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Showing papers in "Cereal Chemistry in 2006"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the impact of transglutaminase at different levels (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 U of TGase/g of protein) on the quality of gluten-free bread.
Abstract: One of the main problems associated with gluten-free bread is obtaining a good structure. Transglutaminase (TGase), an enzyme that catalyzes acyl-transfer reactions through which proteins can be cross-linked could be a way to improve the structure of gluten-free breads. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of TGase at different levels (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 U of TGase/g of protein) on the quality of gluten-free bread. The recipe consisted of white rice flour (relative amount: 35), potato starch (30), corn flour (22.5), xanthan gum (1), and various protein sources (skim milk powder [SMP] [12.5], soya flour, and egg powder). The influence of the various proteins in combination with the different addition levels of TGase on bread quality (% bake loss, specific volume, color, texture, image characteristics, and total moisture) was determined. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to evaluate the influence of TGase on the microstructure of the bread. Baking tests showed that...

253 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the main byproduct of the wheat germ oil extraction process is a defatted wheat germ meal, which has a relatively high protein content, making it an attractive and promising source of vegetable proteins.
Abstract: The main by-product of the wheat germ oil extraction process is a defatted wheat germ meal, which has a relatively high protein content, making it an attractive and promising source of vegetable proteins. Four protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, and glutelin) and protein isolate from defatted wheat germ flour (DWGF) were fractionated and then characterized by amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Albumin was the major fraction (34.5%) extracted, followed by globulin (15.6%), glutelin (10.6%), and prolamine (4.6%). Protein isolate was mainly composed of albumin and globulin. These protein fractions and protein isolate showed an excellent balance of all essential amino acids, with a relatively high level of glutamic acid, arginine, leucine, and glycine, whereas cystine was lacking. All the estimated nutritional quality parameters based on amino acids composition showed that defatted wheat germ proteins had good nutritional quality. Nonreduced and r...

137 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of increasing the starch amylose content above normal levels (27-74%) and increasing the percentage of B-type starch granules (11-60%) on durum dough properties and the quality of the spaghetti derived from these doughs was used.
Abstract: To obtain an indication of the effect of increasing the starch amylose content above normal levels (27–74%) and increasing the percentage of B-type starch granules (11–60%) on durum dough properties and the quality of the spaghetti derived from these doughs, the reconstitution approach was used. Reconstituted flours were prepared from a common Wollaroi gluten, solubles and tailings fraction combined with starches containing varying B-granule contents, or with starches from maize with varying amylose content. An increased B-granule content increased farinograph water absorption. Cooked spaghetti firmness was highest with B-type granules at 32–44% (volume percentage basis), which is ≈10–15% higher than normally found in durum starch. Increasing the amylose content in the starch caused the dough to be more extensible, increased spaghetti firmness, and decreased water absorption with optimum quality of amylose at 32–44%. The information indicates there would be benefit in producing durum wheats with ...

131 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of cooking on the reduction of oligosaccharide content of pre-soaked legumes and found that the reduction was more significant in pre-sained legumes than pre-cooked legumes.
Abstract: Oligosaccharides, including raffinose, stachyose, ciceritol, and verbascose, are commonly found in legumes and often result in flatulence in humans. Effects of soaking, soaking with ultrasound (47 MHz), soaking with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 621 MPa), and subsequent cooking on the oligosaccharide content of lentils, chickpeas, peas, and soybeans were investigated. Legumes were soaked for 3 or 12 hr in water, soaked for 1.5 or 3 hr with ultrasound, or soaked for 0.5 or 1 hr with HHP. Oligosaccharides of lentils and chickpeas were mainly composed of raffinose, ciceritol, and stachyose, while those of peas and soybeans were raffinose and stachyose. Verbascose was the minor oligosaccharide in lentils and peas and was absent in chickpeas and soybeans. Ciceritol was not detected in peas and soybeans. Total oligosaccharide content of raw legumes ranged from 70.7 mg/g in yellow peas to 144.9 mg/g in chickpeas. Soaking was effective for the reduction of oligosaccharides in the tested legumes. Compared with soaking for 3 hr, soaking legumes with ultrasound for 3 hr in all tested legumes or soaking legumes with HHP for 1 hr, with exception of soybeans, appeared to be more effective for the reduction of oligosaccharides. The effect of cooking on the reduction of oligosaccharide content of presoaked legumes was evident in lentils, while oligosaccharide content of chickpeas, peas, and soybeans was either unchanged or even increased by cooking after presoaking, with or without ultrasound, probably due to the leaching of other soluble components and the release of bound oligosaccharides during cooking. During soaking or cooking of legumes, raffinose leached out faster than other oligosaccharides.

128 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a digital image analysis coupled with light microscopy was used to determine starch size distributions where the volume of granules was calculated as spherical particles or oblate spheroids.
Abstract: Starch was isolated from flour of four wheats representing hard red winter (Karl), hard red spring (Gunner), durum (Belfield 3), and spelt (WK 86035-8) wheat classes. Digital image analysis (IA) coupled with light microscopy was used to determine starch size distributions where the volume of granules was calculated as spherical particles or oblate spheroids. Starch granules were classified into three size ranges: A-type granules (> 15 μm), B-type granules (5–15 μm), and C-type granules (<5 μm). An error was noted in using digital image analysis because the perimeter of some granules touch the edge (PTE) of the field being analyzed. To correct for this error, the PTE granules were manually replaced into the field by measuring their diameters and entering them into the database. The results showed differences in the starch size distributions between the classes of wheat evaluated, as well as the method of analysis. Four laser diffraction sizing (LDS) instruments were used to measure granule distrib...

119 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of wheat cultivar and growing environment on variation in water-soluble (WS-AX), waterinsoluble (WI-AX) and total arabinoxylan contents of flour and whole grain meal was delineated.
Abstract: Arabinoxylans are hydrophilic nonstarch polysaccharides found in wheat grain as minor constituents. Arabinoxylans can associate with large amounts of water through hydrogen bonding and can form oxidative gels. These properties are important factors in end-use quality of wheat. The objective of this study was to delineate the influence of wheat cultivar and growing environment on variation in water-soluble (WS-AX), waterinsoluble (WI-AX), and total (TO-AX) arabinoxylan contents of flour and whole grain meal. This study included seven spring and 20 winter soft white wheat cultivars grown in 10 and 12 environments, respectively (each evenly split over two crop years). Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance with canonical analysis (MANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. Variation in arabinoxylan contents and absolute amounts (xylose equivalents) among the two cultivar sample sets (spring and winter) was similar, and both cultivar and environment were...

111 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, second-order response-surface regression models were used to study the effects and interactions of amylose, protein, and fiber contents on ethanol yield and conversion efficiency.
Abstract: The effects of amylose, protein, and fiber contents on ethanol yields were evaluated using artificially formulated media made from commercial corn starches with different contents of amylose, corn protein, and corn fiber, as well as media made from different cereal sources including corn, sorghum, and wheat with different amylose contents. Second-order response-surface regression models were used to study the effects and interactions of amylose, protein, and fiber contents on ethanol yield and conversion efficiency. The results showed that the amylose content of starches had a significant (P 35%. The reduced quadratic model fits the conversion efficiency data better than the full quadratic mode...

103 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, wheat flour and wheat flour were prepared from wheat flours with either 3, 5, and 7% legume hulls or insoluble cotyledon fibers, or with 1, 3, and 5% soluble cotylenedon fibers isolated from pea, lentil, and chickpea flours.
Abstract: Bread was prepared from wheat flour and wheat flour fortified with either 3, 5, and 7% legume hulls or insoluble cotyledon fibers, or with 1, 3, and 5% soluble cotyledon fibers isolated from pea, lentil, and chickpea flours. Incorporation of hulls or insoluble fibers resulted in increases in dough water absorption by 2–16% and increases in mixing time of dough by 22–147 sec. Addition of soluble fiber resulted in decreases in water absorption as the substitution rate increased and similar mixing times to the control dough. Loaf weights of breads containing hulls or insoluble fibers were generally higher than that of control bread at 149.4–166.5 g. However, the loaf volume of breads fortified with legume hulls and fibers (685–1,010 mL) was lower than that of the control bread (1,021 mL). Breads containing soluble fibers were more attractive in terms of crumb uniformity and color than breads containing either hulls or insoluble fibers. Breads fortified with legume hulls and fibers were higher in moi...

101 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of fiber additions on wheat pasting and gelling profiles have been investigated and the effect of fibers added singly and in associated mixtures at different levels on the investigated viscometric parameters retrieved from a Rapid Visco Analyser curve was assessed by response surface methodology, and the thermal parameters derived from the cooking and cooling functional profile were correlated.
Abstract: The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of fibers from different sources and degree of processing meeting acceptable dough viscometric standards to design low-calorie wheat bread formulations. Effects of soluble (inuline [FN]), partially soluble (sugar beet [FX]), pea cell wall (SW), and insoluble (pea hull [EX]) dietary fibers on wheat dough pasting and gelling profiles have been investigated. Impact of fibers added singly and in associated mixtures at different levels on the investigated viscometric parameters retrieved from a Rapid Visco Analyser curve has been assessed by response surface methodology, and the thermal parameters derived from the cooking and cooling functional profile were correlated. Flour replacement up to 34% by fibers significantly provided a deleterious effect on pasting and gelling viscosity profiles of the resulting hydrated high fiber-flour blends. The magnitude of the reduction in dough viscometric characteristics during gelatinization, pasting, and setback c...

95 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the polymer conformation structure of gluten extracted from a Polish wheat cultivar, Korweta, and gluten subfractions obtained from 2 U.K. breadmaking and biscuit flour cultivars, Hereward and Riband, was investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).
Abstract: The polymer conformation structure of gluten extracted from a Polish wheat cultivar, Korweta, and gluten subfractions obtained from 2 U.K. breadmaking and biscuit flour cultivars, Hereward and Riband, was investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results showed the conformation of proteins varied between flour, hydrated flour, and hydrated gluten. The β-sheet structure increased progressively from flour to hydrated flour and to hydrated gluten. In hydrated gluten protein fractions comprising gliadin, soluble glutenin, and gel protein, β-sheet structure increased progressively from soluble gliadin and glutenin to gluten and gel protein; β-sheet content was also greater in the gel protein from the breadmaking flour Hereward than the biscuit flour Riband.

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of different protein sources (soy flour, lupin flour, egg albumin, gelatin powder, protein-rich beer yeast flour) on wheat dough functionality was tested by determining gluten index, texture properties, and thermomechanical parameters.
Abstract: The effect of different protein sources (soy flour, lupin flour, egg albumin, gelatin powder, protein-rich beer yeast flour) on wheat dough functionality was tested by determining gluten index, texture properties, and thermomechanical parameters. Transglutaminase (TG) was also added to improve the dough functionality by forming cross-links. The presence of protein sources had a significant effect on the gluten index, with the exception of lupin flour. Gelatin and the presence of TG resulted in significant single effects on the texture properties of the wheat-protein dough. All the protein sources significantly modified the mixing characteristics of the dough or the thermal behavior. Capillary electrophoresis studies of the water-soluble, salt-soluble, and glutenin proteins indicated that interactions were mainly within proteins, thus homologous polymers. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the doughs made from blends of wheat and protein sources doughs supported the formation of heterologous ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for predicting 186 grain, milling, flour, dough, and breadmaking quality parameters of 100 hard red winter (HRW) and 98 hard red spring (HRS) wheat and flour samples was evaluated.
Abstract: Cereal Chem. 83(5):529–536 The accuracy of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for predicting 186 grain, milling, flour, dough, and breadmaking quality parameters of 100 hard red winter (HRW) and 98 hard red spring (HRS) wheat and flour samples was evaluated. NIRS shows the potential for predicting protein content, moisture content, and flour color b* values with accuracies suitable for process control (R 2 > 0.97). Many other parameters were predicted with accuracies suitable for rough screening including test weight, average single kernel diameter and moisture content, SDS sedimentation volume, color a* values, total gluten content, mixograph, farinograph, and alveograph parameters, loaf volume, specific loaf volume, baking water absorption and mix time, gliadin and glutenin content, flour particle size, and the percentage of dark hard and vitreous kernels. Similar results were seen when analyzing data from either HRW or HRS wheat, and when predicting quality using spectra from either grain or flour. However, many attributes were correlated to protein content and this relationship influenced classification accuracies. When the influence of protein content was removed from the analyses, the only factors that could be predicted by NIRS with R 2 > 0.70 were moisture content, test weight, flour color, free lipids, flour particle size, and the percentage of dark hard and vitreous kernels. Thus, NIRS can be used to predict many grain quality and functionality traits, but mainly because of the high correlations of these traits to protein content. Quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) whole grain, flour, dough, and bread can be measured by various qualitative and quantitative tests. These measurements are typically used to determine value or used to predict functionality and end use quality. There are standard or recommended measurement methods for many of these quality parameters such as those found in the Approved Methods of AACC International (2000) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Grain Inspection Handbook (USDA 2004). These methods are generally difficult and time-consuming, and most cannot be used to rapidly measure quality characteristics and functionality.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of decortication as a pretreatment method on ethanol production from sorghum, as well as investigating its impact on quality of distillers' dry grains with solubles (DDGS) was investigated.
Abstract: The use of a renewable biomass that contains considerable amounts of starch and cellulose could provide a sugar platform for the production of numerous bioproducts. Pretreatment technologies have been developed to increase the bioconversion rate for both starch and cellulosic-based biomass. This study investigated the effect of decortication as a pretreatment method on ethanol production from sorghum, as well as investigating its impact on quality of distillers' dry grains with solubles (DDGS). Eight sorghum hybrids with 0, 10, and 20% of their outer layers removed were used as raw materials for ethanol production. The decorticated samples were fermented to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Removal of germ and fiber before fermentation allowed for greater starch loading for ethanol fermentation and resulted in increased ethanol production. Ethanol yields increased as the percentage of decortication increased. The decortication process resulted in DDGS with higher protein content and lower f...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Starch A- and B-type granules were isolated from soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes representing the four granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) classes, and characterized according to composition and properties as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Starch A- and B-type granules were isolated from soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes representing the four granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) classes, and characterized according to composition and properties. While total (TAM) and apparent (AAM) amylose contents of both granule fractions decreased as starch waxy character increased, the A-type granules possessed higher TAM and AAM contents than B-type granules for a given genotype. From wild-type to waxy, a general transition was observed from B- to A-type starch granule fractions with higher levels of lipid-complexed amylose (LAM) and phospholipid. Within a genotype, A-type (relative to B-type) granules possessed higher gelatinization enthalpies, while B-type granules exhibited higher gelatinization peak and completion temperatures (broader gelatinization ranges) than A-type granules. Normal (wild-type) and waxy A- and B-type starch granule pasting rates were affected by starch granule lipids; the granule type within a genotype wit...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of the soaking and steaming steps in rice parboiling on color changes and the levels of reducing sugars in rice were studied and the results showed that the color difference between parboiled and nonparboiled rice increased with increasing MC after soaking and depended on the intensity of the steaming conditions as reflected in the degree of starch gelatinization.
Abstract: The effects of the soaking and steaming steps in rice parboiling on color changes and the levels of reducing sugars in rice were studied. Brown rice was soaked to different moisture contents (MC, 15, 20, 25, and 30%). The L*, a*, b* color parameters of the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE 1976) indicated that during soaking, red and yellow bran pigments diffused from the bran into the endosperm. The increase in brightness brought about by soaking rice was attributed to migration of rice compounds (e.g., lipids) from the inner to the outer bran layers (rice surface). The levels of reducing sugars in brown and milled soaked rice samples increased with increasing brown rice MC after soaking. The total color difference (ΔE) between parboiled and nonparboiled rice increased with increasing MC after soaking and depended on the intensity of the steaming conditions as reflected in the degree of starch gelatinization. Parboiling affected yellowness more than redness in mildly steamed brown ri...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Instrumental texture tests on cooked noodles are valuable research tools and are well suited for monitoring noodle texture after changes in formulations, raw materials, and processing as mentioned in this paper. But, unlike large deformation “texture” tests, dynamic oscillating rheometry struggles to match sensory perceptions of...
Abstract: Instrumental texture tests on cooked noodles are valuable research tools and are well suited for monitoring noodle texture after changes in formulations, raw materials, and processing. Uniaxial tests are most common, and a variety of test types, strains, strain rates, and probe dimensions are used. Consequently, standardization is a challenge. Compressive tests (cutting and blunt probe compression) are more frequently reported than tensile tests. Combining results of tensile and compressive tests shows potential to uncover aspects of noodle texture not detectable using one method alone. Tensile and blunt-probe compression tests can be both adapted for stress relaxation experiments and may be used to derive fundamental rheological information. Dynamic oscillating rheometry shows promise as a tool for investigating composition/structure/function relationships in cooked noodles. However, unlike large deformation “texture” tests, dynamic oscillating rheometry struggles to match sensory perceptions of...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the solvent retention capacity (SRC) of hard winter wheat (HWW) and found that the 5% lactic acid SRC value differentiated the quality of protein relating to loaf volume.
Abstract: Solvent retention capacity (SRC) was investigated in assessing the end use quality of hard winter wheat (HWW). The four SRC values of 116 HWW flours were determined using 5% lactic acid, 50% sucrose, 5% sodium carbonate, and distilled water. The SRC values were greatly affected by wheat and flour protein contents, and showed significant linear correlations with 1,000-kernel weight and single kernel weight, size, and hardness. The 5% lactic acid SRC value showed the highest correlation (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) with straight-dough bread volume, followed by 50% sucrose, and least by distilled water. We found that the 5% lactic acid SRC value differentiated the quality of protein relating to loaf volume. When we selected a set of flours that had a narrow range of protein content of 12–13% (n = 37) from the 116 flours, flour protein content was not significantly correlated with loaf volume. The 5% lactic acid SRC value, however, showed a significant correlation (r = 0.84, P < 0.0001) with loaf volume. T...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors compared hard red winter (HRW) and hard red spring (HRS) wheat and found that the average value of many grain and breadmaking quality characteristics were similar for both wheat classes but significant differen...
Abstract: Various whole-kernel, milling, flour, dough, and breadmaking quality parameters were compared between hard red winter (HRW) and hard red spring (HRS) wheat. From the 50 quality parameters evaluated, values of only nine quality characteristics were found to be similar for both classes. These were test weight, grain moisture content, kernel size, polyphenol oxidase content, average gluten index, insoluble polymeric protein (%), free nonpolar lipids, loaf volume potential, and mixograph tolerance. Some of the quality characteristics that had significantly higher levels in HRS than in HRW wheat samples included grain protein content, grain hardness, most milling and flour quality measurements, most dough physicochemical properties, and most baking characteristics. When HRW and HRS wheat samples were grouped to be within the same wheat protein content range (11.4–15.8%), the average value of many grain and breadmaking quality characteristics were similar for both wheat classes but significant differen...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, four pearl millet genotypes were tested for their potential as raw material for fuel ethanol production in a study performed both in flasks on a rotary shaker and in a 5-L bioreactor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24860).
Abstract: Four pearl millet genotypes were tested for their potential as raw material for fuel ethanol production in this study. Ethanol fermentation was performed both in flasks on a rotary shaker and in a 5-L bioreactor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC 24860). For rotary-shaker fermentation, the final ethanol yields were 8.7–16.8% (v/v) at dry mass concentrations of 20–35%, and the ethanol fermentation efficiencies were 90.0–95.6%. Ethanol fermentation efficiency at 30% dry mass on a 5-L bioreactor reached 94.2%, which was greater than that from fermentation in the rotary shaker (92.9%). Results showed that the fermentation efficiencies of pearl millets, on a starch basis, were comparable to those of corn and grain sorghum. Because pearl millets have greater protein and lipid contents, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) from pearl millets also had greater protein content and energy levels than did DDGS from corn and grain sorghum. Therefore, pearl millets could be a potential feedstock for ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the SKCS moisture prediction for sorghum was evaluated by tempering seven samples with varying hardness values to four moisture levels, and the moisture contents predicted by SKCS were compared with a standard oven method.
Abstract: The single kernel characterization system (SKCS) has been widely used in the wheat industry, and SKCS parameters have been linked to end-use quality in wheat. The SKCS has promise as a tool for evaluating sorghum grain quality. However, the SKCS was designed to analyze wheat, which has a different kernel structure from sorghum. To gain a better understanding of the meaning of SKCS predictions for grain sorghum, individual sorghum grains were measured for length, width, thickness (diameter), and weight by laboratory methods and by the SKCS. SKCS predictions for kernel weight and thickness were highly correlated to laboratory measurements. However, SKCS predictions for kernel thickness were underestimated by ≈20%. The SKCS moisture prediction for sorghum was evaluated by tempering seven samples with varying hardness values to four moisture levels. The moisture contents predicted by SKCS were compared with a standard oven method and, while correlated, SKCS moisture predictions were less than moistur...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, high-intensity ultrasound (sonication) was investigated as a method to rapidly purify starch from sorghum and other cereal grains, and buffers were optimized to solubilize the proteins in combination with the sonication.
Abstract: High-intensity ultrasound (sonication) was investigated as a method to rapidly purify starch from sorghum and other cereal grains. To improve the process, buffers were optimized to solubilize sorghum proteins in combination with the sonication. Protein content and starch color were determined to evaluate the efficiency of the extraction process. Sonication times, SDS concentration, different types and concentrations of reducing agents (sodium metabisulfite, dithiothreitol, and β-mercaptoethanol), and centrifugation speeds of the starch washing procedure were tested. Protein content of isolated sorghum starch was reduced to 0–0.14% (db) after 2 min of sonication (using any of the reducing agents tested). Sodium metabisulfite was chosen as the preferred reducing agent because of its lower toxicity and odor compared with other reducing agents tested. The optimum conditions for producing high-purity sorghum starches (0.06% protein) were obtained using the following conditions: 2 min of sonication tim...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, protein and protein fractions were measured in 49 hard winter wheat flours to investigate their relationship to breadmaking properties, particularly loaf volume, which varied from 760 to 1,055 cm3 and crumb grain score of 1.0-5.0 from 100 g of flour straight-dough bread.
Abstract: Protein and protein fractions were measured in 49 hard winter wheat flours to investigate their relationship to breadmaking properties, particularly loaf volume, which varied from 760 to 1,055 cm3 and crumb grain score of 1.0–5.0 from 100 g of flour straight-dough bread. Protein composition varied with flour protein content because total soluble protein (SP) and gliadin levels increased proportionally to increased protein content, but albumins and globulins (AG), soluble polymeric proteins (SPP), and insoluble polymeric protein (IPP) levels did not. Flour protein content was positively correlated with loaf volume and bake water absorption (r = 0.80, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.45, P < 0.01, respectively). The percent SP based on flour showed the highest correlation with loaf volume (r = 0.85) and low but significant correlation with crumb grain score (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). Percent gliadins based on flour and on protein content were positively correlated to loaf volume (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.46, ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most important micro-structural features of the maize kernels, representing kernel hardness, were determined in 71 accessions representing races of maize from Latin America using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Chemical composition (moisture, total lipids, protein, and apparent amylose) and some physical features (1,000 kernel weight, hardness, and anatomical composition) were determined in 71 accessions representing races of maize from Latin America. Their microstructural characteristics (size and compaction of endosperm cell bodies, pericarp thickness, horny-floury endosperm ratio, and morphology and size of starch granules) were also evaluated using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Compaction was the most important microstructural feature of the maize kernels, representing kernel hardness. Highly compact kernels tended to be hard, with high protein, pericarp, and hard-endosperm content and high pericarp thickness, but with low moisture, amylose content, and kernel weight and size. The opposite was observed in the least compact kernels. Highly compact kernels tended to have small, polygonal starch granules (<10 μm), while the least compact kernels contained large, spherical granules ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors quantify the rate of bran removal during milling for several rice cultivars and hybrids common to the southern United States, and compare the quantity of lipids remaining on the kernel surface to that located throughout the kernel.
Abstract: Many rice cultivars and hybrids have unique physical characteristics that affect milling performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rate of bran removal during milling for several rice cultivars and hybrids common to the southern United States, and compare the quantity of lipids remaining on the kernel surface to that located throughout the kernel. This was accomplished by analyzing two sample sets. The first comprised cultivars Cocodrie, Cypress, and Lemont, and hybrids XL7 and XL8, which were milled for 0 (brown rice), 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 sec in a laboratory mill. In the second set, cultivars Cocodrie, Cypress, and Wells, and hybrids XL7 and XL8 were milled for 0, 20, 40, and 60 sec. The surface lipid content (SLC) and color of head rice samples were measured as indications of the degree of milling (DOM). The total lipid content (TLC) of ground head rice was also measured to determine the total amount of lipids present throughout the entire kernel. Results showed that at ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors derived 77 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from a cross between hard red spring wheat cultivars McNeal and Thatcher, and evaluated for strength-related properties using mixograph analysis and extensibility parameters using the Kieffer attachment to the TA.XT2 texture analyzer.
Abstract: A negative relationship between dough strength and dough extensibility would pose a problem for breeding hard wheats, as both dough strength and dough extensibility are desirable. We derived 77 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from a cross between hard red spring wheat cultivars McNeal and Thatcher. McNeal produces flour with stronger dough and lower extensibility than does Thatcher. RIL were evaluated for strength-related properties using mixograph analysis and extensibility parameters using the Kieffer attachment to the TA.XT2 texture analyzer. Additionally, the RIL were test baked. Measurements using the mixograph and the Kieffer attachment were highly heritable. Maximum dough extensibility (Extmax) was negatively correlated with resistance to extension (Rmax) (r = -0.74) and with mixograph tolerance (r = -0.45). Loaf volume was correlated with both Rmax (r = 0.42) and area under the extensigraph curve (r = 0.44) based on partial correlation analysis adjusted for protein differences. Extmax was ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of dry and wet fractionation technologies on the fermentation rates and ethanol yields were studied and compared with the conventional dry-grind process, and strategies to improve the fermentation characteristics of endosperm fraction from 3D process were evaluated using two saccharification and fermentatio...
Abstract: New corn fractionation technologies that produce higher value coproducts from dry-grind processing have been developed. Wet fractionation technologies involve a short soaking of corn followed by milling to recover germ and pericarp fiber in an aqueous medium before fermentation of degermed defibered slurry. In dry fractionation technologies, a dry degerm defiber (3D) process (similar to conventional corn dry-milling) is used to separate germ and pericarp fiber before fermentation of the endosperm fraction. The effect of dry and wet fractionation technologies on the fermentation rates and ethanol yields were studied and compared with the conventional dry-grind process. The wet process had the highest fermentation rate. The endosperm fraction obtained from 3D process had lowest fermentation rate and highest residual sugars at the end of fermentation. Strategies to improve the fermentation characteristics of endosperm fraction from 3D process were evaluated using two saccharification and fermentatio...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of added asparagine and glycine on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened bread was studied in a designed experiment, and it was found that adding asparaginous acid to the breads significantly increased the acidity of the bread.
Abstract: Effect of added asparagine and glycine on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened bread was studied in a designed experiment. Added asparagine strongly increased acrylamide content in the breads, while added glycine decreased the content. The more asparagine in the dough, the stronger was the reducing effect of glycine. When glycine was applied on the surface of the fermented dough, there was also a significant reduction of acrylamide content in the bread. Addition of glycine but not asparagine caused an increased browning reaction during baking.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An automated sorting system was developed that nondestructively measured quality characteristics of individual kernels using near-infrared (NIR) spectra as discussed by the authors, which was applied to sorting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) kernels by protein content and hardness.
Abstract: An automated sorting system was developed that nondestructively measured quality characteristics of individual kernels using near-infrared (NIR) spectra. This single-kernel NIR system was applied to sorting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) kernels by protein content and hardness, and proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) into amylose-bearing and amylose-free fractions. Single wheat kernels with high protein content could be sorted from pure lines so that the high-protein content portion was 3.1 percentage points higher than the portion with the low-protein kernels. Likewise, single wheat kernels with specific hardness indices could be removed from pure lines such that the hardness index in the sorted samples was 29.4 hardness units higher than the soft kernels. The system was able to increase the waxy, or amylose-free, millet kernels in segregating samples from 94% in the unsorted samples to 98% in the sorted samples. The portion of waxy millet kernels in segregating samples was increased from 32% in t...

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TL;DR: In this paper, amylopectin (AP) values of rice samples were isolated, debranched, and separated by low-pressure size-exclusion chromatography, and eluted AP linear chains were divided into three fractions to represent extra long (FrI), long (frII), and short chains (FrIII).
Abstract: Starch was isolated from kernels of 27 rice samples consisting of nine U.S. long grain rice cultivars grown in three different locations (Missouri, Arkansas, Texas). Amylose (AM) content of the starches and the fine structure of the respective amylopectin (AP) were determined and used to explain differences observed in gelatinization properties. The AM content of rice cultivars grown at the lower temperature Missouri location increased 0.4–3% and 0.5–4% when compared with the same rices grown in Arkansas and Texas, respectively. AP values of the rice samples were isolated, debranched, and separated by low-pressure size-exclusion chromatography. The eluted AP linear chains were divided into three fractions to represent extra long (FrI), long (FrII), and short chains (FrIII). The corresponding average degree of polymerization (DPn) at the peaks of fractions FrI, FrII, and FrIII were 100, 39, and 16, respectively. Total carbohydrate analysis of the fractions indicated that cultivars grown in Missour...

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TL;DR: The identification of a sorghum grain phenotype with a unique modified endosperm texture that has near-normal hardness and possesses superior nutritional quality traits of high digestibility and enhanced lysine content is reported on.
Abstract: Development of high-protein digestibility (HPD)/high-lysine (hl) sorghum mutant germplasm with good grain quality (i.e., hard endosperm texture) has been a major research objective at Purdue University. Progress toward achieving this objective, however, has been slow due to challenges posed by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this article, we report on the identification of a sorghum grain phenotype with a unique modified endosperm texture that has near-normal hardness and possesses superior nutritional quality traits of high digestibility and enhanced lysine content. These modified endosperm lines were identified among F6 families developed from crosses between hard endosperm, normal nutritional quality sorghum lines, and improved HPD/hl sorghum mutant P721Q-derived lines. A novel vitreous endosperm formation originated in the central portion of the kernel endosperm with opaque portions appearing both centrally and peripherally surrounding the vitreous portion. Kernels exhi...