Chemical Engineering & Technology
About: Chemical Engineering & Technology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Catalysis & Mass transfer. It has an ISSN identifier of 0930-7516. Over the lifetime, 6100 publication(s) have been published receiving 87564 citation(s).
Topics: Catalysis, Mass transfer, Adsorption, Crystallization, Fluidized bed
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The structure of lignin suggests that it can be a valuable source of chemicals, particularly phenolics as discussed by the authors, but it is the major challenge for converting it into value-added chemicals.
Abstract: The structure of lignin suggests that it can be a valuable source of chemicals, particularly phenolics. However, lignin depolymerization with selective bond cleavage is the major challenge for converting it into value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis (thermolysis), gasification, hydrogenolysis, chemical oxidation, and hydrolysis under supercritical conditions are the major thermochemical methods studied with regard to lignin depolymerization. Pyrolytic oil and syngases are the primary products obtained from pyrolysis and gasification. A significant amount of char is also produced during pyrolysis. Thermal treatment in a hydrogen environment seems very promising for converting lignin to liquid fuel and chemicals like phenols, while oxidation can produce phenolic aldehydes. Reaction severity, solvents, and catalysts are the factors of prime importance that control yield and composition of the product.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview on the kinetics of the reaction of CO2 with aqueous solutions of alkanolamines, and various reaction mechanisms that are used to interpret experimental kinetic data.
Abstract: Alkanolamines are the most popular absorbents used to remove CO2 from process gas streams. Therefore, the CO2 reaction with alkanolamines is of considerable importance. The aim of this article is to provide an overview on the kinetics of the reaction of CO2 with aqueous solutions of alkanolamines. The various reaction mechanisms that are used to interpret experimental kinetic data – zwitterion, termolecular and base-catalyzed hydration – are discussed in detail. Recently published data on reaction kinetics of individual amine systems and their mixtures are considered. In addition, the kinetic behavior of several novel aminebased solvents that have been proposed in the literature is analyzed. Generally, the reaction of CO2 with primary, secondary and sterically hindered amines is governed by the zwitterion mechanism, whereas the reaction with tertiary amines is described by the base-catalyzed hydration of CO2.
TL;DR: The improvements in biotechnological succinic acid production are presented and chemical conversion pathways to γ-butyrolactone, tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-butanediole, and pyrrolidones are reviewed.
Abstract: Succinic acid is predicted to be one of the future platform chemicals that can be derived from renewable resources. The improvements in biotechnological succinic acid production are presented. Chemical conversion pathways to γ-butyrolactone, tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-butanediole, and pyrrolidones are reviewed. An overview of possible new biopolymers (e. g. polyesters, polyamides, and poly(ester amide)s) based on succinic acid and its derivatives is given. Nevertheless, industrial processes using purified succinic acid from fermentation broths are not state of the art yet. Further improvements are needed until succinic acid-based chemical production will be economically favorable.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed that 50% of reactions in the fine chemical/pharmaceutical industry could benefit from a continuous process based mainly on microreactor technology, however, the frequent presence of a solid phase still hinders the widespread application of such a technology as a multi-purpose solution.
Abstract: 50 % of reactions in the fine chemical/pharmaceutical industry could benefit from a continuous process based mainly on microreactor technology. However, the frequent presence of a solid phase still hinders the widespread application of such a technology as a multi-purpose solution. For small scale and pilot productions, speed in process R&D, as well as the avoidance of scale-up issues, are the main drivers. On the other hand, for large scale productions, a gain in yield and safety are the main motivations for the use of micoreactor technology. The gain in yield must be significant in order to cope with the increase in capital expenditure associated with the development of a new technology.
TL;DR: An overview of recent advances in the synthesis of nanoparticles by flame aerosol processes is given in this paper, where a wide spectrum of new nanosized powders can be synthesized.
Abstract: An overview of recent advances in the synthesis of nanoparticles by flame aerosol processes is given. In flame processes with gaseous precursors emphasis is placed on reactant mixing and composition, additives, and external electric fields for control of product characteristics. Thermophoretic sampling can monitor the formation and growth of nanoparticles, while the corresponding temperature history can be obtained by non-intrusive Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, synthesis of composite nanoparticles for various applications is addressed such as in reinforcement or catalysis as well as for scale-up from 1 to 700 g/h of silica-carbon nanostructured particles. In flame processes with liquid precursors using the so-called flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), emphasis is placed on reactant and fuel composition. The FSP processes are quite attractive as they can employ a wide array of precursors, so a broad spectrum of new nanosized powders can be synthesized. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in combination with gas-phase particle formation models offer unique possibilities for improvement and possible new designs for flame reactors.
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