Open access•Journal•ISSN: 2073-4409
About: Cells is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Stem cell & Immune system. It has an ISSN identifier of 2073-4409. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 8279 publication(s) have been published receiving 77728 citation(s).
15 Jul 2019-Cells
Abstract: The use of extracellular vesicles, specifically exosomes, as carriers of biomarkers in extracellular spaces has been well demonstrated Despite their promising potential, the use of exosomes in the clinical setting is restricted due to the lack of standardization in exosome isolation and analysis methods The purpose of this review is to not only introduce the different types of extracellular vesicles but also to summarize their differences and similarities, and discuss different methods of exosome isolation and analysis currently used A thorough understanding of the isolation and analysis methods currently being used could lead to some standardization in the field of exosomal research, allowing the use of exosomes in the clinical setting to become a reality
Topics: Exosome (61%)
18 Mar 2016-Cells
Abstract: The NF-κB transcription factor is the master regulator of the inflammatory response and is essential for the homeostasis of the immune system. NF-κB regulates the transcription of genes that control inflammation, immune cell development, cell cycle, proliferation, and cell death. The fundamental role that NF-κB plays in key physiological processes makes it an important factor in determining health and disease. The importance of NF-κB in tissue homeostasis and immunity has frustrated therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting NF-κB activation. However, significant research efforts have revealed the crucial contribution of NF-κB phosphorylation to controlling NF-κB directed transactivation. Importantly, NF-κB phosphorylation controls transcription in a gene-specific manner, offering new opportunities to selectively target NF-κB for therapeutic benefit. This review will focus on the phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunits and the impact on NF-κB function.
09 Apr 2020-Cells
Abstract: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. SARS-CoV-2 shares both high sequence similarity and the use of the same cell entry receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Several studies have provided bioinformatic evidence of potential routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive and urinary systems. However, whether the reproductive system is a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 infection has not yet been determined. Here, we investigate the expression pattern of ACE2 in adult human testes at the level of single-cell transcriptomes. The results indicate that ACE2 is predominantly enriched in spermatogonia and Leydig and Sertoli cells. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) indicates that Gene Ontology (GO) categories associated with viral reproduction and transmission are highly enriched in ACE2-positive spermatogonia, while male gamete generation related terms are downregulated. Cell–cell junction and immunity-related GO terms are increased in ACE2-positive Leydig and Sertoli cells, but mitochondria and reproduction-related GO terms are decreased. These findings provide evidence that the human testis is a potential target of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may have significant impact on our understanding of the pathophysiology of this rapidly spreading disease.
Sangiliyandi Gurunathan1, Min-Hee Kang1, Muniyandi Jeyaraj1, Muhammad Qasim1 +1 more•Institutions (1)
03 Apr 2019-Cells
Abstract: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that contain a specific composition of proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA. They are derived from endocytic membranes and can transfer signals to recipient cells, thus mediating a novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. They are also thought to be involved in cellular waste disposal. Exosomes play significant roles in various biological functions, including the transfer of biomolecules such as RNA, proteins, enzymes, and lipids and the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes in various diseases. Because of these properties, they are considered to be promising biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases and may contribute to the development of minimally invasive diagnostics and next generation therapies. The biocompatible nature of exosomes could enhance the stability and efficacy of imaging probes and therapeutics. Due to their potential use in clinical applications, exosomes have attracted much research attention on their roles in health and disease. To explore the use of exosomes in the biomedical arena, it is essential that the basic molecular mechanisms behind the transport and function of these vesicles are well-understood. Herein, we discuss the history, biogenesis, release, isolation, characterization, and biological functions of exosomes, as well as the factors influencing their biogenesis and their technical and biological challenges. We conclude this review with a discussion on the future perspectives of exosomes.
29 Mar 2016-Cells
Abstract: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including immune response, inflammation, cell growth and survival, and development. NF-κB is critical for human health, and aberrant NF-κB activation contributes to development of various autoimmune, inflammatory and malignant disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis and malignant tumors. Thus, inhibiting NF-κB signaling has potential therapeutic applications in cancer and inflammatory diseases.