Journal•ISSN: 1644-3608

# Central European Journal of Physics

De Gruyter

About: Central European Journal of Physics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Fractional calculus & Nonlinear system. It has an ISSN identifier of 1644-3608. Over the lifetime, 1918 publications have been published receiving 17286 citations.

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TL;DR: It is shown that on the basis of open-source software development, a fully functional software package can be created that covers the needs of a large part of the scanning probe microscopy user community.

Abstract: In this article, we review special features of Gwyddion—a modular, multiplatform, open-source software for scanning probe microscopy data processing, which is available at http://gwyddion.net/. We describe its architecture with emphasis on modularity and easy integration of the provided algorithms into other software. Special functionalities, such as data processing from non-rectangular areas, grain and particle analysis, and metrology support are discussed as well. It is shown that on the basis of open-source software development, a fully functional software package can be created that covers the needs of a large part of the scanning probe microscopy user community.

3,151 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the positron fraction measured by PAMELA and the peculiar spectral features reported in the total electron-positron flux measured by ATIC have a very natural explanation in the injected electron positron pairs produced by nearby pulsars.

Abstract: We argue that both the positron fraction measured by PAMELA and the peculiar spectral features reported in the total electron-positron flux measured by ATIC have a very natural explanation in electron-positron pairs produced by nearby pulsars. While this possibility was pointed out a long time ago, the greatly improved quality of current data potentially allow to reverse-engineer the problem: given the regions of pulsar parameter space favored by PAMELA and by ATIC, are there known pulsars that explain the data with reasonable assumptions on the injected electron-positron pairs? In the context of simple benchmark models for estimating the electron-positron output, we consider all known pulsars, as listed in the most complete available catalogue. We find that it is unlikely that a single pulsar be responsible for both the PAMELA positron fraction anomaly and for the ATIC excess, although two single sources are in principle enough to explain both experimental results. The PAMELA excess positrons likely come from a set of mature pulsars (age ∼ × 106 yr), with a distance of 0.8–1 kpc, or from a single, younger and closer source like Geminga. The ATIC data require a larger (and less plausible) energy output, and favor an origin associated to powerful, more distant (1–2 kpc) and younger (age ∼ × 5 × 105 yr) pulsars. We list several candidate pulsars that can individually or coherently contribute to explain the PAMELA and ATIC data. Although generally suppressed, we find that the contribution of pulsars more distant than 1–2 kpc could contribute for the ATIC excess. Finally, we stress the multi-faceted and decisive role that Fermi-LAT will play in the very near future by (1) providing us with an exquisite measurement of the electron-positron flux, (2) unveiling the existence of as yet undetected gamma-ray pulsars, and (3) searching for anisotropies in the arrival direction of high-energy electrons and positrons.

301 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors classified six-dimensional F-theory compactifications in terms of simple features of the divisor structure of the base surface of the elliptic fibration.

Abstract: We classify six-dimensional F-theory compactifications in terms of simple features of the divisor structure of the base surface of the elliptic fibration. This structure controls the minimal spectrum of the theory. We determine all irreducible configurations of divisors (“clusters”) that are required to carry nonabelian gauge group factors based on the intersections of the divisors with one another and with the canonical class of the base. All 6D F-theory models are built from combinations of these irreducible configurations. Physically, this geometric structure characterizes the gauge algebra and matter that can remain in a 6D theory after maximal Higgsing. These results suggest that all 6D supergravity theories realized in F-theory have a maximally Higgsed phase in which the gauge algebra is built out of summands of the types su(3), so(8), f4, e6, e8, e8, (g2 ⊕ su(2)); and su(2) ⊕ so(7) ⊕ su(2), with minimal matter content charged only under the last three types of summands, corresponding to the non-Higgsable cluster types identified through F-theory geometry. Although we have identified all such geometric clusters, we have not proven that there cannot be an obstruction to Higgsing to the minimal gauge and matter configuration for any possible F-theory model. We also identify bounds on the number of tensor fields allowed in a theory with any fixed gauge algebra; we use this to bound the size of the gauge group (or algebra) in a simple class of F-theory bases.

281 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, functional renormalization group equations and some of their applications are discussed and the applicability of this method extends well beyond critical systems, it actually provides us a general purpose algorithm to solve strongly coupled quantum field theories.

Abstract: These introductory notes are about functional renormalization group equations and some of their applications. It is emphasised that the applicability of this method extends well beyond critical systems, it actually provides us a general purpose algorithm to solve strongly coupled quantum field theories. The renormalization group equation of F. Wegner and A. Houghton is shown to resum the loop-expansion. Another version, due to J. Polchinski, is obtained by the method of collective coordinates and can be used for the resummation of the perturbation series. The genuinely non-perturbative evolution equation is obtained by a manner reminiscent of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. Two variants of this scheme are presented where the scale which determines the order of the successive elimination of the modes is extracted from external and internal spaces. The renormalization of composite operators is discussed briefly as an alternative way to arrive at the renormalization group equation. The scaling laws and fixed points are considered from local and global points of view. Instability induced renormalization and new scaling laws are shown to occur in the symmetry broken phase of the scaler theory. The flattening of the effective potential of a compact variable is demonstrated in case of the sine-Gordon model. Finally, a manifestly gauge invariant evolution equation is given for QED.

271 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) has been applied to thin film flow of a fourth grade fluid down a vertical cylinder and the results reveal that the proposed method is very accurate, effective and easy to use.

Abstract: A new approximate analytical technique to address for non-linear problems, namely Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is proposed and has been applied to thin film flow of a fourth grade fluid down a vertical cylinder. This approach however, does not depend upon any small/large parameters in comparison to other perturbation method. This method provides a convenient way to control the convergence of approximation series and allows adjustment of convergence regions where necessary. The series solution has been developed and the recurrence relations are given explicitly. The results reveal that the proposed method is very accurate, effective and easy to use.

231 citations