scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Chemical Reviews in 2019"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work aims to provide a comprehensive overview of electrospun nanofibers, including the principle, methods, materials, and applications, and highlights the most relevant and recent advances related to the applications by focusing on the most representative examples.
Abstract: Electrospinning is a versatile and viable technique for generating ultrathin fibers. Remarkable progress has been made with regard to the development of electrospinning methods and engineering of electrospun nanofibers to suit or enable various applications. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of electrospinning, including the principle, methods, materials, and applications. We begin with a brief introduction to the early history of electrospinning, followed by discussion of its principle and typical apparatus. We then discuss its renaissance over the past two decades as a powerful technology for the production of nanofibers with diversified compositions, structures, and properties. Afterward, we discuss the applications of electrospun nanofibers, including their use as "smart" mats, filtration membranes, catalytic supports, energy harvesting/conversion/storage components, and photonic and electronic devices, as well as biomedical scaffolds. We highlight the most relevant and recent advances related to the applications of electrospun nanofibers by focusing on the most representative examples. We also offer perspectives on the challenges, opportunities, and new directions for future development. At the end, we discuss approaches to the scale-up production of electrospun nanofibers and briefly discuss various types of commercial products based on electrospun nanofibers that have found widespread use in our everyday life.

2,289 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A broad and historical view of different aspects and their complex interplay in CO2R catalysis on Cu is taken, with the purpose of providing new insights, critical evaluations, and guidance to the field with regard to research directions and best practices.
Abstract: To date, copper is the only heterogeneous catalyst that has shown a propensity to produce valuable hydrocarbons and alcohols, such as ethylene and ethanol, from electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2R). There are variety of factors that impact CO2R activity and selectivity, including the catalyst surface structure, morphology, composition, the choice of electrolyte ions and pH, and the electrochemical cell design. Many of these factors are often intertwined, which can complicate catalyst discovery and design efforts. Here we take a broad and historical view of these different aspects and their complex interplay in CO2R catalysis on Cu, with the purpose of providing new insights, critical evaluations, and guidance to the field with regard to research directions and best practices. First, we describe the various experimental probes and complementary theoretical methods that have been used to discern the mechanisms by which products are formed, and next we present our current understanding of the complex reaction networks for CO2R on Cu. We then analyze two key methods that have been used in attempts to alter the activity and selectivity of Cu: nanostructuring and the formation of bimetallic electrodes. Finally, we offer some perspectives on the future outlook for electrochemical CO2R.

2,055 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fundamentals, recent research progress, present status, and views on future prospects of perovskite-based photovoltaics, with discussions focused on strategies to improve both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) stabilities of high-efficiency devices are described.
Abstract: The photovoltaics of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskite materials have shown rapid improvements in solar cell performance, surpassing the top efficiency of semiconductor compounds such as CdTe and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide) used in solar cells in just about a decade. Perovskite preparation via simple and inexpensive solution processes demonstrates the immense potential of this thin-film solar cell technology to become a low-cost alternative to the presently commercially available photovoltaic technologies. Significant developments in almost all aspects of perovskite solar cells and discoveries of some fascinating properties of such hybrid perovskites have been made recently. This Review describes the fundamentals, recent research progress, present status, and our views on future prospects of perovskite-based photovoltaics, with discussions focused on strategies to improve both intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) stabilities of high-efficiency devices. Strategies and challenges regardi...

1,720 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review systematically introduces the classification, catalytic mechanism, activity regulation as well as recent research progress of nanozymes in the field of biosensing, environmental protection, and disease treatments, etc. in the past years.
Abstract: Because of the high catalytic activities and substrate specificity, natural enzymes have been widely used in industrial, medical, and biological fields, etc. Although promising, they often suffer from intrinsic shortcomings such as high cost, low operational stability, and difficulties of recycling. To overcome these shortcomings, researchers have been devoted to the exploration of artificial enzyme mimics for a long time. Since the discovery of ferromagnetic nanoparticles with intrinsic horseradish peroxidase-like activity in 2007, a large amount of studies on nanozymes have been constantly emerging in the next decade. Nanozymes are one kind of nanomaterials with enzymatic catalytic properties. Compared with natural enzymes, nanozymes have the advantages such as low cost, high stability and durability, which have been widely used in industrial, medical, and biological fields. A thorough understanding of the possible catalytic mechanisms will contribute to the development of novel and high-efficient nanozymes, and the rational regulations of the activities of nanozymes are of great significance. In this review, we systematically introduce the classification, catalytic mechanism, activity regulation as well as recent research progress of nanozymes in the field of biosensing, environmental protection, and disease treatments, etc. in the past years. We also propose the current challenges of nanozymes as well as their future research focus. We anticipate this review may be of significance for the field to understand the properties of nanozymes and the development of novel nanomaterials with enzyme mimicking activities.

1,549 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive overview on first row transition metal catalysts for C-H activation until summer 2018 is provided.
Abstract: C–H activation has surfaced as an increasingly powerful tool for molecular sciences, with notable applications to material sciences, crop protection, drug discovery, and pharmaceutical industries, among others. Despite major advances, the vast majority of these C–H functionalizations required precious 4d or 5d transition metal catalysts. Given the cost-effective and sustainable nature of earth-abundant first row transition metals, the development of less toxic, inexpensive 3d metal catalysts for C–H activation has gained considerable recent momentum as a significantly more environmentally-benign and economically-attractive alternative. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview on first row transition metal catalysts for C–H activation until summer 2018.

1,417 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Various cocatalysts, such as the biomimetic, metal-based,Metal-free, and multifunctional ones, and their selectivity for CO2 photoreduction are summarized and discussed, along with the recent advances in this area.
Abstract: Photoreduction of CO2 into sustainable and green solar fuels is generally believed to be an appealing solution to simultaneously overcome both environmental problems and energy crisis. The low selectivity of challenging multi-electron CO2 photoreduction reactions makes it one of the holy grails in heterogeneous photocatalysis. This Review highlights the important roles of cocatalysts in selective photocatalytic CO2 reduction into solar fuels using semiconductor catalysts. A special emphasis in this review is placed on the key role, design considerations and modification strategies of cocatalysts for CO2 photoreduction. Various cocatalysts, such as the biomimetic, metal-based, metal-free, and multifunctional ones, and their selectivity for CO2 photoreduction are summarized and discussed, along with the recent advances in this area. This Review provides useful information for the design of highly selective cocatalysts for photo(electro)reduction and electroreduction of CO2 and complements the existing reviews on various semiconductor photocatalysts.

1,365 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the intrinsic biochemical properties of reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlie the mechanisms that regulate various physiological functions of living organisms, and they play an essential role in regulating various physiological function.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in regulating various physiological functions of living organisms. The intrinsic biochemical properties of ROS, which underlie the mechanisms ne...

1,260 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Adsorption technologies are a low-cost alternative, easily used in developing countries where there is a dearth of advanced technologies, skilled personnel, and available capital, and adsorption appears to be the most broadly feasible pharmaceutical removal method.
Abstract: In the last few decades, pharmaceuticals, credited with saving millions of lives, have emerged as a new class of environmental contaminant. These compounds can have both chronic and acute harmful effects on natural flora and fauna. The presence of pharmaceutical contaminants in ground waters, surface waters (lakes, rivers, and streams), sea water, wastewater treatment plants (influents and effluents), soils, and sludges has been well doccumented. A range of methods including oxidation, photolysis, UV-degradation, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption has been used for their remediation from aqueous systems. Many methods have been commercially limited by toxic sludge generation, incomplete removal, high capital and operating costs, and the need for skilled operating and maintenance personnel. Adsorption technologies are a low-cost alternative, easily used in developing countries where there is a dearth of advanced technologies, skilled personnel, and available capital, and adsorption appears to be the most broadly feasible pharmaceutical removal method. Adsorption remediation methods are easily integrated with wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Herein, we have reviewed the literature (1990-2018) illustrating the rising environmental pharmaceutical contamination concerns as well as remediation efforts emphasizing adsorption.

1,170 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review systematically documents the progresses and developments made in the understanding and design of heterogeneous catalysts for VOC oxidation over the past two decades and addresses in detail how catalytic performance is often drastically affected by the pollutant sources and reaction conditions.
Abstract: It is well known that urbanization and industrialization have resulted in the rapidly increasing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are a major contributor to the formation of secondary pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone, PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate), and secondary organic aerosols) and photochemical smog. The emission of these pollutants has led to a large decline in air quality in numerous regions around the world, which has ultimately led to concerns regarding their impact on human health and general well-being. Catalytic oxidation is regarded as one of the most promising strategies for VOC removal from industrial waste streams. This Review systematically documents the progresses and developments made in the understanding and design of heterogeneous catalysts for VOC oxidation over the past two decades. It addresses in detail how catalytic performance is often drastically affected by the pollutant sources and reaction conditions. It also highlights the primary routes for catalyst deactivation and discusses protocols for their subsequent reactivation. Kinetic models and proposed oxidation mechanisms for representative VOCs are also provided. Typical catalytic reactors and oxidizers for industrial VOC destruction are further discussed. We believe that this Review will provide a great foundation and reference point for future design and development in this field.

1,074 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recommendations are made on how accelerated testing should be performed to rapidly develop solar cells that are both extraordinarily efficient and stable.
Abstract: This review article examines the current state of understanding in how metal halide perovskite solar cells can degrade when exposed to moisture, oxygen, heat, light, mechanical stress, and reverse bias. It also highlights strategies for improving stability, such as tuning the composition of the perovskite, introducing hydrophobic coatings, replacing metal electrodes with carbon or transparent conducting oxides, and packaging. The article concludes with recommendations on how accelerated testing should be performed to rapidly develop solar cells that are both extraordinarily efficient and stable.

962 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review provides an overview of the algorithms and results that are relevant for quantum chemistry and aims to help quantum chemists who seek to learn more about quantum computing and quantum computing researchers who would like to explore applications in quantum chemistry.
Abstract: Practical challenges in simulating quantum systems on classical computers have been widely recognized in the quantum physics and quantum chemistry communities over the past century. Although many approximation methods have been introduced, the complexity of quantum mechanics remains hard to appease. The advent of quantum computation brings new pathways to navigate this challenging and complex landscape. By manipulating quantum states of matter and taking advantage of their unique features such as superposition and entanglement, quantum computers promise to efficiently deliver accurate results for many important problems in quantum chemistry, such as the electronic structure of molecules. In the past two decades, significant advances have been made in developing algorithms and physical hardware for quantum computing, heralding a revolution in simulation of quantum systems. This Review provides an overview of the algorithms and results that are relevant for quantum chemistry. The intended audience is both quantum chemists who seek to learn more about quantum computing and quantum computing researchers who would like to explore applications in quantum chemistry.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review aims to provide an up-to-date survey of this fast-moving field and will mainly focus on the different colloidal synthesis approaches that have been developed and on the fundamental optical properties of halide perovskite nanocrystals.
Abstract: Metal halide perovskites represent a flourishing area of research, which is driven by both their potential application in photovoltaics and optoelectronics and by the fundamental science behind their unique optoelectronic properties. The emergence of new colloidal methods for the synthesis of halide perovskite nanocrystals, as well as the interesting characteristics of this new type of material, has attracted the attention of many researchers. This review aims to provide an up-to-date survey of this fast-moving field and will mainly focus on the different colloidal synthesis approaches that have been developed. We will examine the chemistry and the capability of different colloidal synthetic routes with regard to controlling the shape, size, and optical properties of the resulting nanocrystals. We will also provide an up-to-date overview of their postsynthesis transformations, and summarize the various solution processes that are aimed at fabricating halide perovskite-based nanocomposites. Furthermore, we...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this review, methods to adjust the polar solvation energy and to improve the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA calculations are reviewed and discussed and guidance is provided for practically applying these methods in drug design and related research fields.
Abstract: Molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) and molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) are arguably very popular methods for binding free energy prediction since they are more accurate than most scoring functions of molecular docking and less computationally demanding than alchemical free energy methods. MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA have been widely used in biomolecular studies such as protein folding, protein-ligand binding, protein-protein interaction, etc. In this review, methods to adjust the polar solvation energy and to improve the performance of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA calculations are reviewed and discussed. The latest applications of MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA in drug design are also presented. This review intends to provide readers with guidance for practically applying MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA in drug design and related research fields.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This comprehensive review describes the state of the art of clinically approved contrast agents, their mechanism of action, and factors influencing their safety and efforts to make safer contrast agents either by increasing relaxivity, increasing resistance to metal ion release, or by moving to gadolinium(III)-free alternatives.
Abstract: Tens of millions of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams are performed annually around the world. The contrast agents, which improve diagnostic accuracy, are almost exclusively small, hydrophilic gadolinium(III) based chelates. In recent years concerns have arisen surrounding the long-term safety of these compounds, and this has spurred research into alternatives. There has also been a push to develop new molecularly targeted contrast agents or agents that can sense pathological changes in the local environment. This comprehensive review describes the state of the art of clinically approved contrast agents, their mechanism of action, and factors influencing their safety. From there we describe different mechanisms of generating MR image contrast such as relaxation, chemical exchange saturation transfer, and direct detection and the types of molecules that are effective for these purposes. Next we describe efforts to make safer contrast agents either by increasing relaxivity, increasing resistance to metal ion release, or by moving to gadolinium(III)-free alternatives. Finally we survey approaches to make contrast agents more specific for pathology either by direct biochemical targeting or by the design of responsive or activatable contrast agents.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes the latest SCR reaction mechanisms and emerging poison-resistant mechanisms in the beginning and subsequently gives a comprehensive overview of newly developed SCR catalysts, including metal oxide catalysts ranging from VOx, MnOx, CeO2, and Fe2O3 to CuO based catalysts.
Abstract: Selective catalytic reduction with NH3 (NH3-SCR) is the most efficient technology to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired industries, diesel engines, etc. Although V2O5-WO3(MoO3)/TiO2 and CHA structured zeolite catalysts have been utilized in commercial applications, the increasing requirements for broad working temperature window, strong SO2/alkali/heavy metal-resistance, and high hydrothermal stability have stimulated the development of new-type NH3-SCR catalysts. This review summarizes the latest SCR reaction mechanisms and emerging poison-resistant mechanisms in the beginning and subsequently gives a comprehensive overview of newly developed SCR catalysts, including metal oxide catalysts ranging from VOx, MnOx, CeO2, and Fe2O3 to CuO based catalysts; acidic compound catalysts containing vanadate, phosphate and sulfate catalysts; ion exchanged zeolite catalysts such as Fe, Cu, Mn, etc. exchanged zeolite catalysts; monolith catalysts including extruded, washcoated, and metal-mesh/foam-based monolith catalysts. The challenges and opportunities for each type of catalysts are proposed while the effective strategies are summarized for enhancing the acidity/redox circle and poison-resistance through modification, creating novel nanostructures, exposing specific crystalline planes, constructing protective/sacrificial sites, etc. Some suggestions are given about future research directions that efforts should be made in. Hopefully, this review can bridge the gap between newly developed catalysts and practical requirements to realize their commercial applications in the near future.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review describes the imprinted polymer production processes, the techniques used for reporting, and the applications of the reported sensors, including those designed to detect toxic chemicals, toxins in foods, drugs, explosives, and pathogens.
Abstract: Molecularly imprinted polymers are synthetic receptors for a targeted molecule. As such, they are analogues of the natural antibody–antigen systems. In this review, after a recounting of the early history of the general field, we specifically focus on the application of these polymers as sensors. In these applications, the polymers are paired with a reporting system, which may be electrical, electrochemical, optical, or gravimetric. The presence of the targeted molecule effects a change in the reporting agent, and a calibrated quantity of the target is recorded. In this review, we describe the imprinted polymer production processes, the techniques used for reporting, and the applications of the reported sensors. A brief survey of recent applications to gas-phase sensing is included, but the focus is primarily on the development of sensors for targets in solution. Included among the applications are those designed to detect toxic chemicals, toxins in foods, drugs, explosives, and pathogens. The application...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The challenges to bringing PDT into mainstream cancer therapy are summarized, the chemical and photophysical solutions that transition metal complexes offer are considered, and the multidisciplinary effort needed to bring a new drug to clinical trial is put into context.
Abstract: Transition metal complexes are of increasing interest as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and, more recently, for photochemotherapy (PCT). In recent years, Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes have emerged as promising systems for both PDT and PCT. Their rich photochemical and photophysical properties derive from a variety of excited-state electronic configurations accessible with visible and near-infrared light, and these properties can be exploited for both energy- and electron-transfer processes that can yield highly potent oxygen-dependent and/or oxygen-independent photobiological activity. Selected examples highlight the use of rational design in coordination chemistry to control the lowest-energy triplet excited-state configurations for eliciting a particular type of photoreactivity for PDT and/or PCT effects. These principles are also discussed in the context of the development of TLD1433, the first Ru(II)-based photosensitizer for PDT to enter a human clinical trial. The design of TLD1433 arose from a tumor-centered approach, as part of a complete PDT package that includes the light component and the protocol for treating non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Briefly, this review summarizes the challenges to bringing PDT into mainstream cancer therapy. It considers the chemical and photophysical solutions that transition metal complexes offer, and it puts into context the multidisciplinary effort needed to bring a new drug to clinical trial.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes the latest advances in this emerging field of "bio-integrated" technologies in a comprehensive manner that connects fundamental developments in chemistry, material science, and engineering with sensing technologies that have the potential for widespread deployment and societal benefit in human health care.
Abstract: Bio-integrated wearable systems can measure a broad range of biophysical, biochemical, and environmental signals to provide critical insights into overall health status and to quantify human performance. Recent advances in material science, chemical analysis techniques, device designs, and assembly methods form the foundations for a uniquely differentiated type of wearable technology, characterized by noninvasive, intimate integration with the soft, curved, time-dynamic surfaces of the body. This review summarizes the latest advances in this emerging field of “bio-integrated” technologies in a comprehensive manner that connects fundamental developments in chemistry, material science, and engineering with sensing technologies that have the potential for widespread deployment and societal benefit in human health care. An introduction to the chemistries and materials for the active components of these systems contextualizes essential design considerations for sensors and associated platforms that appear in f...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This comprehensive and critical review of coumarin-based small-molecule fluorescent chemosensors during the period of 2012-2018 may facilitate the development of more powerful fluorescent chemOSensors for broad and exciting applications in the future.
Abstract: Coumarins are a very large family of compounds containing the unique 2H-chromen-2-one motif, as it is known according to IUPAC nomenclature. Coumarin derivatives are widely found in nature, especially in plants and are constituents of several essential oils. Up to now, thousands of coumarin derivatives have been isolated from nature or produced by chemists. More recently, the coumarin platform has been widely adopted in the design of small-molecule fluorescent chemosensors because of its excellent biocompatibility, strong and stable fluorescence emission, and good structural flexibility. This scaffold has found wide applications in the development of fluorescent chemosensors in the fields of molecular recognition, molecular imaging, bioorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, as well as in the biology and medical science communities. This review focuses on the important progress of coumarin-based small-molecule fluorescent chemosensors during the period of 2012-2018. This comprehensive and critical review may facilitate the development of more powerful fluorescent chemosensors for broad and exciting applications in the future.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This Review systematically introduces and discusses the classic synthesis methods, advanced characterization techniques, and various catalytic applications toward two-dimensional materials confining single-atom catalysts.
Abstract: Two-dimensional materials and single-atom catalysts are two frontier research fields in catalysis. A new category of catalysts with the integration of both aspects has been rapidly developed in recent years, and significant advantages were established to make it an independent research field. In this Review, we will focus on the concept of two-dimensional materials confining single atoms for catalysis. The new electronic states via the integration lead to their mutual benefits in activity, that is, two-dimensional materials with unique geometric and electronic structures can modulate the catalytic performance of the confined single atoms, and in other cases the confined single atoms can in turn affect the intrinsic activity of two-dimensional materials. Three typical two-dimensional materials are mainly involved here, i.e., graphene, g-C3N4, and MoS2, and the confined single atoms include both metal and nonmetal atoms. First, we systematically introduce and discuss the classic synthesis methods, advanced ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review is a comprehensive description of the parameters that give rise to the sensing capabilities of CNT-based sensors and the application of C NT-based devices in chemical sensing and their prospects for commercialization.
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) promise to advance a number of real-world technologies. Of these applications, they are particularly attractive for uses in chemical sensors for environmental and health monitoring. However, chemical sensors based on CNTs are often lacking in selectivity, and the elucidation of their sensing mechanisms remains challenging. This review is a comprehensive description of the parameters that give rise to the sensing capabilities of CNT-based sensors and the application of CNT-based devices in chemical sensing. This review begins with the discussion of the sensing mechanisms in CNT-based devices, the chemical methods of CNT functionalization, architectures of sensors, performance parameters, and theoretical models used to describe CNT sensors. It then discusses the expansive applications of CNT-based sensors to multiple areas including environmental monitoring, food and agriculture applications, biological sensors, and national security. The discussion of each analyte focuses on the strategies used to impart selectivity and the molecular interactions between the selector and the analyte. Finally, the review concludes with a brief outlook over future developments in the field of chemical sensors and their prospects for commercialization.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review on the development and state of the art of colorimetric and fluorometric sensor arrays is presented and the various chemometric and statistical analyses of high-dimensional data are presented and critiqued in reference to their use in chemical sensing.
Abstract: A comprehensive review on the development and state of the art of colorimetric and fluorometric sensor arrays is presented Chemical sensing aims to detect subtle changes in the chemical environment by transforming relevant chemical or physical properties of molecular or ionic species (ie, analytes) into an analytically useful output Optical arrays based on chemoresponsive colorants (dyes and nanoporous pigments) probe the chemical reactivity of analytes, rather than their physical properties (eg, mass) The chemical specificity of the olfactory system does not come from specific receptors for specific analytes (eg, the traditional lock-and-key model of substrate-enzyme interactions), but rather olfaction makes use of pattern recognition of the combined response of several hundred olfactory receptors In a similar fashion, arrays of chemoresponsive colorants provide high-dimensional data from the color or fluorescence changes of the dyes in these arrays as they are exposed to analytes This provides chemical sensing with high sensitivity (often down to parts per billion levels), impressive discrimination among very similar analytes, and exquisite fingerprinting of extremely similar mixtures over a wide range of analyte types, in both the gas and liquid phases Design of both sensor arrays and instrumentation for their analysis are discussed In addition, the various chemometric and statistical analyses of high-dimensional data (including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support vector machines (SVMs), and artificial neural networks (ANNs)) are presented and critiqued in reference to their use in chemical sensing A variety of applications are also discussed, including personal dosimetry of toxic industrial chemical, detection of explosives or accelerants, quality control of foods and beverages, biosensing intracellularly, identification of bacteria and fungi, and detection of cancer and disease biomarkers

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The origin of DNA nanotechnology is reviewed, followed by summarizing state-of-the-art strategies for the construction of DNAnanostructures and drug payloads delivered by DNA nanovehicles and challenges and opportunities for DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery.
Abstract: Over the past decade, we have seen rapid advances in applying nanotechnology in biomedical areas including bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology offers simple yet powerful design techniques for self-assembly of nanostructures with unique advantages and high potential in enhancing drug targeting and reducing drug toxicity. Various sequence programming and optimization approaches have been developed to design DNA nanostructures with precisely engineered, controllable size, shape, surface chemistry, and function. Potent anticancer drug molecules, including Doxorubicin and CpG oligonucleotides, have been successfully loaded on DNA nanostructures to increase their cell uptake efficiency. These advances have implicated the bright future of DNA nanotechnology-enabled nanomedicine. In this review, we begin with the origin of DNA nanotechnology, followed by summarizing state-of-the-art strategies for the construction of DNA nanostructures and drug payloads delivered ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article analyzes the interaction of nanoparticle surface and ligands with different chemical groups, the types of bonding, the final dispersibility of ligand-coated nanoparticles in complex media, their reactivity, and their performance in biomedicine, photodetectors, photovoltaic devices, light-emitting devices, sensors, memory devices, thermoelectric applications, and catalysis.
Abstract: The design of nanoparticles is critical for their efficient use in many applications ranging from biomedicine to sensing and energy. While shape and size are responsible for the properties of the inorganic nanoparticle core, the choice of ligands is of utmost importance for the colloidal stability and function of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the selection of ligands employed in nanoparticle synthesis can determine their final size and shape. Ligands added after nanoparticle synthesis infer both new properties as well as provide enhanced colloidal stability. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of the ligands with respect to the nanoparticle morphology, stability, and function. We analyze the interaction of nanoparticle surface and ligands with different chemical groups, the types of bonding, the final dispersibility of ligand-coated nanoparticles in complex media, their reactivity, and their performance in biomedicine, photodetectors, photovoltaic devices, light-emitting devices, sensors, memory devices, thermoelectric applications, and catalysis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review links metal halide perovskites' performance as efficient light emitters with their underlying materials electronic and photophysical attributes.
Abstract: Next-generation displays and lighting technologies require efficient optical sources that combine brightness, color purity, stability, substrate flexibility. Metal halide perovskites have potential use in a wide range of applications, for they possess excellent charge transport, bandgap tunability and, in the most promising recent optical source materials, intense and efficient luminescence. This review links metal halide perovskites' performance as efficient light emitters with their underlying materials electronic and photophysical attributes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the literature on 3D metal-based molecular catalysts is presented, focusing on their immobilization on heterogeneous solid-state supports for the synthesis of renewable fuels from abundant water or greenhouse gas CO2.
Abstract: The synthesis of renewable fuels from abundant water or the greenhouse gas CO2 is a major step toward creating sustainable and scalable energy storage technologies. In the last few decades, much attention has focused on the development of nonprecious metal-based catalysts and, in more recent years, their integration in solid-state support materials and devices that operate in water. This review surveys the literature on 3d metal-based molecular catalysts and focuses on their immobilization on heterogeneous solid-state supports for electro-, photo-, and photoelectrocatalytic synthesis of fuels in aqueous media. The first sections highlight benchmark homogeneous systems using proton and CO2 reducing 3d transition metal catalysts as well as commonly employed methods for catalyst immobilization, including a discussion of supporting materials and anchoring groups. The subsequent sections elaborate on productive associations between molecular catalysts and a wide range of substrates based on carbon, quantum dot...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the utilization of functional pincer ligands in first-row transition metal hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis and related synthetic concepts relying on these such as the hydrogen borrowing methodology.
Abstract: The use of 3d metals in de/hydrogenation catalysis has emerged as a competitive field with respect to “traditional” precious metal catalyzed transformations. The introduction of functional pincer ligands that can store protons and/or electrons as expressed by metal–ligand cooperativity and ligand redox-activity strongly stimulated this development as a conceptual starting point for rational catalyst design. This review aims at providing a comprehensive picture of the utilization of functional pincer ligands in first-row transition metal hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis and related synthetic concepts relying on these such as the hydrogen borrowing methodology. Particular emphasis is put on the implementation and relevance of cooperating and redox-active pincer ligands within the mechanistic scenarios.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings in this field are expected to inspire others to develop new efficient and selective earth-abundant metal catalysts for borrowing hydrogen or hydrogen autotransfer applications or to develop novel alcohol refunctionalization reactions that can be mediated by such metals.
Abstract: The conservation of our element resources is a fundamental challenge of mankind. The development of alcohol refunctionalization reactions is a possible fossil carbon conservation strategy since alcohols can be obtained from indigestible and abundantly available biomass. The conservation of our rare noble metals, frequently used in key technologies such as catalysis, might be feasible by replacing them with highly abundant metals. The alkylation of amines by alcohols and related C–C coupling reactions are early examples of alcohol refunctionalization reactions. These reactions follow mostly the borrowing hydrogen or hydrogen autotransfer catalysis concept, and many 3d-metal catalysts have been disclosed in recent years. In this review, we summarize the progress made in developing Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, and Mn catalysts for C–N and C–C bond formation reactions with alcohols and amines using the borrowing hydrogen or hydrogen autotransfer concept. We expect that the findings in this field will inspire others to dev...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review provides a comprehensive overview of the important work in all-PSCs including rational design rules for efficient PDs and PAs, blend morphology control, and light harvesting engineering, and highlights the importance of all- PSCs for future implementation and commercialization.
Abstract: All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) consisting of polymer donors (PDs) and polymer acceptors (PAs) have drawn tremendous research interest in recent years. It is due to not only their tunable optical, electrochemical, and structural properties, but also many superior features that are not readily available in conventional polymer-fullerene solar cells (fullerene-PSCs) including long-term stability, synthetic accessibility, and excellent film-forming properties suitable for large-scale manufacturing. Recent breakthroughs in material design and device engineering have driven the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all-PSCs exceeding 11%, which is comparable to the performance of fullerene-PSCs. Furthermore, outstanding mechanical durability and stretchability have been reported for all-PSCs, which make them stand out from the other small molecule-based PSCs as a promising power supplier for wearable electronic devices. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the important work in all-PSCs, in which pertinent examples are deliberately chosen. First, we describe the key components that enabled the recent progresses of all-PSCs including rational design rules for efficient PDs and PAs, blend morphology control, and light harvesting engineering. We also review the recent work on the understanding of the stability of all-PSCs under various external conditions, which highlights the importance of all-PSCs for future implementation and commercialization. Finally, because all-PSCs have not yet achieved their full potential and are still undergoing rapid development, we offer our views on the current challenges and future prospects.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The metal anode is the essential component of emerging energy storage systems such as sodium sulfur and sodium selenium, which are discussed as example full-cell applications.
Abstract: This comprehensive Review focuses on the key challenges and recent progress regarding sodium-metal anodes employed in sodium-metal batteries (SMBs) The metal anode is the essential component of emerging energy storage systems such as sodium sulfur and sodium selenium, which are discussed as example full-cell applications We begin with a description of the differences in the chemical and physical properties of Na metal versus the oft-studied Li metal, and a corresponding discussion regarding the number of ways in which Na does not follow Li-inherited paradigms in its electrochemical behavior We detail the major challenges for Na-metal systems that at this time limit the feasibility of SMBs The core Na anode problems are the following interrelated degradation mechanisms: An unstable solid electrolyte interphase with most organic electrolytes, "mossy" and "lath-like" metal dendrite growth for liquid systems, poor Coulombic efficiency, and gas evolution Even solid-state Na batteries are not immune, with metal dendrites being reported The solutions may be subdivided into the following interrelated taxonomy: Improved electrolytes and electrolyte additives tailored for Na-metal anodes, interfacial engineering between the metal and the liquid or solid electrolyte, electrode architectures that both reduce the current density during plating-stripping and serve as effective hosts that shield the Na metal from excessive reactions, and alloy design to tune the bulk properties of the metal per se For instance, stable plating-stripping of Na is extremely difficult with conventional carbonate solvents but has been reported with ethers and glymes Solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) such as beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), sodium superionic conductor (NASICON), and sodium thiophosphate (75Na2S·25P2S5) present highly exciting opportunities for SMBs that avoid the dangers of flammable liquids Even SSEs are not immune to dendrites, however, which grow through the defects in the bulk pellet, but may be controlled through interfacial energy modification We conclude with a discussion of the key research areas that we feel are the most fruitful for further pursuit In our opinion, greatly improved understanding and control of the SEI structure is the key to cycling stability A holistic approach involving complementary post-mortem, in situ, and operando analyses to elucidate full battery cell level structure-performance relations is advocated