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Showing papers in "Cartographic Journal in 2014"


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the multiple ways of envisioning the relationships between maps and narratives. This is approached from a map making perspective. Throughout the process of editing this special issue, we have identified two main types of relationships. Firstly, maps have been used to represent the spatio-temporal structures of stories and their relationships with places. Oral, written and audio-visual stories have been mapped extensively. They raise some common cartographic challenges, such as improving the spatial expression of time, emotions, ambiguity, connotation, as well as the mixing of personal and global scales, real and fictional places, dream and reality, joy and pain. Secondly, the potential of maps as narratives and the importance of connecting the map with the complete mapping process through narratives is addressed. Although the potential of maps to tell stories has already been widely acknowledged, we emphasize the increasing recognition of the importance of develo...

119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review of past user studies of uncertainty visualisation, focusing on the field of geographic visualisation and cartography and thus on displays containing geospatial uncertainty, highlights the importance of user tasks for successful solutions and recommends moving towards task-centered typologies to support systematic evaluation.
Abstract: For decades, uncertainty visualisation has attracted attention in disciplines such as cartography and geographic visualisation, scientific visualisation and information visualisation. Most of this research deals with the development of new approaches to depict uncertainty visually; only a small part is concerned with empirical evaluation of such techniques. This systematic review aims to summarize past user studies and describe their characteristics and findings, focusing on the field of geographic visualisation and cartography and thus on displays containing geospatial uncertainty. From a discussion of the main findings, we derive lessons learned and recommendations for future evaluation in the field of uncertainty visualisation. We highlight the importance of user tasks for successful solutions and recommend moving towards task-centered typologies to support systematic evaluation in the field of uncertainty visualisation.

111 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present a study that explores methodological steps towards (re)constructing collective narratives from the photo-taking behaviour of two groups (foreign tourists and inhabitants of Switzerland) by analysing spatial and temporal patterns in user-contributed, georeferenced photographs of Zurich, Switzerland. We reason that the photographers typically capture a scene or a moment because they want to remember or share it, thus these scenes or moments are meaningful to them. Various scholars suggest that the human experience (i.e. this meaningfulness) is what separates a place from the mathematical descriptions of space. While this notion is well known in larger geographic literature, it is under-explored in cartographic research. We respond to this research gap and reconstruct static and dynamic patterns of photo-taking and -sharing behaviour to assist in capturing the implicit meaning in the studied locations. These locations may be meaningful to only a certain group of people in certain moments; ...

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The research reported here is motivated by the now ubiquitous nature of web mapping services that provide remotely sensed imagery as a basemap option. Despite the popularity of imagery basemaps, few strategies have been suggested to enhance their readability. Here, we describe a controlled experiment leveraging the eye tracking method to explore the potential of enhancing remotely sensed imagery when used for cartographic presentation. Specifically, 20 participants had their eye movements recorded as they visually searched for areas of interest in either an unmodified image (such as typical in web mapping services) or enhanced image (using image processing routines common to Remote Sensing). By interpreting the eye movement fixations and saccades of participants using a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, we found that the image enhancements improved both the effectiveness of and efficiency in identifying areas of interest, particularly those previously concealed in more visually...

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A typology of this kind of vandalism is outlined, including play, ideological, fantasy, artistic and industrial carto-vandalism, as well ascarto-spam, and two families of counter-strategies deployed in amateur mapping communities are discussed.
Abstract: This article addresses the emergent phenomenon of carto-vandalism, the intentional defacement of collaborative cartographic digital artefacts in the context of volunteered geographic information. Through a qualitative analysis of reported incidents in WikiMapia and OpenStreetMap, a typology of this kind of vandalism is outlined, including play, ideological, fantasy, artistic and industrial carto-vandalism, as well as carto-spam. Two families of counter-strategies deployed in amateur mapping communities are discussed. First, the contributors organize forms of policing, based on volunteered community involvement, patrolling the maps and reporting incidents. Second, the detection of carto-vandalism can be supported by automated tools, based either on explicit rules or on machine learning.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that component size, and employed dynamic variables attracted users’ attention most, and component layout design issues that should be further examined empirically, in order to reduce potential split attention effects.
Abstract: Quite a few examples in the cartographic and information visualisation literature suggest that multi-component animated maps may be appropriate for examining complex spatio-temporal phenomena. Such space–time visualisations typically consist of multiple dynamic map or data windows, linked by means of interactive tools. Little empirical evidence exists, however, providing support of the potential advantages of such complex visual space–time displays. This research aimed at filling this gap. An empirical study was carried out to obtain insight on how multi-component animated maps are used to explore dynamic spatio-temporal phenomena. We examined which particular components attract users’ attention and in what sequence, and whether display effectiveness can be characterized by users’ viewing behaviours. Based on behavioural data collected with the eye-tracking method, we find that component size, and employed dynamic variables attracted users’ attention most. We are also able to identify visual behaviour patterns that result in performance differences between participants, using multi-component animated map. Finally, we highlight component layout design issues that should be further examined empirically, in order to reduce potential split attention effects.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Colour is considered a key means of expression for use in cartographic works This is because colours and the relations among them influence not only the aesthetic impression a map creates but also its overall utility In addition to Newton’s spectral colour theory, today theories with origins in artistic technique are gaining ground in cartography This article introduces J Itten’s colour theory (first published in 1961 in The Art of Colour [Kunst der Farbe]) with special attention given to his concept of seven colour contrasts The article also discusses the suitability and unsuitability of their application in practical cartography, and it contributes original examples employing thematic maps, a discipline with broad possibilities for the application of these inventive methods by today’s mapmakers

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article deals with the classification and explanation of the different true-3D visualisation techniques so far materialized for geodata at the Institute for Cartography of the Dresden University of Technology.
Abstract: In different scientific fields, the abbreviation ‘3D’ is used in a multitude of ways. Hence, one might easily lose track of what 3D means in a particular context. 3D is just a generic term which the authors are trying to classify into different groups. An overview of the technical status of 3D technologies serves to explain the importance of the three-dimensionality in cartography. Solid landscape embodiments as well as pseudo-three-dimensional and truly three-dimensional autostereoscopic visualisations on planar displays are treated. Starting with the reasons for the advantages and the necessities for true-3D representations the article deals with the classification and explanation of the different true-3D visualisation techniques so far materialized for geodata, in particular at the Institute for Cartography of the Dresden University of Technology.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper explores the potential of a different kind of counter-mapping. It focuses upon a critical reading of five different architectural atlases and argues that their construction and design reveals how ‘re-cartographies’ can narrate novel stories about places. The narrative power of these atlases is traced back to a focus upon relations between phenomena, and a careful consideration of how to map the mutability and dynamism of the built and natural environment. They offer new kinds of selection, classification and symbolisation; deploy hybrid forms to destabilize taken for granted binary distinctions between nature and culture; use montage and juxtaposition to reveal scalar linkages; re-imagine figure–ground relationships to reveal functional city forms and processes; and explore the potential of meta-structures in the relations between different maps in an atlas layout. Taken together, they show how the cartographic imagination can escape from standard and accepted orthodoxies. They also rev...

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article presents the cartographic outcome of a 3-year collaboration with Penobscot Nation Cultural & Historic Preservation to map the traditional place names of Penobscot territory in the state of Maine. After a consideration of the challenges of mapping Indigenous place names, I describe my cartographic contribution to the project, to transform the map design using the tools of narrativity and translation. Initial insights about Penobscot place names then led to wider insights regarding Indigenous place names and traditional cartography, through a comparison to similar practices in the place name traditions of other communities. I then explain how these insights influenced the design of the map itself.

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Since 1906, South Africa boasted an excellent geodetic framework, and in 1920 an official Trigonometrical Survey Office (TSO) was established. In spite of these achievements, the country, by the 1930s, still lacked reliable topographical maps. One reason for this was that the secondary and tertiary triangulations of the country were still incomplete; another was that the decision-making process as regards surveys and mapping rested with a variety of statutory bodies instead of just one. In 1934, A. D. Lewis, Director of the Department of Irrigation, committed his department to execute a general topographical survey of the country and produce a topographical map on a scale of 1∶500 000. Lewis’ decision met with much resistance from within the country and abroad, but the project was completed in a record period of 4 years. Published just before the Second World War, the map was of inestimable value to the South African Defense Force. It not only became the standard topographical map of large parts o...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Swiss-style rock drawing uses shaded hachures to show the characteristic forms and the third dimension of rocks and cliffs. Rock faces, trenches, gullies, faults and other rock features relevant for orientation and navigation in mountainous areas are shown as seen from the ground instead of from an orthogonal perspective. The density and dimensions of hachures change with the exposure to a source of illumination to generate a shading effect that highlights the terrain’s three-dimensionality. The generation of rock drawings in Swiss style is time-intensive and requires an eye for the artistic rendering of the terrain’s third dimension as well as an understanding of different rock types and their morphology. Design principles have not yet been documented in a detailed and comprehensive manner and only rudimentary algorithms exist for the digital generation of simplified representations. This paper discusses the defining characteristics and specific design principles of Swiss-style rock drawing based...

Journal ArticleDOI
Fabio Veronesi1, Lorenz Hurni1
TL;DR: A GIS tool to enhance the visual quality of hillshading by developing a technique based on clustering aspect to provide a seamless change of lighting throughout the scene and embedded into an ArcGIS toolbox.
Abstract: Manual shading, traditionally produced manually by specifically trained cartographers, is still considered superior to automatic methods, particularly for mountainous landscapes. However, manual shading is time-consuming and its results depend on the cartographer and as such difficult to replicate consistently. For this reason there is a need to create an automatic method to standardize its results. A crucial aspect of manual shading is the continuous change of light direction (azimuth) and angle (zenith) in order to better highlight discrete landforms. Automatic hillshading algorithms, widely available in many geographic information systems (GIS) applications, do not provide this feature. This may cause the resulting shaded relief to appear flat in some areas, particularly in areas where the light source is parallel to the mountain ridge. In this work we present a GIS tool to enhance the visual quality of hillshading. We developed a technique based on clustering aspect to provide a seamless chang...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The news media play an important role in creating and disseminating geopolitical discourse. This paper explores the role of news maps in geopolitical discourse with reference to the potential super-power status of key states, specifically China and Russia as members of the BRIC group (Brazil, Russia, India and China), and in the case of Russia, the NORCs (Northern Rim Countries – Canada, Russia, several Scandinavian states and the USA). It also explores references to ‘threats’ to a stable interstate system (resource wars, regional instability, ‘rouge states’). The paper argues that the concept of the state as ‘power container’ provides a key to understanding how maps operate as a significant element within geopolitical discourse. Maps provide spatial and geostrategic context to the narratives being deployed by news providers on such matters as China’s projection of power. The paper is based on the findings of a comprehensive survey of maps in the UK ‘quality press’ in 2009.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that, by adopting practices of wayfinding, and by being critically attentive to the ways in which film and video-making practices are also spatial practices, moving image cartographies can provide insights into lived and embedded spaces of memory, and the hidden or muted spatial stories to which they play host.
Abstract: This paper contributes to debates in the emerging field of cinematic cartography () by exploring the ways in which strategies of digital cinemapping can function as tools of critical spatial practice and urban wayfinding. More specifically, the paper considers the scope for digital video technologies to reshape, contest and ‘ground’ spaces of urban representation and the ‘spatial stories’ these bring into play. Basing my analysis on the mediation of the events surrounding the abduction and murder of the 2-year-old boy James Bulger in 1993, I examine the case as a constellation of spatial narratives within which I weave my own spatial story in the form of a video mapping of the abduction route (in Bootle near Liverpool) and the responses and issues this further mediation has provoked. Methodological reflections on the map-making process are discussed alongside narratives generated by the video on YouTube. The paper argues that, by adopting practices of wayfinding, and by being critically attentive ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recommendations can be formulated regarding the design of labels in order to obtain more efficient maps, keeping in mind the map users’ characteristics.
Abstract: Although the efficiency of label placement algorithms has been studied extensively, few studies considered the influence of the label designs on the efficiency of map readers. Labels are one of the most important elements on the map as they can provide more information than other symbols can. The design of the labels does have to stress the theme, shape and functionality of the associated objects, which results in a more efficient interpretation of the map content by the user. How the label designs can enhance the map readers’ efficiency (and thus the quality of the maps themselves) is the main objective of this study. A user study was conducted in which the participants were asked to locate a target label on a map. Different label designs were implemented across the trials. The participants’ reactions times were registered to measure their efficiency and statistically analysed using a one-way ANOVA. Two different users’ characteristics were considered: gender and expertise. Related to the size, s...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Orthoimagery and shaded relief are ways of introducing realism to maps, but each method presents design challenges in achieving consistently readable combinations with overlaid vector symbols and labels. Two studies were conducted to compare the readability of the current United States Geological Survey (USGS) ‘US Topo’ map series with two original designs incorporating orthoimagery and shaded relief. The studies examined reader design ratings after completing tasks that required analytical use of maps with varied map designs, using maps of diverse locations in the USA. The studies indicated that readability varied with map location to a greater degree than with map design, though design influence on ratings was detected in interaction with location. This variation with landscape is discussed from the perspective of recent theory in landscape aesthetics and preferences. Also, it was statistically demonstrated that either of the two new designs had improved readability over the existing US Topo. Th...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When one thinks of a map depicting London, generally the image that appears is that of the map designed by Henry (Harry) Beck (1902–1974). It has become a design icon despite the fact that it eschews topography (other than the River Thames) and focuses on the simplified depiction of the topology of the Underground rail network. Beck’s map, designed in 1931, and first made available to London commuters in 1933, has become the image of the geography of London and, generally, the mental map that defines how London ‘works’. Station names have become synonymous with the above-ground landscape and the network is such that most of London’s landmarks can be readily located through the map. Navigating between them is a simple process and while the city above is a socio-economic and cultural soup, the simplicity of the map brings a sense of order, structure and sensibility. It is a perfect counterpoint to the chaos at street level. In cartographic terms, Beck’s map works and marries form with function perfe...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An important problem faced by national mapping agencies is frequent map updates. An ideal solution is only updating the large-scale map with other smaller scale maps undergoing automatic updates. This process may involve a series of operators, among which selective omission has received much attention. This study focuses on selective omission in a road network, and the use of an artificial neural network (i.e. a back propagation neural network, BPNN). The use of another type of artificial neural network (i.e. a self-organizing map, SOM) is investigated as a comparison. The use of both neural networks for selective omission is tested on a real-life road network. The use of a BPNN for practical application road updating is also tested. The results of selective omission are evaluated by overall accuracy. It is found that (1) the use of a BPNN can adaptively determine which and how many roads are to be retained at a specific scale, with an overall accuracy above 80%; (2) it may be hard to determine wh...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: As 2013 turns into 2014 and we reflect on the state of cartography what do we know, what have we learnt and what might the future hold?Well, maps have changed…quite profoundly and quite irreversibl...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method that allows increasing the representable amount of information, depending on its density is presented that makes use of the diffusion algorithm that is used to create value-by-area cartograms.
Abstract: Cartographic visualisation of the literary space is facing a major challenge resulting from different levels of detail within which the textual descriptions of settings are made by authors. Those range between very detailed descriptions within parts of a city to spatially spread events within a country, or long journeys across continents. Depending on the fictional texts, fictional action often concentrates on a few main places, resulting in high information density – in the form of various individual settings. As well, they are also embedded in a larger environment. When interactively analysing or choosing a section to print a literary map with individual spatial elements, the user has to choose a map scale, which will result in the output of either a detailed representation of a main place or the geographical overview of the fictional space having a small level of detail. However, it would be a great advantage to receive as much information as possible from one single map view. In order to achie...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study aims to reveal the potential of hachuring in further development as surface presentation method with automated implementation of all original requirements for hachure construction provided for the first time by new algorithm using vector flowlines.
Abstract: Hachuring is a classic method of cartographic relief presentation that origins from perspective sketching of the surface. Hachuring was developed into strict and mathematically grounded planimetric method during the eighteenth century. Established by Lehmann in 1799, topographic hachures flourished during the first half of the nineteenth century and then were gradually replaced by contours. Today, hachures are still popular in presentation of anthropogenic relief on archaeological and topographic maps. Some elements of hachuring can be found in geomorphometric and hydrometeorological mapping, where flowlines and arrows are used to show the intensity and direction of the flow on the surface, or its aspect and slope. The study aims to reveal the potential of hachuring in further development as surface presentation method. Automated implementation of all original requirements for hachure construction is provided for the first time by new algorithm using vector flowlines. Then an advanced hachuring te...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Very little is known about the work or life of the 19th-century cartographer John Wood. He is generally thought to have worked principally on producing plans of Scottish towns, but this research has now identified some 150 of his plans covering towns across much of England and Wales as well as Scotland. It throws new light on his life and on the comprehensive hands-on nature of his involvement with all the stages of producing this astounding output. His cartographic achievement warrants his being far more widely recognized in the annals of British cartography.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Users prefer more realistic visualizations, even though they may be less efficient or even detrimental for a given task. In some previous studies, the evidence has shown that relief shading facilitates the landform interpretation while other studies have provided contrary results. In the present study, the effect of three different visualizations of elevation information on eye movements and performance was investigated in visual search, area selection, and route planning tasks. The results showed that the visualization of relief information affected the performance and eye movements in the visual search task. Overall, the eye movements differed between the search and area selection tasks, as well as between the search and route planning tasks. The result showed that the relief shading did not slow down the performance, either in terms of response time or eye movement measures.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Four research projects that use different spatio-temporal visualization techniques to understand the industrial dynamics of post-war film exhibition and distribution in Australia are presented.
Abstract: Cinema data is characteristically complex, heterogeneous and interlinked. Rather than relying on simple information retrieval techniques, researchers are increasingly turning to the creative exploration and reapplication of data in order to more fully explore the meaning of newly available and diverse data sets. In this context, the cinema historian becomes the creator of visual texts which can be assessed for both their interpretive insight and their aesthetic qualities. This paper presents four research projects that use different spatio-temporal visualization techniques to understand the industrial dynamics of post-war film exhibition and distribution in Australia. The research integrates work by a group of inter-disciplinary investigators into the effectiveness of techniques such as dendritic mapping, Circos circular visualizations, animation, cartogram mapping, and multivariate visualization for the study of cinema circuits and operations at a number of scales.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new analysis method is suggested which applies Hägerstrand’s Space-Time-Cube (STC) to eye movement data, which uses two-dimensional projections of the STC onto the XT and YT planes to facilitate rapid identification of significant patterns in the data set.
Abstract: Analysis of eye movements has been used for decades as a method for assessing the performance of visual stimuli. Until recently, this has mainly been applied to static and non-cartographic stimuli, but due to technological developments and reduced cost of equipment, interactive and cartographic applications are now feasible. suggest a new analysis method which applies Hagerstrand’s Space-Time-Cube (STC; ) to eye movement data. However, in an interactive three-dimensional STC, identifying and exploring key behaviours can be difficult. In order to ameliorate these difficulties, we propose a variation of the STC method, which uses two-dimensional projections of the STC onto the XT and YT planes. These two-dimensional projections are found to facilitate rapid identification of significant patterns in the data set. A prototype implementing this and other dynamical methods has been developed, and is presented with examples illustrating the benefits of working with two-dimensional projections of the STC.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: John Wood, the 19th-century urban cartographer, surveyed almost 150 towns spread widely across Great Britain. His detailed large-scale plans are an astounding achievement. In light of this, two questions are posed: did he have a strategy that guided the places which he surveyed; and how did he pay for his work, given that so few copies of his plans appear to have been produced for sale – or at least to have survived.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of an original research study that was based on the analysis of British charts of the Adriatic produced during and immediately after military operations undertaken by British forces and their allies against Napoleon in the Adriatic. We analyse the creation and production of British charts of the Adriatic from the first charting campaign of the Hydrographic Office of 1800–1801 to charts produced in the period of British rule over the island of Lissa of 1811–1815 to the first systematic hydrographic surveying of the Adriatic of 1817–1819 under the leadership of William Henry Smyth that resulted in the first hydrographic atlas and pilot book of the Adriatic. At the same time, the paper evaluates the British contribution to the creation of some of the first reliable nautical charts of the Adriatic and to the development of the nautical cartography of the Adriatic in general.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A significant development in visualisation methods based on perspective rules has been observed recently. It is manifested in some examples worth mentioning, such as virtual walks, visualisations of 3D objects and panoramas. In order to assist users in the perception of such presentations, they are supplemented by typical cartographic elements, such as fragments of maps or city plans. One kind of such cartographic works, recently slightly forgotten, but still worth attention, are the so-called panoramic maps of ‘panneau’ type. A panoramic map of ‘panneau’ type is a form of a view panorama of 360° horizon, projected on a flat plane in the form of a closed circle. Landscape ‘panneau’ presentations are usually produced for characteristic points of observation, mainly in mountainous areas, but also at points of observation in cities (e.g. the Arch of Triumph in Paris) and they are located on special viewing platforms. They are additional tourist attractions and perform an educational function. ‘Pannea...

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper describes a very rare, hand-coloured, unusually large (over 13 m2) manuscript map of China about which, in addition to our own copy, only two more copies are known. The map shows the territory of the Ming Chinese empire (1368–1644) in the seventeenth century. It was prepared in 1691 by the famous Japanese Buddhist monk, Sōkaku (1639–1720). The paper highlights several historical and geographical details of the period and the most interesting history of the map.