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Showing papers in "Canadian Journal of Sociology in 2009"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that people who were disrupted tended to be younger than 60, lived on their own, cared for other family members, or other barriers, and social context played a key role in shaping patients’ biography and chronic illness trajectory.
Abstract: Chronic disease management strategies are largely based on single disease models, yet patients often need to manage multiple conditions. This study uses the concepts of ‘chronic illness trajectory’ and ‘biographical disruption’ to examine how patients self-manage multiple chronic conditions and especially how they prioritize which condition(s) will receive the greatest attention. Fifty-three people with multiple chronic illnesses participated in one of 6 focus groups. The results suggest that people who were disrupted tended to be younger than 60, lived on their own, cared for other family members, or other barriers. Many participants anticipated subsequent illnesses given their age and prior experience with illness. In order to cope with their multiple illnesses most felt it was necessary to prioritize their ‘main’ illness. Their reasons for prioritizing a particular illness included: (1) the unpredictable nature of the disease; (2) the condition could not be controlled by tablets; and (3) the condition tended to set off the rest of their health problems. Social context played a key role in shaping patients’ biography and chronic illness trajectory.

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the Canadian human papillomavirus vaccination campaign in order to analyze the ways in which HPV and the threat of cervical cancer are framed as well as the individual risk management strategies that are made available to mothers and their daughters.
Abstract: This article examines the Canadian human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination campaign in order to analyze the ways in which HPV and the threat of cervical cancer are framed as well as the individual risk management strategies that are made available to mothers and their daughters. The authors argue that the HPV campaign is illustrative of the moralization of health, a convergence of the regulatory discourses of moralization and medicalization in an era of bio-politics. Significantly, these discourses are put into play by a complex professional alliance that is mobilized by the extensive resources of the pharmaceutical industry. The convergence of both medical and market interests responsibilizes parents, specifically mothers, as well as schools, resulting in a vaccination program that verges on one that is mandatory. As such, HPV and cer-vical cancer prevention discourses constitute a moral regulation project directed at the regulation of the bodies of young women.

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a series of interviews with 22 Maghrebins living in Montreal and Sherbrooke, Quebec, to investigate the evolution of the reseaux of these immigrants.
Abstract: Afin d’identifier les explications que donnent des acteurs d’origine maghrebine des difficultes qu’ils rencontrent a inserer le marche de l’emploi quebecois, nous avons mene entre 2001 et 2004 des entrevues aupres de 22 Maghrebins en recherche d’emploi a Montreal et Sherbrooke. Des entrevues ont aussi ete menees avec 15 intervenants d’organismes gouvernementaux et para gouvernementaux œuvrant aupres d’une clientele en recherche d’emploi, dont des Maghrebins. Dans cet article, l’objectif est de saisir a travers les trajectoires individuelles et collectives l’evolution des reseaux de ces immigrants. Nous verrons notamment que la presence d’une communaute de meme origine ethnoculturelle ne peut garantir l’elargissement des reseaux s’il n’y a pas de soutien institutionnel significatif et ce, tant du cote de la societe que de la communaute elle-meme.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors apply Pierre Bourdieu's conception of relationally defined social spaces of capitals and classes that delimit highbrow and lowbrow cultural forms to Canadian society, and use categorical principal components analysis techniques and a nationally representative survey dataset from 1998 containing measures of economic capital, cultural capital and a wide range of cultural practices to construct a visual representation of Canadian social space.
Abstract: I apply Pierre Bourdieu’s conception of relationally-defined social spaces of capitals and classes that delimit highbrow and lowbrow cultural forms to Canadian society. I use categorical principal components analysis techniques and a nationally representative survey dataset from 1998 containing measures of economic capital, cultural capital and a wide range of cultural practices to construct a visual representation of Canadian social space which is directly inspired by the social space for 1960s France crafted by Bourdieu in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (Bourdieu 1984). After identifying nascent class groupings and potentially highbrow and lowbrow cultural practices in my depiction of social space, I speculate on precisely how such cultural practices might factor into class dynamics in Canada, in particular examining the role played by “cultural omnivorism” in identifying and reinforcing class distinctions.

35 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Anne Mesny1
TL;DR: In this paper, four positions regarding the status of sociologists' knowledge versus lay people's knowledge are explored: superiority, homology, complementarity, circularity, and circularity.
Abstract: This paper attempts to clarify or to reposition some of the controversies generated by Burawoy’s defense of public sociology and by his vision of the mutually stimulating relationship between the different forms of sociology. Before arguing if, why, and how, sociology should or could be more ‘public’, it might be useful to reflect upon what it is we think we, as sociologists, know that ‘lay people’ do not. This paper thus explores the public sociology debate’s epistemological core, namely the issue of the relationship between sociologists’ and non-sociologists’ knowledge of the social world. Four positions regarding the status of sociologists’ knowledge versus lay people’s knowledge are explored: superiority (sociologists’ knowledge of the social world is more accurate, objective and reflexive than lay people’s knowledge, thanks to science’s methods and norms), homology (when they are made explicit, lay theories about the social world often parallel social scientists’ theories), complementarity (lay people’s and social scientists’ knowledge complement one another. The former’s local, embedded knowledge is essential to the latter’s general, disembedded knowledge), and circularity (sociologists’ knowledge continuously infuses commonsensical knowledge, and scientific knowledge about the social world is itself rooted in common sense knowledge. Each form of knowledge feeds the other). For each of these positions, implications are drawn regarding the terms, possibilities and conditions of a dialogue between sociologists and their publics, especially if we are to take the circularity thesis seriously. Conclusions point to the accountability we face towards the people we study, and to the idea that sociology is always performative, a point that has, to some extent, been obscured by Burawoy’s distinctions between professional, critical, policy and public sociologies.

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss features of the development of gambling markets, particularly the production of gambling knowledges that interact with and contribute to the constitution of these markets, and analyzes knowledge production by situating this production in relation to contemporary sociological orientations to consumption and risk in late modernity.
Abstract: This paper discusses features of the development of gambling markets, particularly the production of gambling knowledges that interact with and contribute to the constitution of these markets. While gambling expansion is predicated on the provision of “entertainment,” and where gambling is marketed as the consumption of safe risks, there is also the possibility of risky consumption and the production of problem gamblers. The paper discusses the knowledge produced around the figure of the problem gambler, and how the figure has been productive in terms of institutional developments. The risks posed by the problematic gambler (e.g. to state-owned gambling enterprises) must be “solved” in order to enable the legitimization of markets and the ongoing quest for profits/revenues. The paper analyzes knowledge production by situating this production in relation to contemporary sociological orientations to consumption and risk in late modernity.

29 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The recent spate of foreign takeovers once again raises the question of whether Canada's corporate elite is being hollowed out in a silent surrender to foreign-based transnational firms as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The recent spate of foreign takeovers once again raises the question of whether Canada’s corporate elite is being ‘hollowed out’ in a silent surrender to foreign-based transnational firms. Using data from a study of interlocking directorates among the largest corporations in Canada and the world for the years 1996 and 2006, this paper assesses whether recent changes in the Canadian corporate network indicate a process of hollowing out or the reproduction of a domestic elite within global circuits of capital.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jen Wrye1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that there is no essential petness to anything and that petness is a social construct, which can be defined as the state, quality or conditions under which a pet is constituted.
Abstract: Considerable work has considered the place of pets in humans’ lives, although most of this research takes for granted that pets are certain animals. While these perspectives provide insight into the character of human-nonhuman relationships, the assumptions underlying such research frequently invest in a conception of pets as having essential qualities. This paper explores the possibility that petness, which can generally be defined as the state, quality or conditions under which a pet is constituted, arises from socially constructed relations and the treatment of objects. Using the example of virtual pets I will argue that there is no essential ‘petness’ to anything and that petness is a social construct. More specifically, I contend that pets are the product of the investment of human emotion into objects. After outlining how such treatment is not exclusive to the animals that live close to us, but is similarly exhibited toward inanimate entities as well as other sentient creatures, I will conclude with some discussion of how pet relations can be understood in the context of late capitalism.

23 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argued that institutional drift is limiting the possibility of mutual correction between various branches of sociology, a process that is central to Burawoy's proposal, and discussed possible scenarios for the future of public sociology in Canada.
Abstract: Michael Burawoy offers an innovative call to re-integrate our discipline. Using Canada as an example, I argue that his proposal underestimates the extent of institutional separatism among branches of sociology. Influenced by anti-positivist currents in the humanities over the past two decades, critical sociologists are disconnecting from mainstream empirical research. Simultaneously, the mainstream is moving in a very different direction as it responds to developments in other social sciences, and largely ignores the humanities. I hypothesize that this institutional drift is limiting the possibility of mutual correction between various branches of sociology, a process that is central to Burawoy’s proposal. Possible scenarios for the future of public sociology in Canada are discussed in light of this hypothesis

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Burawoy himself takes this multiplicity of position-takings to be evidence for the plausibility of his own ideas about different kinds of sociology and the possibility of a fruitful, collaborative division of labour between them, but we suspect it is more likely simply an expression of the depth and the breadth of our discord concerning the basic question of what we want with our discipline as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Michael Burawoy certainly seems to have the requisite organizational and marketing savvy to be a successful ‘public sociologist.’ Preaching from a few well-chosen pulpits, the ASA Presidency first among them, he has almost singlehandedly created a multinational cottage industry busily debating his ideas about the future of our discipline. The responses have been as varied as they have been numerous. While many have been quite critical, the criticisms have originated from a bewildering range of often entirely opposite positions on the ideological-philosophical spectrum, as well as from every imaginable position in between. Burawoy himself takes this multiplicity of position-takings to be evidence for the plausibility of his own ideas about different kinds of sociology and the possibility of a fruitful, collaborative division of labour between them (Burawoy 2007: 246). But we suspect it is more likely simply an expression of the depth and the breadth of our discord concerning the basic question of what we want with our discipline .

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: As president of the American Sociological Association in 2004, Michael Burawoy initiated a lively discussion about the sociological terrain in the United States and appealed to his colleagues to engage in more "public sociology" (Burawoy, 2004, 2005a) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: As president of the American Sociological Association in 2004, Michael Burawoy initiated a lively discussion about the sociological terrain in the United States and appealed to his colleagues to engage in more ‘public sociology’ (Burawoy, 2004, 2005a). We applaud Burawoy’s efforts to begin the task of contextualizing US sociology and of renewing the challenge to embrace rather than eschew engagement with various publics. In outlining his version of public sociology, Burawoy has provided complex, thought-provoking if ambiguous conceptualizations that have led to vigorous debate and examination of core terms. In this paper, we aim to contribute to the debate by discussing feminist sociology, particularly in Canada.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A special issue of CJS illustrates the international spread of an empassioned debate among sociologists about the future direction of their discipline ignited by Michael Burawoy's call to elevate the presence and status of public sociology as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: This special issue of CJS illustrates the international spread of an empassioned debate among sociologists about the future direction of their discipline ignited by Michael Burawoy’s call to elevate the presence and status of public sociology. Burawoy’s program entails a greater engagement by sociologists with civil society (non-governmental organizations, communities, movements) in the development of their research agenda, and the production of research outputs that are more accessible, relevant, and useful to non-academic audiences. Burawoy and his supporters see the emphasis on public sociology as a way to revitalize the discipline, in particular, to solve several inter-related problems that it faces, at least in the U.S: a lack of internal coherence, declining public legitimacy, public misapprehension of what sociologists do, and minimal influence on policy-making (Burawoy 2004a, Turner 2006, Boyns and Fletcher 2005). Skeptics and critics within the discipline, conversely, argue that “going public” will only hurt sociology’s public legitimacy, insofar as it constitutes a kind of left-liberal moralizing that is out of sync with majority currents of opinion.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an analysis of the historical and sociological specificity of the Canadian version of the discipline, something we hope to offer here in this introduction as well as in the papers to follow.
Abstract: In “For Public Sociology” and other essays, Michael Burawoy acknowledges that the national sociologies of countries other than the US (e.g. Brazil, Norway, South Africa) differ substantially from the US case. The balance and dynamics among the four types of sociology, the timing and phases of the historical development of the discipline and the challenges that face the discipline, are some of the many ways sociology differs from country to country (2005a: 20-22; 2005c: 382-4, 2005d: 423-4). Canada is a particularly interesting case because of its geographic proximity and close economic and cultural ties to the United States. Canadian sociology has been deeply influenced by American sociology, but has always stood in an uneasy intellectual and political relationship to the US version of the discipline (Hiller 1982; Brym with Fox 1989; Cormier 2004; McLaughlin 2005). A serious discussion of the possibilities and challenges for a public sociology in Canada requires an analysis of the historical and sociological specificity of the Canadian version of the discipline, something we hope to offer here in this introduction as well as in the papers to follow.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the mediating role that community organizations perform between the criminal justice system and immigrant communities and offer a glimpse into the anti-violence work of immigrant community organizations in Toronto, Ontario.
Abstract: The literature on mandatory charging and prosecution policies consistently finds that zero tolerance approaches to woman abuse often harm, rather than help, abused immigrant women. The unexpected removal of abusers triggers detrimental consequences if women are dependent on their partners for immigration status, financial assistance and linguistic support. The violence that immigrant women experience at the hands of the police and courts has led to repeated calls to shift the responsibility of women abuse from the criminal justice system to the community. However, accessing community supports may not be so straightforward either. For a variety of reasons, many abused immigrant women find silence less risky than disclosing abuse. These dilemmas highlight the importance of acquiring more insight into the mediating role that community organizations perform between the criminal justice system and immigrant communities. Accordingly, the following exploratory study offers a glimpse into the anti-violence work of immigrant community organizations in Toronto, Ontario.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article analyzed the results of a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318) in order to provide the first empirical assessment of Burawoy's intellectual types: professional, critical, policy, and public intellectuals.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the results of a unique 2000 study of a representative sample of Canadian academics (n=3,318) in order to provide the first empirical assessment of Burawoy’s intellectual types: professional, critical, policy, and public intellectuals. After determining the distribution of academic types in the Canadian professoriate as a whole, the paper demonstrates that academic types fall along a left-right continuum, different fields of study contain different distributions of academic types, and public, policy, and critical academics tend to have different socio-demographic and economic characteristics than professional academics. The picture that emerges from the analysis is of a professoriate whose contours substantiate the broad outlines of Burawoy’s typology.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The absence of any dynamic quality to the Canadian political system could probably in large measure be attributed to its separation from the world of higher learning as discussed by the authors, and the association of the intellectuals with the bureaucracy of government is clear enough.
Abstract: The absence of any dynamic quality to the Canadian political system could probably in a large measure be attributed to its separation from the world of higher learning. The association of the intellectuals with the bureaucracy of government is clear enough. However expert they may be, or however many insights they may have into the historical processes, however well they might uncover the evolution of Canadian self-government, they remain aloof and objective. The dynamic dialogue so essential to social change and development can come only from scholarly intellectuals. The intellectuals of the mass media world have no disciplined training, and are unlikely to provide the dialogue. Far from contributing to the dialogue, intellectuals of the higher learning have done their best to mute it. John Porter, The Vertical Mosaic (1965)

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify and provide paradigmatic examples of four profiles of work change: flows and eddies for the advantaged, swamps and whirlpools for the disadvantaged, and highlight the two main strategies individuals are advised to adopt in managing employment change.
Abstract: The main concern of this paper is how inequalities are implicated in the capacity individuals have to deal with changes in their work. The ability to deal with change - to seek it out, go with it, benefit from it - is a key aspect of neo-liberal discourse on the contemporary economy. Yet, there is little recognition within this discourse of the different capacities individuals have to initiate or respond to work change. This paper draws attention to such differences, and adds to arguments challenging the flexibilization and individualization encouraged by neo-liberal accounts of the economy. In particular, the paper highlights the two main strategies individuals are advised to adopt in managing employment change – lifelong learning and networking. We identify and provide paradigmatic examples of four profiles of work change: flows and eddies for the advantaged, swamps and whirlpools for the disadvantaged. Our research suggests that attention to how individuals negotiate changes in their employment will help to illuminate the dense and complex character of socially embedded work trajectories, as well as the intricate role of inequality in structuring the processes of change.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper propose a three-faceted portrait of sociology, which is structured around three fundamental axes or dimensions: professional, descriptive, and political, embodying three essential aims of sociology.
Abstract: Public sociology is all too often presented as the polar opposite of the detached, purely objective observation of society (Clawson et al., 2007). Such a portrayal is misleading, for it tends to give credence to the idea that academic sociology is torn between two extremes, the political and the empirical poles. In this article I will not contest this divide from within. I shall not, for instance, claim that sociology is inherently politicised, each epistemology necessarily proposing a different ontology (Blau and Smith, 2006). Considering the problem differently, and referring to a historical period spanning from the late 19th century to about 1980 (Fournier, 1986; Warren, 2003), I propose a three-faceted portrait of sociology. In my view, the discipline is structured around not two but three fundamental axes or dimensions: professional, descriptive, and political, embodying three essential aims. In turn, these constitute the respective roles it can play in academia and society depending on the specific publics it seeks to address. In his much debated ASA 2004 presidential speech, Burawoy (2005a) has claimed that public sociology should be defined by its audience, whether academic (professional, critical) or extra-academic (policy and public). Without directly challenging this view, I intend in this paper to illustrate how the scholar’s individual positioning offers a slightly different perception of public sociology than the discipline’s external dynamics.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the similarity of strategic decision-making of two key organizations in the Human Rights Movement and demonstrate that such pathways are disrupted as organizational values act to mediate the influence of isomorphism on the internal dynamics of organizations.
Abstract: This paper explores the dilemmas that social movement organizations face as they seek to conform to institutional norms in order to expand their media influence. In particular, I examine the similarity of strategic decision-making of two key organizations in the Human Rights Movement. The analysis shows how isomorphism occurred as both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch adapted their advocacy efforts and employee job descriptions to the tastes, routines and information demands of the global media. However, I also demonstrate that such pathways are disrupted as organizational values act to mediate the influence of isomorphism on the internal dynamics of organizations. The article also contributes to the growing literature on human rights activism and global social movements more generally.





Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a preliminary comparative analysis of one type of public academic work (the writing of books) by sociologists, political scientists, and economists in Canada is presented.
Abstract: Much discussion surrounding Burawoy’s (2004) argument for public sociology has focused on concerns about the model’s normative and political implications while failing to empirically analyze current practices of public academic work. The debate thus risks devolving into competing rhetorical claims about what public sociology should be. We offer a preliminary comparative analysis of one type of public academic work — the writing of books — by sociologists, political scientists, and economists in Canada. In the hope of encouraging more empirical research on the current status of public academic work in Canada, books are put into one of six categories determined on the basis of 1) the publisher’s characteristics; 2) the book’s intended audience; and 3) the book’s intended intellectual/political purpose. We find that sociology lags behind political science in producing books intended for a public audience; however, other evidence suggests Canadian sociologists are attempting to open a public dialogue in a more “organic” way through small presses. Questions are raised about the status and rewards structure of professional sociology in Canada and how it influences public academic work. Les discussions a propos des arguments de Burawoy sur la sociologie publique se concentrent principalement autour des implications normative et politique du modele. Mais ces discussions omettent de tester empiriquement les travaux academiques publics contemporains. Il existe donc un risque que le debat s’egare en discussions rhetoriques autour de ce que la sociologie publique devrait etre. Nous proposons une analyse preliminaire d’un type de travail academique public, soit la production de livres par des sociologues, politologues et economistes au Canada. Dans l’espoir d’inciter les recherches empiriques sur le statut actuel des travaux academiques publics au Canada, nous avons classe les ouvrages en six categories sur les bases suivantes 1) les caracteristiques institutionnelles de l’editeur, 2) le public vise par les livres, 3) l’usage intellectuel et politique attendu pour le livre. Les resultats de nos recherches montrent que la sociologie accuse un retard face a la science politique quant a la production de livres commerciaux grand public. Cependant, d’autres preuves suggerent que les sociologues canadiens tentent d’ouvrir un dialogue public d’une maniere plus « organique » au travers de la publication chez de petits editeurs. Nous nous posons des questions quant au statut et a la structure de valorisation professionnelle de la sociologie au Canada et a leur influence sur les travaux academiques publics.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The debate initiated by Michael Burawoy's 2004 Presidential Address to the American Sociological Association, "For Public Sociology,” has been a "public good" (2005a; see also 2004abc, 2005bcdefg, 2006, 2007abc, 2008) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The debate initiated by Michael Burawoy’s 2004 Presidential Address to the American Sociological Association, “For Public Sociology,” has been a ‘public good’ (2005a; see also 2004abc, 2005bcdefg, 2006, 2007abc, 2008). Burawoy provoked sociologists around the world into revisiting the fundamental question “What is the nature and purpose of the discipline?”, and the variety of responses they have crafted is remarkable. Whatever the views individual scholars might hold, the discipline as a whole is deeply, inherently, and unavoidably political. Many of his critics have commented on the fact that it incongruous for him to call for a rejuvenated, highly politicized public sociology and simultaneously claim that such an entity could realistically involve relationships of “synergy,” “reciprocal interdependence,” and “organic solidarity” with the other three types (or “faces”) of sociology, including professional sociology It is axiomatic – part of the conventional wisdom of the discipline – that professional sociologists cannot accept the politicization of the research process. In order to remain scientific, professional sociology must stand in an unalterably adversarial relationship with the value-laden radical/ critical sociology that constitutes the basis for Burawoy’s vision of a properly constituted public sociology.