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Showing papers in "Chemical Reviews in 2004"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of gold nanoparticles can be found in this article, where the most stable metal nanoparticles, called gold colloids (AuNPs), have been used for catalysis and biology applications.
Abstract: Although gold is the subject of one of the most ancient themes of investigation in science, its renaissance now leads to an exponentially increasing number of publications, especially in the context of emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology with nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We will limit the present review to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), also called gold colloids. AuNPs are the most stable metal nanoparticles, and they present fascinating aspects such as their assembly of multiple types involving materials science, the behavior of the individual particles, size-related electronic, magnetic and optical properties (quantum size effect), and their applications to catalysis and biology. Their promises are in these fields as well as in the bottom-up approach of nanotechnology, and they will be key materials and building block in the 21st century. Whereas the extraction of gold started in the 5th millennium B.C. near Varna (Bulgaria) and reached 10 tons per year in Egypt around 1200-1300 B.C. when the marvelous statue of Touthankamon was constructed, it is probable that “soluble” gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China. In antiquity, materials were used in an ecological sense for both aesthetic and curative purposes. Colloidal gold was used to make ruby glass 293 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 293−346

11,752 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices and are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems.
Abstract: Electrochemical energy conversion devices are pervasive in our daily lives. Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices. They are all based on the fundamentals of electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics. All three are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems. Neither batteries, fuel cells nor electrochemical capacitors, by themselves, can serve all applications.

6,230 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The phytochemical properties of Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate and its Derivatives are as follows: 2.2.1.
Abstract: 2.1. Solvents 4307 2.1.1. Propylene Carbonate (PC) 4308 2.1.2. Ethers 4308 2.1.3. Ethylene Carbonate (EC) 4309 2.1.4. Linear Dialkyl Carbonates 4310 2.2. Lithium Salts 4310 2.2.1. Lithium Perchlorate (LiClO4) 4311 2.2.2. Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6) 4312 2.2.3. Lithium Tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) 4312 2.2.4. Lithium Trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf) 4312 2.2.5. Lithium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiIm) and Its Derivatives 4313

5,710 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior.
Abstract: In the previous paper Ralph Brodd and Martin Winter described the different kinds of batteries and fuel cells. In this paper I will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior. The lithium battery industry is undergoing rapid expansion, now representing the largest segment of the portable battery industry and dominating the computer, cell phone, and camera power source industry. However, the present secondary batteries use expensive components, which are not in sufficient supply to allow the industry to grow at the same rate in the next decade. Moreover, the safety of the system is questionable for the large-scale batteries needed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Another battery need is for a high-power system that can be used for power tools, where only the environmentally hazardous Ni/ Cd battery presently meets the requirements. A battery is a transducer that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. It contains an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. The anode, in the case of a lithium battery, is the source of lithium ions. The cathode is the sink for the lithium ions and is chosen to optimize a number of parameters, discussed below. The electrolyte provides for the separation of ionic transport and electronic transport, and in a perfect battery the lithium ion transport number will be unity in the electrolyte. The cell potential is determined by the difference between the chemical potential of the lithium in the anode and cathode, ∆G ) -EF. As noted above, the lithium ions flow through the electrolyte whereas the electrons generated from the reaction, Li ) Li+ + e-, go through the external circuit to do work. Thus, the electrode system must allow for the flow of both lithium ions and electrons. That is, it must be both a good ionic conductor and an electronic conductor. As discussed below, many electrochemically active materials are not good electronic conductors, so it is necessary to add an electronically conductive material such as carbon * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone and fax: (607) 777-4623. E-mail: stanwhit@binghamton.edu. 4271 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4271−4301

5,475 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Before the 1960s, all anti-Stokes emissions, which were known to exist, involved emission energies in excess of excitation energies by only a few kT and were linked to thermal population of energy states above excitation states by such an energy amount.
Abstract: Before the 1960s, all anti-Stokes emissions, which were known to exist, involved emission energies in excess of excitation energies by only a few kT. They were linked to thermal population of energy states above excitation states by such an energy amount. It was the well-known case of anti-Stokes emission for the so-called thermal bands or in the Raman effect for the well-known anti-Stokes sidebands. Thermoluminescence, where traps are emptied by excitation energies of the order of kT, also constituted a field of anti-Stokes emission of its own. Superexcitation, i.e., raising an already excited electron to an even higher level by excited-state absorption (ESA), was also known but with very weak emissions. These types of well-known anti-Stokes processes have been reviewed in classical textbooks on luminescence.1 All fluorescence light emitters usually follow the well-known principle of the Stokes law which simply states that excitation photons are at a higher energy than emitted ones or, in other words, that output photon energy is weaker than input photon energy. This, in a sense, is an indirect statement that efficiency cannot be larger than 1. This principle is

4,279 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Light scattering experiments revealed that the radius of gyration had a linear dependence on the molar mass of the aggregates, which suggests that the particles are in the form of rods or ribbons, or at least some elongated structure.
Abstract: Equivalent weight (EW) is the number of grams of dry Nafion per mole of sulfonic acid groups when the material is in the acid form. This is an average EW in the sense that the comonomer sequence distribution (that is usually unknown to the investigator and largely unreported) gives a distribution in m in this formula. EW can be ascertained by acid-base titration, by analysis of atomic sulfur, and by FT-IR spectroscopy. The relationship between EW and m is EW ) 100m + 446 so that, for example, the side chains are separated by around 14 CF2 units in a membrane of 1100 EW. Common at the time of this writing are Nafion 117 films. The designation “117” refers to a film having 1100 EW and a nominal thickness of 0.007 in., although 115 and 112 films have also been available. Early-reported studies involved 1200 EW samples as well as special experimental varieties, some being rather thin. The equivalent weight is related to the property more often seen in the field of conventional ion exchange resins, namely the ion exchange capacity (IEC), by the equation IEC ) 1000/EW. The mention of the molecular weight of high equivalent weight (EW > 1000 g‚mol-1) Nafion is almost absent in the literature, although the range 105-106 Da has been mentioned. As this polymer does not form true solutions, the common methods of light scattering and gel permeation chromatography cannot be used to determine molecular weight as well as the size and shape of isolated, truly dissolved molecules. Studies of the structure of this polymer in solvent (albeit not a true solution) will be mentioned in the scattering section of this review. It should be noted that Curtin et al. performed size exclusion chromatography determinations of the molecular weight distribution in Nafion aqueous dispersions after they were heated to high temperatures (230, 250, and 270 °C).1 Before heating, there was a high molecular weight shoulder on a bimodal distribution, due to molecular aggregates, but this shoulder disappeared upon heating, which indicated that the aggregates were disrupted. The peaks for the monomodal distribution for the heated samples were all located at molecular weights slightly higher than 105 g‚mol-1. Also, light scattering experiments revealed that the radius of gyration had a linear dependence on the molar mass of the aggregates, which suggests that the particles are in the form of rods or ribbons, or at least some elongated structure. Nafion ionomers are usually derived from the thermoplastic -SO2F precursor form that can be extruded into sheets of required thickness. Strong interactions between the ionic groups are an obstacle to melt processing. This precursor does not possess the clustered morphology that will be of great concern in this article but does possess Teflon-like crystallinity which persists when the sulfonyl fluoride form is converted to, for example, the K+ form by reacting it with KOH in water and DMSO. Thereafter, the -SO3H form is achieved by soaking the film in a sufficiently concentrated aqueous acid solution. Extrusion of the sulfonyl fluoride precursor can cause microstructural orientation in the machine direction, * Address correspondence to either author. Phone: 601-266-5595/ 4480. Fax: 601-266-5635. E-mail: Kenneth.Mauritz@usm.edu; RBMoore@usm.edu. 4535 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4535−4585

4,130 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Devising systems that can conduct protons with little or no water is perhaps the greatest challenge for new membrane materials, and new membranes that have significantly reduced methanol permeability and water transport (through diffusion and electro-osmotic drag) are required for automotive applications.
Abstract: Fuel cells have the potential to become an important energy conversion technology. Research efforts directed toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cells have accelerated in light of ongoing efforts to develop a hydrogen-based energy economy to reduce dependence on foreign oil and decrease pollution. Proton exchange membrane (also termed “polymer electrolyte membrane”) (PEM) fuel cells employing a solid polymer electrolyte to separate the fuel from the oxidant were first deployed in the Gemini space program in the early 1960s using cells that were extremely expensive and had short lifetimes due to the oxidative degradation of their sulfonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer membranes. These cells were considered too costly and short-lived for real-world applications. The commercialization of Nafion by DuPont in the late 1960s helped to demonstrate the potential interest in terrestrial applications for fuel cells, although its major focus was in chloroalkali processes. PEM fuel cells are being developed for three main applications: automotive, stationary, and portable power. Each of these applications has its unique operating conditions and material requirements. Common themes critical to all high performance proton exchange membranes include (1) high protonic conductivity, (2) low electronic conductivity, (3) low permeability to fuel and oxidant, (4) low water transport through diffusion and electro-osmosis, (5) oxidative and hydrolytic stability, (6) good mechanical properties in both the dry and hydrated states, (7) cost, and (8) capability for fabrication into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). Nearly all existing membrane materials for PEM fuel cells rely on absorbed water and its interaction with acid groups to produce protonic conductivity. Due to the large fraction of absorbed water in the membrane, both mechanical properties and water transport become key issues. Devising systems that can conduct protons with little or no water is perhaps the greatest challenge for new membrane materials. Specifically, for automotive applications the U.S. Department of Energy has currently established a guideline of 120 °C and 50% relative humidity as target operating conditions, and a goal of 0.1 S/cm for the protonic conductivity of the membrane. New membranes that have significantly reduced methanol permeability and water transport (through diffusion and electro-osmotic drag) are required for portable power oriented direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where a liquid methanol fuel highly diluted in water is used at generally <90 °C as the source of protons. Unreacted methanol at the anode can diffuse through the membrane and react at the cathode, lowering the voltage efficiency of the cell and reducing the system’s fuel efficiency. The methanol is usually delivered to the anode as a dilute, for example, 1 M (or less), solution (3.2 wt %), and relatively thick Nafion 117 (1100 EW, 7 mil ∼ 178 μm thick) is used to reduce methanol crossover. The dilute methanol feed increases the system’s complexity and reduces the energy density of the fuel, while the thick Nafion membrane increases the resistive losses of the cell, especially when compared to the thinner membranes that are used in hydrogen/air systems. The presence of excessive amounts of water at the cathode through diffusion and electro-osmosis * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jmcgrath@vt.edu. † Sandia National Laboratory. ‡ Case Western Reserve University. § Los Alamos National Laboratory. | Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 4587 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4587−4612

2,681 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The development of novel materials is a fundamental focal point of chemical research; and this interest is mandated by advancements in all areas of industry and technology.
Abstract: The development of novel materials is a fundamental focal point of chemical research; and this interest is mandated by advancements in all areas of industry and technology. A good example of the synergism between scientific discovery and technological development is the electronics industry, where discoveries of new semiconducting materials resulted in the evolution from vacuum tubes to diodes and transistors, and eventually to miniature chips. The progression of this technology led to the development * To whom correspondence should be addressed. B.L.C.: (504) 2801385 (phone); (504) 280-3185 (fax); bcushing@uno.edu (e-mail). C.J.O.: (504)280-6846(phone);(504)280-3185(fax);coconnor@uno.edu (e-mail). 3893 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 3893−3946

2,621 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S. S. Nagar, Punjab-160 062, India, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University, Via Ranieri 67, IT-60100 Ancona, Italy, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Natural Products,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of medicine, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.
Abstract: Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S. A. S. Nagar,Mohali, Punjab-160 062, India, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Polytechnic University, Via Ranieri 67, IT-60100 Ancona, Italy,Green Biotechnology Research Group, The Special Division for Human Life Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science andTechnology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka-563-8577, Japan, and Department of Medicinal Chemistry & Natural Products,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of Medicine, Jerusalem 91120, IsraelReceived March 2, 2004

2,570 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These advances have led to dozens of active SOFC development programs in both stationary and mobile power and contributed to commercialization or development in a number of related technologies, including gas sensors, solid-state electrolysis devices, and iontransport membranes for gas separation and partial oxidation.
Abstract: Recent worldwide interest in building a decentralized, hydrogen-based energy economy has refocused attention on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) as a potential source of efficient, environmentally friendly, fuel-versatile electric power. Due to its high operating temperature, the SOFC offers several potential advantages over polymer-based fuel cells, including reversible electrode reactions, low internal resistance, high tolerance to typical catalyst poisons, production of high-quality waste heat for (among other uses) reformation of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as the possibility of burning hydrocarbon fuels directly. Today, SOFCs are much closer to commercial reality than they were 20 years ago, due largely to technological advances in electrode material composition, microstructure control, thin-film ceramic fabrication, and stack and system design. These advances have led to dozens of active SOFC development programs in both stationary and mobile power and contributed to commercialization or development in a number of related technologies, including gas sensors,1 solid-state electrolysis devices,2 and iontransport membranes for gas separation and partial oxidation.3 Many reviews are available which summarize the technological advances made in SOFCs over the last 15-35 yearssreaders who are primarily interested in knowing the state-of-the art in materials, design, and fabrication (including the electrodes) are encouraged to consult these reviews.4-12 This review focuses on the factors governing SOFC cathode performancesadvances we have made over † Dedicated to Brian Steele, 1929-2003. Researcher, Entrepreneur, Consensus Seeker. 4791 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4791−4843

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work focuses on the characterization of the phytochemical components of Lactide ROP and their role in the regulation of cell reprograming.
Abstract: 23 Stereocontrol of Lactide ROP 6164 231 Isotactic Polylactides 6164 232 Syndiotactic Polylactides 6166 233 Heterotactic Polylactides 6166 3 Anionic Polymerization 6166 4 Nucleophilic Polymerization 6168 41 Mechanistic Considerations 6168 42 Catalysts 6169 421 Enzymes 6169 422 Organocatalysts 6169 43 Stereocontrol of Lactide ROP 6170 44 Depolymerization 6170 5 Cationic Polymerization 6170 6 Conclusion and Perspectives 6171 7 Acknowledgments 6173 8 References and Notes 6173

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Alkane hydroxylation proceeds by TSR,70-72,120 in which the HS mechanism is truly stepwise with a finite lifetime for the radical intermediate, whereas the LS mechanism is effectively concerted with an ultrashort lifetime forThe radical intermediate.
Abstract: ion phase that leads to an alkyl radical coordinated to the iron-hydroxo complex by a weak OH---C hydrogen bond, labeled as CI; (ii) an alkyl (or OH) rotation phase whereby the alkyl group achieves a favorable orientation for rebound; and (iii) a rebound phase that leads to C-O bond making and the ferric-alcohol complexes, 4,2P. The two profiles remain close in energy throughout the first two phases and then bifurcate. Whereas the HS state exhibits a significant barrier and a genuine TS for rebound, in the LS state, once the right orientation of the alkyl group is achieved, the LS rebound proceeds in a virtually barrier-free fashion to the alcohol. As such, alkane hydroxylation proceeds by TSR,70-72,120 in which the HS mechanism is truly stepwise with a finite lifetime for the radical intermediate, whereas the LS mechanism is effectively concerted with an ultrashort lifetime for the radical intermediate. Subsequent studies of ethane and camphor hydroxylation by the Yoshizawa group117,181-183 arrived at basically the same conclusion, that the mechanism is typified by TSR. The differences between the results of Shaik et al.130,173,177-180 and Yoshizawa et al.117,181-183 were rationalized recently71,72 and shown to arise owing to technical problems and the choice of the mercaptide ligand,117,181-183 which is a powerful electron donor and is too far from the representation of cysteine in the protein environment. The most recent study of camphor hydroxylation, which was done at a higher quality,117 converged to the picture reported by Shaik et al.130,173,177-180 and shows a stepwise HS process with a barrier of more than 3 kcal/mol for C-O bond formation by rebound of the camphoryl radical vis-à-vis an effectively concerted LS process for which this barrier is 0.7 kcal mol-1 and is the rotational barrier for reaching the rebound position. By referring to Figure 21, it is possible to rationalize the clock data of Newcomb in a simple manner. The apparent lifetimes are based on the assumption that there is a single state that leads to the reaction, such that the radical lifetime can be quantitated from the rate constant of free radical rearrangement and the ratio of rearranged to unrearranged alcohol product. However, in TSR, the rearranged (R) product is formed only/mainly on the HS surface, while the unrearranged (U) product is formed mainly on Figure 20. Formal descriptions of iron(III)-peroxo, iron(III)-hydroperoxo, and iron(V)-oxo species with indication of the negative charges. The roles “electrophile” or “nucleophile” are assigned according to the charge type. Reprinted with permission from ref 7. Copyright 2000 Springer-Verlag Heidelberg. 3964 Chemical Reviews, 2004, Vol. 104, No. 9 Meunier et al.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Theoretical Methodologies and Simulation Tools, and Poisson−Boltzmann Theory, and Phenomenology of Transport inProton-Conducting Materials for Fuel-CellApplications46664.2.1.
Abstract: 1. Introduction 46372. Theoretical Methodologies and Simulation Tools 46402.1. Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry 46412.2. Molecular Dynamics 46422.2.1. Classical Molecular Dynamics and MonteCarlo Simulations46432.2.2. Empirical Valence Bond Models 46442.2.3. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) 46452.3. Poisson−Boltzmann Theory 46452.4. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanical IonTransport Modeling46462.5. Dielectric Saturation 46473. Transport Mechanisms 46483.1. Proton Conduction Mechanisms 46483.1.1. Homogeneous Media 46483.1.2. Heterogeneous Systems (ConfinementEffects)46553.2. Mechanisms of Parasitic Transport 46613.2.1. Solvated Acidic Polymers 46613.2.2. Oxides 46654. Phenomenology of Transport inProton-Conducting Materials for Fuel-CellApplications46664.1. Hydrated Acidic Polymers 46664.2. PBI−H

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new iron(III) halide-promoted aza-Prins cyclization between γ,δ-unsaturated tosylamines and aldehydes provides six-membered azacycles in good to excellent yields.
Abstract: A new iron(III) halide-promoted aza-Prins cyclization between γ,δ-unsaturated tosylamines and aldehydes provides six-membered azacycles in good to excellent yields. The process is based on the consecutive generation of γ-unsaturated-iminium ion and further nucleophilic attack by the unsaturated carbon−carbon bond. Homoallyl tosylamine leads to trans-2-alkyl-4-halo-1-tosylpiperidine as the major isomer. In addition, the alkyne aza-Prins cyclization between homopropargyl tosylamine and aldehydes gives 2-alkyl-4-halo-1-tosyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridines as the only cyclic products. The piperidine ring is widely distributed throughout Nature, e.g., in alkaloids,1 and is an important scaffold for drug discovery, being the core of many pharmaceutically significant compounds.2,3 The syntheses of these type of compounds have been extensively studied in the development of new drugs containing six-membered-ring heterocycles.4 Reactions between N-acyliminium ions and nucleophiles, also described as amidoalkylation or Mannich-type condensations, have been frequently used to introduce substituents at the R-carbon of an amine.5 There are several examples that involve an intramolecular attack of a nucleophilic olefin into an iminium cation for the construction of a heterocyclic ring system.6 Traditionally, the use of hemiaminals or their derivatives as precursors of N-acyliminium intermediates has been a common two-step strategy in these reactions.6a Among this type of cyclization is the aza-Prins cyclization,7 which uses alkenes as intramolecular nucleophile. However, cy† X-ray analysis. E-mail address: malopez@ull.es. (1) (a) Fodor, G. B.; Colasanti, B. Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological PerspectiVes; Pelletier, S. W., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 1985; Vol. 23, pp 1-90. (b) Baliah, V.; Jeyarama, R.; Chandrasekaran, L. Chem. ReV. 1983, 83, 379-423. (2) Watson, P. S.; Jiang, B.; Scott, B. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 3679-3681. (3) Horton, D. A.; Bourne, G. T.; Smythe, M. L. Chem. ReV. 2003, 103, 893-930. (4) Buffat, M. G. P. Tetrahedron 2004, 60, 1701-1729 and references therein. (5) Speckamp, W. N.; Moolenaar, M. J. Tetrahedron 2000, 56, 3187- 3856 and references therein. (6) (a) Hiemstra, H.; Speckamp, W. N. In ComprehensiVe Organic Synthesis; Trost, B. M., Fleming, O., Heathcock, C. H., Eds.; Pergamon: New York, 1991; Vol. 2, pp 1047-1081. (b) Speckamp, W. N.; Hiemstra, H. Tetrahedron 1985, 41, 4367-4416. (7) (a) Dobbs, A. P.; Guesne, S. J. J.; Hursthouse, M. B.; Coles, S. J. Synlett 2003, 11, 1740-1742. (b) Dobbs, A. P.; Guesne, S. J. J.; Martinove, S.; Coles, S. J.; Hursthouse, M. B. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 7880-7883. (c) Hanessian, S.; Tremblay, M.; Petersen, F. W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 6064-6071 and references therein. (d) Dobbs, A. P.; Guesne, S. J. Synlett 2005, 13, 2101-2103. ORGANIC


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is considered more feasible that the rate-deter-mining step is the cleavage of the C-H bond at the R-carbon atom, and the active site consists of an ensemble of metallic Auatoms and a cationic Au.
Abstract: ion from a primary OH group of glyc-erol. 223,231 A similar mechanism was proposed manyyears ago for alcohol oxidation on Pt/C, involving asecond step, the transfer of a hydride ion to the Ptsurface (Scheme 11). 8,87,237 We consider it more feasible that the rate-deter-mining step is the cleavage of the C-H bond at theR-carbon atom. A similar mechanism is now generallyaccepted for Au electrodes (Scheme 12). 238 Despite thestructural differences between Au nanoparticles andan extended Au electrode surface, there are alsosimilarities, such as the critical role of aqueousalkaline medium and the absence of deactivation dueto decomposition products (CO and C x H y frag-ments). 239,240 An important question is the nature of active siteson Au nanoparticles. Electrooxidation of ethanol onAu nanoparticles supported on glassy carbon re-quired the partial coverage of Au surface by oxides. 241 Another analogy might be the model proposed for COoxidation. 219,242,243 According to this suggestion, theactive site consists of an ensemble of metallic Auatoms and a cationic Au

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The development of new organochalcogens with higher thiol-peroxidase activity that can use other non-toxic thiol reducing agents, such as N-acetylcysteine instead of glutathione, will permit the investigation of the co-administration of organochAlcogens and thiols as a formulation for antioxidant therapy.
Abstract: The organoselenium and organotellurium compounds have been described as promising pharmacological agents in view of their unique biological properties. Glutathione peroxidase mimic, antioxidant activity and thioredoxin reductase inhibition are some of the properties reviewed here. On the other hand, little is known about the molecular toxicological effects of organoselenium and organotellurium compounds. Most of our knowledge arose from research on inorganic selenium and tellurium. However, the ability to oxidize sulfhydryl groups from biological molecules can be involved both in their pharmacological properties and in their toxicological effects. In fact, exposition to high doses of organoselenium or to low doses of organotellurium causes the depletion of endogenous reduced glutathione in a variety of tissues. Thus, the design of compounds that cause low depletion of glutathione and react with specific targeted proteins, controlling specific metabolic pathways, will represent an important progress in understanding the field of organochalcogen compounds. Furthermore, the development of new organochalcogens with higher thiol-peroxidase activity that can use other non-toxic thiol reducing agents, such as N-acetylcysteine instead of glutathione, will permit the investigation of the co-administration of organochalcogens and thiols as a formulation for antioxidant therapy.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The future of a particularly promising class of materials for hydrogen storage, namely the catalytically enhanced complex metal hydrides, is discussed and the predictions are supported by thermodynamics considerations, calculations derived from molecular orbital (MO) theory and backed up by simple chemical insights and intuition.
Abstract: This review focuses on key aspects of the thermal decomposition of multinary or mixed hydride materials, with a particular emphasis on the rational control and chemical tuning of the strategically important thermal decomposition temperature of such hydrides, Tdec. An attempt is also made to predict the thermal stability of as-yet unknown, elusive or even unknown hydrides. The future of a particularly promising class of materials for hydrogen storage, namely the catalytically enhanced complex metal hydrides, is discussed. The predictions are supported by thermodynamics considerations, calculations derived from molecular orbital (MO) theory and backed up by simple chemical insights and intuition.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review paper summarizes the current state of enzymatic biofuel cell research in the context of foreseeable applications and assesses the future prospects of the technology.
Abstract: Introduction Technology for electrical power generation using enzyme catalysts, established four decades ago, has recently received increased attention associated with demand for micro-scale and implantable power supplies. The main challenges, namely the fragility of enzyme molecules, characteristic low current density, and poor fundamental understanding of redox biocatalysis, are currently being addressed from a variety of research perspectives, to take advantage of enzyme selectivity, low temperature and moderate pH activity, and manufacturability in small-scale devices. Such an effort benefits from four decades of multidisciplinary research in biosensors and related bioelectrochemical fields. This review paper summarizes the current state of enzymatic biofuel cell research in the context of foreseeable applications and assesses the future prospects of the technology. Emphasis is placed on device performance and engineering aspects, with a view toward practical portable power devices based on enzymatic biofuel cells. Research in biocatalytically modified electrodes, particularly for sensor applications, has provided a significant technological underpinning for current biofuel cell development. There exists significant overlap in technical requirements between sensors and biofuel cells, including chemical and mechanical stability, selectivity, and cost of materials. However, these two technologies diverge in the areas of current density, cell potential and stability. There exists extensive review literature in the area of biological fuel cells. Notably, Palmore and Whitesides summarized biological fuel cell concepts and performance up until about 1992. More recently, Katz and Willner discussed recent progress in novel electrode chemistries for both microbial and enzymatic fuel cells. We do not duplicate these valuable contributions, but instead focus on the strengths and weaknesses of state-of-art materials in the context of specific classes of applications, and point to areas where additional knowledge is currently needed to exploit biological fuel cells. With some exceptions, we focus on contributions made after 1992. Biofuel cells have traditionally been classified according to whether the catalytic enzymes were located inside or outside of living cells. If living cells are involved the system is considered to be microbial, and if not it is considered enzymatic. Although microbial fuel cells posses unique features unmatched by enzymatic cells, such as long-term stability and fuel efficiency, the power densities associated with such devices are typically much lower owing to resistance to mass transfer across cell membranes. Thus, microbial fuel cells are expected to find limited application in smallscale electronic devices. This review will focus on enzymatic biofuel cells. While such cells typically demonstrate reduced stability due to the limited lifetime of extracellular enzymes, and are typically unable to fully oxidize fuels, they allow for substantial concentration of catalysts and removal of mass transfer barriers and provide higher current and power densities, approaching the range of applicability to microand mini-scale electronics applications. Applications and Requirements The range of possible applications for biofuel cells may be broken down into three main subclasses: 1. Implantable power, such as micro-scale cells implanted in human or animal tissue, or larger cells implanted in blood vessels. 2. Power derived from ambient fuels or oxidants, mainly plant saps and juices, but extending to sewage and other waste streams. 3. Power derived from conventional fuels including hydrogen, methanol or higher alcohols. Classes 1 and 2 are closely related. The fuels available for implantable power, such as blood borne glucose or lactate, are ambient in the sense that they are present in a physiological environment in the absence of a fuel cell device. One major distinction between these two classes is that the ambient-fueled cell need not be implanted, and focuses on plantor waste-derived fuels, whereas the implantable cell focuses on animal-derived fuels and is present within the physiological system. Class 3 is unique in that this class competes with well-established conventional fuel cell technology. To a greater or lesser extent, all three classes share the fundamental technical requirements of high power density and high activity.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Aqueous V(III) Chemistry 877 6.2.1.
Abstract: 6.1.2. Aqueous V(III) Chemistry 877 6.1.3. Oxidation State of Vanadium in Tunicates 878 6.1.4. Uptake of Vanadate into Tunicates 879 6.1.5. Vanadium Binding Proteins: Vanabins 879 6.1.6. Model Complexes and Their Chemistry 880 6.1.7. Catechol-Based Model Chemistry 880 6.1.8. Vanadium Sulfate Complexes 881 6.2. Fan Worm Pseudopotamilla occelata 883 7. Vanadium Nitrogenase 883 7.1. Nitrogenases 883 7.2. Biochemistry of Nitrogenase 884 7.3. Clusters in Nitrogenase and Model Systems: Structure and Reactivity 885


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Lithium ion batteries, in which lithium ions shuttle between an insertion cathode and an insertion anode (e.g., carbon), emerged as the power source of choice for the highperformance rechargeable-battery market.
Abstract: The worldwide thirst for portable consumer electronics in the 1990s had an enormous impact on portable power. Lithium ion batteries, in which lithium ions shuttle between an insertion cathode (e.g., LiCoO2) and an insertion anode (e.g., carbon), emerged as the power source of choice for the highperformance rechargeable-battery market. The performance advantages were so significant that lithium ion batteries not only replaced Ni-Cd batteries but left the purported successor technology, nickel-metal hydride, in its wake.1 The thick metal plates of * To whom correspondence should be addressed. J.W.L: e-mail, jwlong@ccs.nrl.navy.mil; telephone, (+1)202-404-8697. B.D.: e-mail, bdunn@ucla.edu; telephone, (+1)310-825-1519. D.R.R.: e-mail, rolison@nrl.navy.mil; telephone, (+1)202-767-3617. H.S.W.: e-mail, white@chem.utah.edu; telephone, (+1)810-585-6256. † Naval Research Laboratory. ‡ UCLA. § University of Utah. 4463 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4463−4492