposition entre individualisme et holisme, doit donc se donner pour objet l'etude de ces differentes configurations hybrides. Resume. The social sciences have devised a series of strategies in order to overcome the division between individual and collective action. However, science, technology and society (STS) has shown that this distinction is only one possible configuration for action and its distribution. In order to investigate other possible configurations, STS proposes four principles: that the social is heterogeneous in character; that all entities are networks of heterogeneous elements; that these networks are both variable in geometry and in principle unpredictable; and that every stable social arrangement is simultaneously a point (an individual) and a network (a collective). If sociological analysis is to overcome the individualism/holism division it should attend to the range of hybrid configurations. "For at the intersection of all these fields we sense that the same basic message is being conveyed -- a message that seems indeed over the course of the centuries to have almost attained the status of an accepted truth. This is the assertion that reality -- all reality -- can be conceived of as a construction that one should be able to lean on, and as something that must be manipulated. Arts and wisdom, as the Chinese conceived of them, should be devoted to the strategic exploitation of the propensity inherent in reality; they should be designed so as to cause a maximal effect." (Francois Jullien, La Propension des Choses, Paris: Seuil, 1992, page 15) Introduction Many cultures manage perfectly well without it. For instance, those of the Papua New Guinea Highlands (Strathern 1991) -- or, perhaps less exotically, that of the Japanese. Indeed, the very translation of Euro-American social thought into Japanese is extraordinarily difficult. For the whole idea of the "individual" and "society" is foreign to Japanese culture. There is a fascinating story to be retold about the conversion of these terms into Japanese neologisms -- the ugly neologisms needed to import Euro-American social science and its problems into Japan. And another equally interesting story to be told of teaching about the distinction between the individual and society to eighteen-year olds in Japanese universities -- students who tend to come from places which perform continuities between the collective and the personal, rather than divisions or dualisms. (2) Are the Japanese disadvantaged? Perhaps. But perhaps not. For maybe what appears to be a Japanese problem is really one of Euro-American making. And one that should be treated as a burden, indeed an unnecessary burden. Such, at any rate, is the thesis that we explore in this paper. That the Euro-American distinction between the individual and the collective--current since at least the Enlightenment, though no doubt preceding this by many centuries -- is unsatisfactory. And that the space created by the division and the intellectual games it generates are unnecessary, perhaps even sterile. …

341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The notion of social cohesion appears when policy communities are engaged in discussing and redesigning citizenship regimes. One aspect of the citizenship regime with which reformers are concerned is the welfare architecture, and in particular the kind of state needed in the new knowl- edge economy. The main proposition of this paper is that a redesigned welfare structure, undertaken by policy communities concerned about social cohesion, is often one that envisages a social invest- ment state. To explore this hypothesis, the paper proceeds in three steps. First, it briefly documents the emergence in a number of settings of the discourse of "social investment." Second, it maps the differences between two citizenship regimes, the post-war one anchored in social rights and the one under construction now. The paper then turns to examine the consequences of this new regime for the design of social policy in the first decades of the 21st century.

297 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A widely recognised central tenet of New Labour’s ‘Third Way’ is no rights without responsibilities. The extent to which this idea underpins the British government’s approach to welfare reform has been extensively commented upon. Initially, the article places the UK reforms in the context of wider theoretical debates about welfare reform in Western states. It then highlights the ways in which a principle of conditionality is being practically applied in a wide range of sectors in the UK including; social security, housing, education, and health. The details and impact of recent relevant legislation and initiatives are discussed. It is argued that as policies based on conditional entitlement become central to the ongoing process of welfare reform the very idea of ‘welfare rights’ is systematically undermined.

213 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This approach makes it possible to analyse different types of differentiation within a common conceptual framework, and to elaborate on internal problems of differentiated societies, basing the autonomy of subsystems on the multiplication of system references for functional orientation, performance, and reflexion.
Abstract: Recent developments in systems theory have replaced the paradigm of the whole and its parts with the paradigm of system and environment. System differentiation, therefore, has to be conceived as the reduplication of the difference between system and environment within systems. Differentiation is the reflexive form of system building. In the special case of the society as the encompassing social system, this approach makes it possible (1) to analyse different types of differentiation (i.e. segmentation, stratification, and functional differentiation) within a common conceptual framework, (2) to elaborate on internal problems of differentiated societies, basing the autonomy of subsystems on the multiplication of system references for functional orientation, performance, and reflexion, and (3) to prepare the theoretical integration of systems theory and the theory of evolution. Resume Des developpements recents dans la theorie des systemes viennent de remplacer le paradigme du tout et de ses composants par celui du paradigme du systeme et de son milieu. Par consequent, la differentiation du systeme doit etre concue comme le redoublement de la difference qui existe entre le systeme et l'environnement a l'interieur des systemes. La differentiation represente la forme reflechie de la construction d'un systeme. Dans le cas special de la societe concue comme systeme social ambiant, cette approche permet de rendre possible (1) l'analyse des types varies de differentiation (a savoir la segmentation, la stratification et la differentiation fonctionnelle) a l'interieur d'un cadre conceptuel commun; (2) d'etudier en detail les problemes internes des societes differenciees, en basant l'autonomie des sous-systemes sur la multiplication des references appliquees aux systemes pour l'orientation, fonctionnelle l'execution et la reflexion; et (3) de preparer l'integration theorique de la th6orie des systemes et de la th6orie de l'volution.

211 citations

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