Open access•Journal•ISSN: 2211-1247
About: Cell Reports is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Chromatin & Stem cell. It has an ISSN identifier of 2211-1247. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 9578 publication(s) have been published receiving 411198 citation(s).
31 May 2016-Cell Reports
Abstract: Topologically associating domains (TADs) are fundamental structural and functional building blocks of human interphase chromosomes, yet the mechanisms of TAD formation remain unclear. Here, we propose that loop extrusion underlies TAD formation. In this process, cis-acting loop-extruding factors, likely cohesins, form progressively larger loops but stall at TAD boundaries due to interactions with boundary proteins, including CTCF. Using polymer simulations, we show that this model produces TADs and finer-scale features of Hi-C data. Each TAD emerges from multiple loops dynamically formed through extrusion, contrary to typical illustrations of single static loops. Loop extrusion both explains diverse experimental observations-including the preferential orientation of CTCF motifs, enrichments of architectural proteins at TAD boundaries, and boundary deletion experiments-and makes specific predictions for the depletion of CTCF versus cohesin. Finally, loop extrusion has potentially far-ranging consequences for processes such as enhancer-promoter interactions, orientation-specific chromosomal looping, and compaction of mitotic chromosomes.
25 Oct 2012-Cell Reports
Abstract: We established a collection of 7,000 transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of GAL4 in each line is controlled by a different, defined fragment of genomic DNA that serves as a transcriptional enhancer. We used confocal microscopy of dissected nervous systems to determine the expression patterns driven by each fragment in the adult brain and ventral nerve cord. We present image data on 6,650 lines. Using both manual and machine-assisted annotation, we describe the expression patterns in the most useful lines. We illustrate the utility of these data for identifying novel neuronal cell types, revealing brain asymmetry, and describing the nature and extent of neuronal shape stereotypy. The GAL4 lines allow expression of exogenous genes in distinct, small subsets of the adult nervous system. The set of DNA fragments, each driving a documented expression pattern, will facilitate the generation of additional constructs for manipulating neuronal function.
Topics: Drosophila Protein (50%)
27 Sep 2012-Cell Reports
Abstract: High-throughput sequencing has allowed for unprecedented detail in gene expression analyses, yet its efficient application to single cells is challenged by the small starting amounts of RNA. We have developed CEL-Seq, a method for overcoming this limitation by barcoding and pooling samples before linearly amplifying mRNA with the use of one round of in vitro transcription. We show that CEL-Seq gives more reproducible, linear, and sensitive results than a PCR-based amplification method. We demonstrate the power of this method by studying early C. elegans embryonic development at single-cell resolution. Differential distribution of transcripts between sister cells is seen as early as the two-cell stage embryo, and zygotic expression in the somatic cell lineages is enriched for transcription factors. The robust transcriptome quantifications enabled by CEL-Seq will be useful for transcriptomic analyses of complex tissues containing populations of diverse cell types.
Pornpimol Charoentong1, Francesca Finotello1, Mihaela Angelova1, Clemens Mayer1 +4 more•Institutions (1)
03 Jan 2017-Cell Reports
Abstract: Summary The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed the genomic landscapes of human cancers. In parallel, immunotherapy is transforming the treatment of advanced cancers. Unfortunately, the majority of patients do not respond to immunotherapy, making the identification of predictive markers and the mechanisms of resistance an area of intense research. To increase our understanding of tumor-immune cell interactions, we characterized the intratumoral immune landscapes and the cancer antigenomes from 20 solid cancers and created The Cancer Immunome Atlas (https://tcia.at/). Cellular characterization of the immune infiltrates showed that tumor genotypes determine immunophenotypes and tumor escape mechanisms. Using machine learning, we identified determinants of tumor immunogenicity and developed a scoring scheme for the quantification termed immunophenoscore. The immunophenoscore was a superior predictor of response to anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies in two independent validation cohorts. Our findings and this resource may help inform cancer immunotherapy and facilitate the development of precision immuno-oncology.
Ludmil B. Alexandrov1, Serena Nik-Zainal1, David C. Wedge1, Peter J. Campbell2 +2 more•Institutions (2)
31 Jan 2013-Cell Reports
Abstract: The genome of a cancer cell carries somatic mutations that are the cumulative consequences of the DNA damage and repair processes operative during the cellular lineage between the fertilized egg and the cancer cell. Remarkably, these mutational processes are poorly characterized. Global sequencing initiatives are yielding catalogs of somatic mutations from thousands of cancers, thus providing the unique opportunity to decipher the signatures of mutational processes operative in human cancer. However, until now there have been no theoretical models describing the signatures of mutational processes operative in cancer genomes and no systematic computational approaches are available to decipher these mutational signatures. Here, by modeling mutational processes as a blind source separation problem, we introduce a computational framework that effectively addresses these questions. Our approach provides a basis for characterizing mutational signatures from cancer-derived somatic mutational catalogs, paving the way to insights into the pathogenetic mechanism underlying all cancers.