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Showing papers in "Case reports in transplantation in 2022"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: One case of a 57-year-old man successfully treated with a double-lung transplant in patients with Niemann-Pick disease is presented.
Abstract: Niemann-Pick disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by an abnormal intracellular lipid accumulation. Type B is later in onset and a less severe form of the disease, so affected people may survive in adulthood. Storage of sphingomyelin in pulmonary macrophages can lead to interstitial lung disease. There are very few published cases of lung transplantation in patients with Niemann-Pick disease, all of them described in the last 2 years. We present here one case of a 57-year-old man successfully treated with a double-lung transplant.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A case of relapsing de novo MN without evidence of rejection and a gratifying response to rituximab is presented.
Abstract: Allograft membranous glomerulopathy can be a recurrent or de novo disease. Both instead have different underlying immune pathophysiology and disease pattern. While the introduction of ANTI-PLAR2 and THS7A brought new insights into the management of Immune/primary MN, the treatment of de novo MN is not clear. Relapsing de novo MN in a kidney transplant was rarely reported. Here, we present a case of relapsing de novo MN without evidence of rejection and a gratifying response to rituximab.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The case of a patient with sequential kidney and pancreas transplant who developed SOT-GVHD targeting host lymphocytes, skin, and liver, with a long period of stability before treatment with antithymocyte globulin is presented.
Abstract: Introduction. Solid organ transplant graft-versus-host disease (SOT-GVHD) is a rare phenomenon in which recipients of solid organ transplant develop GVHD due to the presence of donor lymphocytes in the graft. SOT-GVHD most often occurs in patients receiving small bowel or liver transplants. Diagnosis is typically via identification of lymphocytic infiltration on histopathology and molecular demonstration of donor T cell chimerism in the target organ. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is the most common target of SOT-GVHD, and one estimate places long-term survival of patients with SOT-GVHD at 20% at 5 years. In this report, we present the case of a patient with sequential kidney and pancreas transplant who developed SOT-GVHD targeting host lymphocytes, skin, and liver, with a long period of stability before treatment with antithymocyte globulin. Peripheral blood chimerism testing was used to track response to therapy. Remarkably, he survived 1.5 years despite recurrent infections before dying of unrelated causes.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a two-year-old female who presented with cholestatic hepatitis and acute liver failure (ALF) was shown to be at risk for severe adenovirus infection in the setting of anticipated immunosuppression.
Abstract: Background Since October 2021, there have been more than 500 cases of severe hepatitis of unknown origin in children reported worldwide, including 180 cases in the U.S. The most frequently detected potential pathogen to date has been adenovirus, typically serotype 41. Adenovirus is known to cause a self-limited infection in the immunocompetent host. However, in immunosuppressed individuals, severe or disseminated infections may occur. Method We present the case of a two-year-old female who presented with cholestatic hepatitis and acute liver failure (ALF). Work up for etiologies of ALF was significant for adenovirus viremia, but liver biopsy was consistently negative for the virus. The risk for severe adenoviral infection in the setting of anticipated immunosuppression prompted us to initiate cidofovir to decrease viral load prior to undergoing liver transplantation. Result Our patient received a successful liver transplant, cleared the viremia after 5 doses of cidofovir, and continues to maintain allograft function without signs of infection at the time of this report, 5 months posttransplant. Conclusion Recent reports of pediatric hepatitis cases may be associated with adenoviral infection although the exact relationship is unclear. There is the possibility of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 environment, or other immunologic modifying factors. All patients presenting with hepatitis or acute liver failure should be screened for adenovirus and reported to state health departments. Cidofovir may be used to decrease viral load prior to liver transplantation, to decrease risk of severe adenoviral infection.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Delayed profound hematuria can be seen after pretransplant core needle renal biopsies and can recur again even after complete resolution, due to arteriovenous fistula formation in the renal calyceal system.
Abstract: Background Core needle and wedge biopsies are the two main pathologic ways to determine the suitability of a kidney allograft and to have a baseline allograft biopsy in case of future rejection. Case Presentation. A 57-year-old patient developed a renal arteriovenous fistula causing postoperative and recurrent hematuria after allograft pretransplant renal core needle biopsy and treated with selective Interventional radiology coil embolization. Conclusion Delayed profound hematuria can be seen after pretransplant core needle renal biopsies and can recur again even after complete resolution, due to arteriovenous fistula formation in the renal calyceal system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The case of a kidney transplant recipient who presented with proven invasive sino-orbital aspergillosis resulting in irreversible loss of vision despite surgical management and antifungal therapy is reported.
Abstract: Sino-orbital aspergillosis is a rare and severe infection mostly seen in immunocompromised individuals in which diagnosis may be challenging with potentially life-threatening consequences. Infection usually starts in the paranasal sinuses with secondary spreading to the adjacent orbits. Here, we report the case of a kidney transplant recipient who presented with proven invasive sino-orbital aspergillosis resulting in irreversible loss of vision despite surgical management and antifungal therapy. We review the literature with a focus on clinical presentation, diagnostic tools, and recommended treatment in the context of kidney transplantation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors describe a case report of a 66-year-old woman with detected antinuclear antibodies (ANA) pretransplant diagnosed with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) following orthotopic liver transplant.
Abstract: Background Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is an autoimmune thrombogenic disorder of small and large vessels caused by autoantibodies against phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins. This severe form of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) presents clinically with simultaneous life-threatening multiorgan thrombosis and the presence of two or more persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) confirmed on testing 12 weeks apart. Case Presentation. We describe a case report of a 66-year-old woman with detected antinuclear antibodies (ANA) pretransplant diagnosed with CAPS following orthotopic liver transplant. The patient had acute respiratory failure; Doppler ultrasound and CT angiogram confirmed thrombosis in the hepatic artery, subsequent occlusion of the jump graft, and a splenic infarct. Hypercoagulability workup showed elevated levels of anticardiolipin IgG and beta-2-glycoprotein IgG/IgM and positive lupus anticoagulant, treated with steroids and anticoagulation. The patient was discharged after one month and was transitioned from heparin to life-long warfarin. Conclusion Our patient provided a standard presentation of CAPS with abnormal pretransplant levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Although there have been studies investigating the relationship between anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulants and APS, the relationship between pretransplant positive ANA or antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and CAPS has yet to be explored. Further studies will be needed to determine the significance of these antibodies. We recommend preoperative APL testing for patients with positive ANA and AMA at preliver transplant presentation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A high level of suspicion is necessary for early detection and treatment initiation to prevent a devastating progression of the disease in immunosuppressed patients.
Abstract: Ehrlichia infection has a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. While Ehrlichia often presents as a mild form of the disease in immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients are at increased risk for a more virulent and potentially fatal infection. Our liver transplant patient presented with fever, persistent headaches, and negative Ehrlichia antibodies. Empiric antibiotic therapy was started and along with knowledge of prior tick infection, doxycycline was added. Subsequent positive PCR and observation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in peripheral blood smear confirmed the diagnosis. The patient did recover from infection but not before it manifested in hepatic, renal, and pulmonary involvement. Therefore, a high level of suspicion is necessary for early detection and treatment initiation to prevent a devastating progression of the disease in immunosuppressed patients.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This patient represents as one of the longest pediatric cardiac graft recipients living without any significant functional limitations and the almost 28-year-old graft demonstrated very good function.
Abstract: We present a case of kidney transplantation in a 28-year-old patient who received a heart transplant at 7 weeks of age due to hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The patient's renal insufficiency was the result of chronic immunosuppression and hypertension. The almost 28-year-old graft demonstrated very good function. This patient represents as one of the longest pediatric cardiac graft recipients living without any significant functional limitations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A man who received a single sequential lung transplantation and liver transplantation because of end-stage cystic fibrosis developed voriconazole-induced myositis that relapsed after one dose of isavuconazole, and the corticosteroid dose was temporarily increased.
Abstract: Lung transplant recipients experience a high rate of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis infections, for which voriconazole is the treatment of choice. We report a patient who developed voriconazole-induced myositis that relapsed after one dose of isavuconazole. Our patient was a 38-year-old man who received a single sequential lung transplantation and liver transplantation because of end-stage cystic fibrosis. He presented to our emergency room with acute pain in both forearms at 3 weeks after voriconazole was initiated for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis infection. Levels of voriconazole were normal during the course of therapy. After stopping voriconazole, the symptoms decreased but relapsed after one dose of isavuconazole. Other causes of muscle pain and inflammation were excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging of both arms showed muscle edema in both arms, including involvement of the fascia, consistent with myositis. There were no signs of necrosis. Isavuconazole was discontinued, and the corticosteroid dose was temporarily increased, with rapid resolution of all complaints. Our patient is the fourth reported case of voriconazole-induced myositis, and the first whose symptoms relapsed after initiating isavuconazole.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors describe their two-case experience with left gastric arterialized grafts for management of dissection, and their living donor graft recipients with alternatively arterialised grafts are now 6-and 2-years posttransplant.
Abstract: Poorer than expected, living donor liver transplant outcomes are observed after recipient graft artery thrombosis. At grafting, the risk for later thrombosis is high if a dissected hepatic artery is used for standard reconstruction. Surgeon diagnosis of dissection requires nonstandard management with alternative technique in addition to microvascular expertise. Intimal flap repair with standard reconstruction is contingent on basis of a redo anastomosis. It is a suboptimal choice for living donor transplantation. Achieving goal graft arterial perfusion at first revascularization is crucial for superior outcomes. Managing dissection at grafting with nonstandard left gastric artery reconstruction is unreported. Our experience is limited, but this is our preferred alternative technique to standard hepatic artery reconstruction complicated by dissection. Here, we describe our two-case experience with left gastric arterialized grafts for management of dissection. Our living donor graft recipients with alternatively arterialized grafts are now 6- and 2-years posttransplant.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A patient who developed a spinal infarct after a kidney transplant is presented to highlight a rare complication of kidney transplantation and to reinforce that patients requiring kidney transplant are complex patients with multiple comorbidities that can cause a multitude of complications in the periop period.
Abstract: Complications are a part of surgery. Spinal infarctions are a dreaded complication of aortic surgery. We present a patient who developed a spinal infarct after a kidney transplant. We were unable to find a causative factor in our search for etiology. In our review of the literature, we were unable to find a similar report. We present this case report to highlight a rare complication of kidney transplantation and to reinforce that patients requiring kidney transplant are complex patients with multiple comorbidities that can cause a multitude of complications in the periop period.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A case of a 73-year-old man with postrenal transplant lymphocele who underwent a laparoscopic fenestration and the combination of a fluorescent Ureteral catheter and flexible ureteroscope during surgery enabled us to determine the incision line safely and accurately.
Abstract: Laparoscopic fenestration of a postrenal transplant lymphocele is associated with a risk of renal hilar vessel and ureteral injury. Consequently, determination of the incision line is difficult. We describe a case of a 73-year-old man with postrenal transplant lymphocele who underwent a laparoscopic fenestration. We report a surgical video containing a new technique of laparoscopic fenestration using a fluorescent ureteral catheter in combination with a flexible ureteroscope. The combination of a fluorescent ureteral catheter and flexible ureteroscope during surgery enabled us to determine the incision line safely and accurately. Intraoperative real-time visualization of the lymphocele and ureter using a fluorescent ureteral catheter and a flexible ureteroscope is safer than conventional methods for laparoscopic fenestration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this novel technique.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This report demonstrates a unique case of a patient with kidney-pancreas transplant diagnosed with MIBC treated with TMT that has no evidence of gross tumorigenesis at 3.5 years after diagnosis.
Abstract: Introduction. Solid organ transplant increases the risk for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Although a common tumor, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder in patients with kidney-pancreas transplants is scarcely reported. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male with history of type 1 diabetes and a 14-year status post deceased donor pancreas-kidney transplant presented with 3 weeks of gross hematuria. CT scan showed multiple bladder masses. Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) showed papillary UCC. 5 months later, the patient reported new-onset gross hematuria. TURBT showed MIBC. The patient elected for bladder-preserving TMT. On cystoscopy there was no gross evidence of carcinoma at 3.5 years of follow up. Discussion. Currently, no specific management guidelines target this population with MIBC. The first-line treatment for MIBC is radical cystectomy (RC) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For patients that are medically unfit or unwilling to undergo RC, trimodal therapy (TMT) is an alternative. TMT for bladder cancer consists of complete tumor resection with chemotherapy and radiation. This report demonstrates a unique case of a patient with kidney-pancreas transplant diagnosed with MIBC treated with TMT that has no evidence of gross tumorigenesis at 3.5 years after diagnosis. Our findings suggest that trimodal therapy should be considered for treatment of MIBC in patients with kidney-pancreatic transplants to preserve the donated allografts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The left orthotopic position can be a good choice for kidney transplant candidates with histories of prior complex lower abdominal surgery, particularly in patients with more than two prior kidney transplant procedures.
Abstract: Background Patients with more than two prior kidney transplant procedures pose unique surgical challenges. Once both the right and left retroperitoneal spaces have been dissected, intra-abdominal implantation is usually necessary. If the external iliac arteries have been used previously, it is sometimes necessary to use the aorta and vena cava for implantation. Gaining safe exposure in these cases can be complicated by history of prior laparotomy, adhesive disease, and other surgical histories. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old female with type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease presented for surgical evaluation for kidney transplant. Surgical history was notable for prior simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplant followed by both a living donor kidney transplant and a pancreas after kidney transplant. She had undergone both an allograft nephrectomy and an allograft pancreatectomy and currently had a nonfunctioning kidney in the left retroperitoneal position and a nonfunctioning pancreatic allograft on the right common iliac artery. The entire distal aortoiliac system was surgically inaccessible. She was listed for transplantation, and a cadaveric graft was allocated. Intraoperatively, severe lower abdominal and pelvic adhesions prevented any use of the iliac system. A left native nephrectomy was performed, and the allograft was implanted in the left orthotopic position. The native left renal vein was used for outflow, the donor renal artery was joined end-to-side to the infrarenal aorta, and a uretero-ureterostomy was created. The operation was uneventful. The allograft functioned without delay, and almost one year later, the GFR is approximately 50 mg/dL. Conclusion The left orthotopic position can be a good choice for kidney transplant candidates with histories of prior complex lower abdominal surgery.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A case series of extrarenal pseudoaneurysm after kidney transplant with different clinical presentations and management strategies is reported and an up-to-date review of 76 articles on mycotic, bacterial, and idiopathic EPSAs is provided.
Abstract: Renal transplantation is the ultimate treatment for end-stage renal disease patients. However, vascular complications can impact renal allograft outcomes. Extrarenal pseudoaneurysms (EPSA) are a rare complication occurring in 1% of transplant recipients. We report a case series of extrarenal pseudoaneurysm after kidney transplant with different clinical presentations and management strategies. Given the rarity of EPSA, literature describing this complication is limited to single case reports or small retrospective case series. We also provide an up-to-date review of 76 articles on mycotic, bacterial, and idiopathic EPSAs. Allograft removal is considered standard treatment, but new endovascular alternatives may allow allograft salvage. EPSA should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach. Surveillance with renal ultrasound is recommended in patients considered high risk.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors proposed a method to solve the problem of the problem: the one-dimensional graph. .>

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extensive vascular reconstruction of the right renal artery, aorta, and inferior vena cava of a damaged EBPK allograft is reported using a donor pediatric aort a vascular patch with the goal of avoiding postoperative vascular complications.
Abstract: En bloc pediatric kidney (EBPK) allografts are a potential solution to expand the organ donor pool; however, EBPK transplantation has been traditionally considered suboptimal due to concerns of perioperative vascular and urologic complications. Accidental organ or vasculature injury during harvest is not uncommon; however, this does not necessarily mean that the organ should be discarded. Careful vascular reconstruction can be performed using donor vascular grafts, salvaging the organ without stenosis or thrombosis of the vessels. We report an extensive vascular reconstruction of the right renal artery, aorta, and inferior vena cava of a damaged EBPK allograft using a donor pediatric aorta vascular patch with the goal of avoiding postoperative vascular complications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is considered that liver transplantation as a therapeutic option, especially in cases where sufficient graft volume is secured, may provide long-term survival if successful in patients with severe VOD/SOS originating from HSCT.
Abstract: Background Venoocclusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a life-threatening hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) complication. Cases of mild and moderate VOD/SOS are self-limiting; however, the mortality for severe VOD/SOS has reached 80%. Recently, defibrotide became available and has been used for VOD/SOS; however, the outcome for patients with severe VOD/SOS is not satisfactory, and liver transplantation is attempted in these severe cases. Method We describe a case of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for acute liver failure secondary to VOD/SOS that originates from HSCT. Result Liver regeneration after LDLT was impaired, and several infections were developed before liver regeneration completion. Our patient suffered sepsis and finally died of multiorgan failure. Conclusion Severe VOD/SOS originating from HSCT is associated with a very poor prognosis. The liver transplantation outcome for VOD/SOS has not been satisfied, but it may provide long-term survival if successful. We considered liver transplantation as a therapeutic option, especially in cases where sufficient graft volume is secured, considering impaired liver regeneration under bone marrow suppression after HSCT.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is recommended that in RTR post-COVID-19, the immunosuppression regimen should be gradually reinstated along with strict vigilance in observing for highly prevalent coinfections (TB, HP, and CMV).
Abstract: Introduction Infection with SARS-CoV-2 increases the risk of acute graft dysfunction (AGD) in renal transplant recipients (RTR), and the risk of concurrently presenting with opportunistic infections is also increased. There is no current consensus on the management of immunosuppression during SARS-CoV-2 infection in RTR. Case Presentation. A 35-year-old male RTR from a living related donor presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection (January 2021). Two months later, despite alterations to his immunosuppression regimen (tacrolimus (TAC) was reduced by 50%, and the mycophenolic acid (MMF) was suspended with the remission of symptoms), the patient presented with pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis, and histoplasmosis (HP). Management was initiated with antituberculosis medications, ganciclovir, antibiotics, and liposomal amphotericin B, and the immunosuppressants were suspended, yet the patient's evolution was catastrophic and the outcome fatal. Conclusion We recommend that in RTR post-COVID-19, the immunosuppression regimen should be gradually reinstated along with strict vigilance in observing for highly prevalent coinfections (TB, HP, and CMV).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A case of hemorrhagic enterocolitis in a lung transplant recipient with an atypical presentation of non-O1,non-O139 V. cholerae and ongoing orthostasis is described.
Abstract: Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae are rare strains that are generally nonpathogenic in immunocompetent hosts. However, this pathogen has been shown to cause gastroenteritis, wound infections, or bacteremia in immunocompromised patients and is associated with significant mortality in these hosts. Herein, we describe a case of hemorrhagic enterocolitis in a lung transplant recipient with an atypical presentation of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae and ongoing orthostasis. The patient reported recent seafood consumption and was managed appropriately with antibiotic therapy before necessitating esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for further objective testing.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2011/368623 because of a lack of time.
Abstract: [This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2011/368623.].