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Showing papers in "Chemical Reviews in 2012"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potential to computationally predict, with good accuracy, affinities of guests for host frameworks points to the prospect of routinely predesigning frameworks to deliver desired properties.
Abstract: 1. INTRODUCTION Among the classes of highly porous materials, metalÀorganic frameworks (MOFs) are unparalleled in their degree of tunability and structural diversity as well as their range of chemical and physical properties. MOFs are extended crystalline structures wherein metal cations or clusters of cations (\" nodes \") are connected by multitopic organic \" strut \" or \" linker \" ions or molecules. The variety of metal ions, organic linkers, and structural motifs affords an essentially infinite number of possible combinations. 1 Furthermore, the possibility for postsynthetic modification adds an additional dimension to the synthetic variability. 2 Coupled with the growing library of experimentally determined structures, the potential to computationally predict, with good accuracy, affinities of guests for host frameworks points to the prospect of routinely predesigning frameworks to deliver desired properties. 3,4 MOFs are often compared to zeolites for their large internal surface areas, extensive porosity, and high degree of crystallinity. Correspondingly, MOFs and zeolites have been utilized for many of the same applications

5,925 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kenji Sumida, David L. Rogow, Jarad A. Mason, Thomas M. McDonald, Eric D. Bloch, Zoey R. Herm, Tae-Hyun Bae, Jeffrey R. Long
Abstract: Kenji Sumida, David L. Rogow, Jarad A. Mason, Thomas M. McDonald, Eric D. Bloch, Zoey R. Herm, Tae-Hyun Bae, Jeffrey R. Long

5,389 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The advent of AuNP as a sensory element provided a broad spectrum of innovative approaches for the detection of metal ions, small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, malignant cells, etc. in a rapid and efficient manner.
Abstract: Detection of chemical and biological agents plays a fundamental role in biomedical, forensic and environmental sciences1–4 as well as in anti bioterrorism applications.5–7 The development of highly sensitive, cost effective, miniature sensors is therefore in high demand which requires advanced technology coupled with fundamental knowledge in chemistry, biology and material sciences.8–13 In general, sensors feature two functional components: a recognition element to provide selective/specific binding with the target analytes and a transducer component for signaling the binding event. An efficient sensor relies heavily on these two essential components for the recognition process in terms of response time, signal to noise (S/N) ratio, selectivity and limits of detection (LOD).14,15 Therefore, designing sensors with higher efficacy depends on the development of novel materials to improve both the recognition and transduction processes. Nanomaterials feature unique physicochemical properties that can be of great utility in creating new recognition and transduction processes for chemical and biological sensors15–27 as well as improving the S/N ratio by miniaturization of the sensor elements.28 Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess distinct physical and chemical attributes that make them excellent scaffolds for the fabrication of novel chemical and biological sensors (Figure 1).29–36 First, AuNPs can be synthesized in a straightforward manner and can be made highly stable. Second, they possess unique optoelectronic properties. Third, they provide high surface-to-volume ratio with excellent biocompatibility using appropriate ligands.30 Fourth, these properties of AuNPs can be readily tuned varying their size, shape and the surrounding chemical environment. For example, the binding event between recognition element and the analyte can alter physicochemical properties of transducer AuNPs, such as plasmon resonance absorption, conductivity, redox behavior, etc. that in turn can generate a detectable response signal. Finally, AuNPs offer a suitable platform for multi-functionalization with a wide range of organic or biological ligands for the selective binding and detection of small molecules and biological targets.30–32,36 Each of these attributes of AuNPs has allowed researchers to develop novel sensing strategies with improved sensitivity, stability and selectivity. In the last decade of research, the advent of AuNP as a sensory element provided us a broad spectrum of innovative approaches for the detection of metal ions, small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, malignant cells, etc. in a rapid and efficient manner.37 Figure 1 Physical properties of AuNPs and schematic illustration of an AuNP-based detection system. In this current review, we have highlighted the several synthetic routes and properties of AuNPs that make them excellent probes for different sensing strategies. Furthermore, we will discuss various sensing strategies and major advances in the last two decades of research utilizing AuNPs in the detection of variety of target analytes including metal ions, organic molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and microorganisms.

3,879 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Approaches, Derivatives and Applications Vasilios Georgakilas,† Michal Otyepka,‡ Athanasios B. Bourlinos,† Vimlesh Chandra, Namdong Kim, K. Kim,§,⊥ Radek Zboril,*,‡ and Kwang S. Kim.
Abstract: Approaches, Derivatives and Applications Vasilios Georgakilas,† Michal Otyepka,‡ Athanasios B. Bourlinos,‡ Vimlesh Chandra, Namdong Kim, K. Christian Kemp, Pavel Hobza,‡,§,⊥ Radek Zboril,*,‡ and Kwang S. Kim* †Institute of Materials Science, NCSR “Demokritos”, Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, 15310 Athens, Greece ‡Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc, Czech Republic Center for Superfunctional Materials, Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang 790-784, Korea Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Flemingovo naḿ. 2, 166 10 Prague 6, Czech Republic

3,460 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Metal Organic Frameworks in Biomedicine Patricia Horcajada, Ruxandra Gref, Tarek Baati, Phoebe K. Allan, Guillaume Maurin, Patrick Couvreur, G erard F erey, Russell E. Morris, and Christian Serre.
Abstract: Metal Organic Frameworks in Biomedicine Patricia Horcajada,* Ruxandra Gref, Tarek Baati, Phoebe K. Allan, Guillaume Maurin, Patrick Couvreur, G erard F erey, Russell E. Morris, and Christian Serre* Institut Lavoisier, UMR CNRS 8180, Universit e de Versailles St-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex, France Facult e de Pharmacie, UMR CNRS 8612, Universit e Paris-Sud, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, France Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR CNRS 5253, Universit e Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France EaStChem School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews Purdie Building, St Andrews, KY16 9ST U.K.

3,400 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
Chengliang Wang1, Huanli Dong1, Wenping Hu1, Yunqi Liu1, Daoben Zhu1 
TL;DR: The focus of this review will be on the performance analysis of π-conjugated systems in OFETs, a kind of device consisting of an organic semiconducting layer, a gate insulator layer, and three terminals that provide an important insight into the charge transport of ρconjugate systems.
Abstract: Since the discovery of highly conducting polyacetylene by Shirakawa, MacDiarmid, and Heeger in 1977, π-conjugated systems have attracted much attention as futuristic materials for the development and production of the next generation of electronics, that is, organic electronics. Conceptually, organic electronics are quite different from conventional inorganic solid state electronics because the structural versatility of organic semiconductors allows for the incorporation of functionality by molecular design. This versatility leads to a new era in the design of electronic devices. To date, the great number of π-conjugated semiconducting materials that have either been discovered or synthesized generate an exciting library of π-conjugated systems for use in organic electronics. 11 However, some key challenges for further advancement remain: the low mobility and stability of organic semiconductors, the lack of knowledge regarding structure property relationships for understanding the fundamental chemical aspects behind the structural design, and realization of desired properties. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are a kind of device consisting of an organic semiconducting layer, a gate insulator layer, and three terminals (drain, source, and gate electrodes). OFETs are not only essential building blocks for the next generation of cheap and flexible organic circuits, but they also provide an important insight into the charge transport of πconjugated systems. Therefore, they act as strong tools for the exploration of the structure property relationships of πconjugated systems, such as parameters of field-effect mobility (μ, the drift velocity of carriers under unit electric field), current on/off ratio (the ratio of the maximum on-state current to the minimum off-state current), and threshold voltage (the minimum gate voltage that is required to turn on the transistor). 17 Since the discovery of OFETs in the 1980s, they have attracted much attention. Research onOFETs includes the discovery, design, and synthesis of π-conjugated systems for OFETs, device optimization, development of applications in radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, flexible displays, electronic papers, sensors, and so forth. It is beyond the scope of this review to cover all aspects of π-conjugated systems; hence, our focus will be on the performance analysis of π-conjugated systems in OFETs. This should make it possible to extract information regarding the fundamental merit of semiconducting π-conjugated materials and capture what is needed for newmaterials and what is the synthesis orientation of newπ-conjugated systems. In fact, for a new science with many practical applications, the field of organic electronics is progressing extremely rapidly. For example, using “organic field effect transistor” or “organic field effect transistors” as the query keywords to search the Web of Science citation database, it is possible to show the distribution of papers over recent years as shown in Figure 1A. It is very clear


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Delamination of LDHs is an interesting route for producing positively charged thin platelets with a thickness of a few atomic layers, which can be used as nanocomposites for polymers or as building units for making new designed organic- inorganic or inorganic-inorganic nanomaterials.
Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are a class of ionic lamellar compounds made up of positively charged brucite-like layers with an interlayer region containing charge compensating anions and solvation molecules. Delamination of LDHs is an interesting route for producing positively charged thin platelets with a thickness of a few atomic layers, which can be used as nanocomposites for polymers or as building units for making new designed organic-inorganic or inorganic-inorganic nanomaterials. The synthesis of nanosized LDH platelets can be generally classified into two approaches, bottom-up and top-down. It requires modification of the LDH interlamellar environment and then selection of an appropriate solvent system. In DDS intercalated LDHs, the aliphatic tails of the DDS- anions exhibit a high degree of interdigitation in order to maximize guest-guest dispersive interactions. Bellezza reported that the LDH colloids can also been obtained by employing a reverse microemulsion approach.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: UV-Visible ار راد ن .د TiO2 ( تیفرظ راون مان هب نورتکلا یاراد لماش VB و ) رگید اب لاقتنا VB (CO2) .
Abstract: UV-Visible ار راد ن .د TiO2 ( تیفرظ راون مان هب نورتکلا یاراد یژرنا زارت لماش VB و ) رگید زارت ی یژرنا اب ( ییاناسر راون مان هب نورتکلا زا یلاخ و رتلااب VB یم ) .دشاب ت ود نیا نیب یژرنا توافت یژرنا فاکش زار ، پگ دناب هدیمان یم .دوش هک ینامز زا نورتکلا لاقتنا VB هب VB یم ماجنا دریگ ، TiO2 اب ودح یژرنا بذج د ev 2 / 3 ، نورتکلا تفج کی دیلوت یم هرفح .دیامن و نورتکلا هرفح ی نا اب هدش دیلوت یم کرتشم حطس هب لاقت ثعاب دناوت شنکاو ماجنا اه یی ددرگ . TiO2 دربراک ،دراد یدایز یاه هلمج زا یم ناوت اوه یگدولآ هیفصت یارب (CO2) و بآ و ... نآ زا هدافتسا درک .



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Deconstructing the Crystal Structures of Metal Organic Frameworks and Related Materials into Their underlying Nets into Their Underlying Nets shows clear trends in how these materials are modified over time to form crystals.
Abstract: Deconstructing the Crystal Structures of Metal Organic Frameworks and Related Materials into Their Underlying Nets Michael O’Keeffe* and Omar M. Yaghi* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, United States Center for Reticular Chemistry, Center for Global Mentoring, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, 607 Charles E. Young Dr. East, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a new approach to drug design called “combinatorial biosynthesis and drug discovery through nanofiltration”, which combines the efforts of a single investigator with those of a number of other scientists.
Abstract: Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are one-pot reactions employing more than two starting materials, e.g. 3, 4, … 7, where most of the atoms of the starting materials are incorporated in the final product.1 Several descriptive tags are regularly attached to MCRs (Fig. 1): they are atom economic, e.g. the majority if not all of the atoms of the starting materials are incorporated in the product; they are efficient, e.g. they efficiently yield the product since the product is formed in one-step instead of multiple sequential steps; they are convergent, e.g. several starting materials combine in one reaction to form the product; they exhibit a very high bond-forming-index (BFI), e.g. several non-hydrogen atom bonds are formed in one synthetic transformation.2 Therefore MCRs are often a useful alternative to sequential multistep synthesis. Open in a separate window Figure 1 Above: multistep syntheses can be divergent (sequential) or convergent; below: in analogy MCR reactions are convergent and one or two component reactions are divergent or less convergent.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fluorescent Chemosensors Based on Spiroring-Opening of Xanthenes and Related Derivatives and their applications in Nano Science and Bioinspired Science.
Abstract: Fluorescent Chemosensors Based on Spiroring-Opening of Xanthenes and Related Derivatives Xiaoqiang Chen, Tuhin Pradhan, Fang Wang, Jong Seung Kim,* and Juyoung Yoon* Departments of Chemistry and Nano Science and of Bioinspired Science (WCU), Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, China Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biocompatibility, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications L. Harivardhan Reddy,‡ Jose ́ L. Arias, Julien Nicolas,† and Patrick Couvreur*,†.
Abstract: Biocompatibility, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications L. Harivardhan Reddy,†,‡ Jose ́ L. Arias, Julien Nicolas,† and Patrick Couvreur*,† †Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie, Pharmacotechnie et Biopharmacie, Universite ́ Paris-Sud XI, UMR CNRS 8612, Faculte ́ de Pharmacie, IFR 141, 5 rue Jean-Baptiste Cleḿent, F-92296 Chat̂enay-Malabry, France Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmaceútica, Facultad de Farmacia, Campus Universitario de Cartuja s/n, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain ‡Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Sanofi, 13 Quai Jules Guesdes, F-94403 Vitry-sur-Seine, France


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents a new mesoporous composite material suitable for high-performance liquid chromatography and shows good chiral recognition ability and high uniformity in various racemates.
Abstract: Dingcai Wu,*,† Fei Xu,† Bin Sun,† Ruowen Fu,† Hongkun He,‡ and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski*,‡ †Materials Science Institute, Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, People's Republic of China ‡Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, 4400 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, United States

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparison study of 3D Networks Based on Polypyrazolates, Metal 1,2,4-Triazolate Frameworks, and Univalent Coinage-Metal Tetrazolate Framework 1025.
Abstract: 2.1.2. Low Topology/Framework Density 1003 2.1.3. Side Group Directed Superstructures 1003 2.2. Synthesis Considerations 1003 2.3. Special Properties 1004 3. Metal Imidazolate Frameworks 1004 3.1. Chains and Rings 1004 3.2. Zeolitic and Zeolite-like Frameworks 1006 3.2.1. SOD-Type Zinc(II) 2-Methylimidazolate 1007 3.3. Nonporous 4-Connected Networks 1010 3.4. Polyimidazolates 1011 4. Metal Pyrazolate Frameworks 1011 4.1. Clusters and Chains 1011 4.2. 3D Networks Based on Polypyrazolates 1012 5. Metal 1,2,4-Triazolate Frameworks 1014 5.1. Simple 3-Connected Networks 1015 5.2. Quasi-Imidazolates 1018 5.3. With Coordinative Substituents 1019 5.4. With Secondary Counterions and/or Ligands 1021 6. Metal 1,2,3-Triazolate Frameworks 1023 7. Metal Tetrazolate Frameworks 1025 7.1. Univalent Coinage-Metal Tetrazolate Frameworks 1025



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ferroelectric properties of some lately reported MOFs will be presented in this talk, covering their triggering mechanism, designing strategies and potential applications as multifunctional materials.