About: Carbon is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Graphene & Carbon nanotube. It has an ISSN identifier of 0008-6223. Over the lifetime, 22787 publications have been published receiving 1167682 citations. The journal is also known as: element 6 & C.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate results in their aggregation and subsequent formation of a high surface area carbon material which consists of thin graphene-based sheets.
Abstract: Reduction of a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate results in their aggregation and subsequent formation of a high-surface-area carbon material which consists of thin graphene-based sheets. The reduced material was characterized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and by electrical conductivity measurements.
TL;DR: In this paper, the state-of-the-art status of the reduction of GO on both techniques and mechanisms is reviewed, where the reduction process can partially restore the structure and properties of graphene.
Abstract: Graphene has attracted great interest for its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties. It can be produced by micro-mechanical exfoliation of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, epitaxial growth, chemical vapor deposition, and the reduction of graphene oxide (GO). The first three methods can produce graphene with a relatively perfect structure and excellent properties, while in comparison, GO has two important characteristics: (1) it can be produced using inexpensive graphite as raw material by cost-effective chemical methods with a high yield, and (2) it is highly hydrophilic and can form stable aqueous colloids to facilitate the assembly of macroscopic structures by simple and cheap solution processes, both of which are important to the large-scale uses of graphene. A key topic in the research and applications of GO is the reduction, which partly restores the structure and properties of graphene. Different reduction processes result in different properties of reduced GO (rGO), which in turn affect the final performance of materials or devices composed of rGO. In this contribution, we review the state-of-art status of the reduction of GO on both techniques and mechanisms. The development in this field will speed the applications of graphene. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: In this article, different types of capacitors with a pure electrostatic attraction and/or pseudocapacitance effects are presented, and their performance in various electrolytes is studied taking into account the different range of operating voltage (1V for aqueous and 3 V for aprotic solutions).
Abstract: The electrochemical storage of energy in various carbon materials (activated carbons, aerogels, xerogels, nanostructures) used as capacitor electrodes is considered. Different types of capacitors with a pure electrostatic attraction and/or pseudocapacitance effects are presented. Their performance in various electrolytes is studied taking into account the different range of operating voltage (1 V for aqueous and 3 V for aprotic solutions). Trials are undertaken for estimating the role of micro and mesopores during charging the electrical double layer in both kinds of electrolytic solutions for which the electrical conductivity and the size of solvated ions are different. The effect of pseudocapacitance for maximising the total capacitance is especially documented. Carbons chemically modified by a strong oxidation treatment represent a very well defined region of pseudocapacitance properties due to the Faradaic redox reactions of their rich surface functionality. Conducting polymers (polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene derivatives) and oxidised metallic particles (Ru, Mn, Co,…) deposited on the carbons also participate in the enhancement of the final capacity through fast faradaic pseudocapacitance effects. Evaluation of capacitor performance by different techniques, e.g. voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, charge/discharge characteristics is also discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the progress to date in the field of mechanical reinforcement of polymers using nanotubes is presented, and the most promising processing methods for mechanical reinforcement are discussed.
Abstract: The superlative mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. In this paper we review the progress to date in the field of mechanical reinforcement of polymers using nanotubes. Initially, the basics of fibre reinforced composites are introduced and the prerequisites for successful reinforcement discussed. The effectiveness of different processing methods is compared and the state of the art demonstrated. In addition we discuss the levels of reinforcement that have actually been achieved. While the focus will be on enhancement of Young’s modulus we will also discuss enhancement of strength and toughness. Finally we compare and tabulate these results. This leads to a discussion of the most promising processing methods for mechanical reinforcement and the outlook for the future.
TL;DR: In this article, experimental conditions and mathematical fitting procedures for the collection and analysis of Raman spectra of soot and related carbonaceous materials have been investigated and optimised with a Raman microscope system operated at three different laser excitation wavelengths (514, 633, and 780 nm).
Abstract: Experimental conditions and mathematical fitting procedures for the collection and analysis of Raman spectra of soot and related carbonaceous materials have been investigated and optimised with a Raman microscope system operated at three different laser excitation wavelengths (514, 633, and 780 nm). Several band combinations for spectral analysis have been tested, and a combination of four Lorentzian-shaped bands (G, D1, D2, D4) at about 1580, 1350, 1620, and 1200 cm −1 , respectively, with a Gaussian-shaped band (D3) at ∼1500 cm −1 was best suited for the first-order spectra. The second-order spectra were best fitted with Lorentzian-shaped bands at about 2450, 2700, 2900, and 3100 cm −1 . Spectral parameters (band positions, full widths at half maximum, and intensity ratios) are reported for several types of industrial carbon black (Degussa Printex, Cabot Monarch), diesel soot (particulate matter from modern heavy duty vehicle and passenger car engine exhaust, NIST SRM1650), spark-discharge soot (Palas GfG100), and graphite. Several parameters, in particular the width of the D1 band at ∼1350 cm −1 , provide structural information and allow to discriminate the sample materials, but the characterisation and distinction of different types of soot is limited by the experimental reproducibility of the spectra and the statistical uncertainties of curve fitting. The results are discussed and compared with X-ray diffraction measurements and earlier Raman spectroscopic studies of comparable materials, where different measurement and fitting procedures had been applied.