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Showing papers in "Chemical Society Reviews in 2011"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this critical review, recent progress in the area ofAIE research is summarized and typical examples of AIE systems are discussed, from which their structure-property relationships are derived.
Abstract: Luminogenic materials with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) attributes have attracted much interest since the debut of the AIE concept in 2001. In this critical review, recent progress in the area of AIE research is summarized. Typical examples of AIE systems are discussed, from which their structure–property relationships are derived. Through mechanistic decipherment of the photophysical processes, structural design strategies for generating new AIE luminogens are developed. Technological, especially optoelectronic and biological, applications of the AIE systems are exemplified to illustrate how the novel AIE effect can be utilized for high-tech innovations (183 references).

4,996 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them, and summarizes cellulOSE nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties.
Abstract: This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. It summarizes cellulose nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties. Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. The methodology of composite processing and resulting properties are fully covered, with an emphasis on neat and high fraction cellulose composites. Additionally, advances in predictive modeling from molecular dynamic simulations of crystalline cellulose to the continuum modeling of composites made with such particles are reviewed (392 references).

4,920 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This tutorial review provides a historical overview of visible light photoredox catalysis in organic synthesis along with recent examples which underscore its vast potential to initiate organic transformations.
Abstract: The use of visible light sensitization as a means to initiate organic reactions is attractive due to the lack of visible light absorbance by organic compounds, reducing side reactions often associated with photochemical reactions conducted with high energy UV light. This tutorial review provides a historical overview of visible light photoredox catalysis in organic synthesis along with recent examples which underscore its vast potential to initiate organic transformations.

3,095 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of recent developments in hydrogenation reaction, with emphases on catalytic reactivity, reactor innovation, and reaction mechanism, provides an overview regarding the challenges and opportunities for future research in the field.
Abstract: Owing to the increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), human life and the ecological environment have been affected by global warming and climate changes. To mitigate the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere various strategies have been implemented such as separation, storage, and utilization of CO2. Although it has been explored for many years, hydrogenation reaction, an important representative among chemical conversions of CO2, offers challenging opportunities for sustainable development in energy and the environment. Indeed, the hydrogenation of CO2 not only reduces the increasing CO2 buildup but also produces fuels and chemicals. In this critical review we discuss recent developments in this area, with emphases on catalytic reactivity, reactor innovation, and reaction mechanism. We also provide an overview regarding the challenges and opportunities for future research in the field (319 references).

2,539 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review summarizes and discusses endeavours towards the development of mild C-H activation methods and wishes to trigger more research towards this goal.
Abstract: Functionalizing traditionally inert carbon–hydrogen bonds represents a powerful transformation in organic synthesis, providing new entries to valuable structural motifs and improving the overall synthetic efficiency. C–H bond activation, however, often necessitates harsh reaction conditions that result in functional group incompatibilities and limited substrate scope. An understanding of the reaction mechanism and rational design of experimental conditions have led to significant improvement in both selectivity and applicability. This critical review summarizes and discusses endeavours towards the development of mild C–H activation methods and wishes to trigger more research towards this goal. In addition, we examine select examples in complex natural product synthesis to demonstrate the synthetic utility of mild C–H functionalization (84 references).

2,137 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In order to fully exploit the potential of manganese oxide-based electrode materials, an unambiguous appreciation of basic questions and optimization of synthesis parameters and material properties are critical for the further development of EC devices.
Abstract: Electrochemical supercapacitors (ECs), characteristic of high power and reasonably high energy densities, have become a versatile solution to various emerging energy applications. This critical review describes some materials science aspects on manganese oxide-based materials for these applications, primarily including the strategic design and fabrication of these electrode materials. Nanostructurization, chemical modification and incorporation with high surface area, conductive nanoarchitectures are the three major strategies in the development of high-performance manganese oxide-based electrodes for EC applications. Numerous works reviewed herein have shown enhanced electrochemical performance in the manganese oxide-based electrode materials. However, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, particularly with respect to characterization and understanding of electron transfer and atomic transport of the electrochemical interface processes within the manganese oxide-based electrodes. In order to fully exploit the potential of manganese oxide-based electrode materials, an unambiguous appreciation of these basic questions and optimization of synthesis parameters and material properties are critical for the further development of EC devices (233 references).

2,110 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review covers the recent progresses on the regioselective dehydrogenative direct coupling reaction of heteroarenes, including arylation, olefination, alkynylation, and amination/amidation mainly utilizing transition metal catalysts.
Abstract: The direct functionalization of heterocyclic compounds has emerged as one of the most important topics in the field of metal-catalyzed C–H bond activation due to the fact that products are an important synthetic motif in organic synthesis, the pharmaceutical industry, and materials science. This critical review covers the recent progresses on the regioselective dehydrogenative direct coupling reaction of heteroarenes, including arylation, olefination, alkynylation, and amination/amidation mainly utilizing transition metal catalysts (113 references).

2,062 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review is focused on the basic concept of PDT, advantages of long-wavelength absorbing photosensitizers (PS), a brief discussion on recent advances in developing PDT agents, and the various synthetic strategies designed at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo.
Abstract: In recent years several review articles and books have been published on the use of porphyrin-based compounds in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This critical review is focused on (i) the basic concept of PDT, (ii) advantages of long-wavelength absorbing photosensitizers (PS), (iii) a brief discussion on recent advances in developing PDT agents, and (iv) the various synthetic strategies designed at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, for developing highly effective long-wavelength PDT agents and their utility in constructing the conjugates with tumor-imaging and therapeutic potential (Theranostics). The clinical status of certain selected PDT agents is also summarized (205 references).

1,583 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This tutorial review will give a systematic overview of issues related to the use of non-linear rather than linear regression methods, careful choice of stoichiometric binding model, and the application of advanced data analysis methods such as global analysis.
Abstract: The most common approach for quantifying interactions in supramolecular chemistry is a titration of the guest to solution of the host, noting the changes in some physical property through NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence or other techniques. Despite the apparent simplicity of this approach, there are several issues that need to be carefully addressed to ensure that the final results are reliable. This includes the use of non-linear rather than linear regression methods, careful choice of stoichiometric binding model, the choice of method (e.g., NMRvs.UV-Vis) and concentration of host, the application of advanced data analysis methods such as global analysis and finally the estimation of uncertainties and confidence intervals for the results obtained. This tutorial review will give a systematic overview of all these issues—highlighting some of the key messages herein with simulated data analysis examples.

1,519 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New fluorescent sensing mechanisms that have emerged in the past five years, such as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and C=N isomerization, which can be ascribed to fluorescence changes via conformational restriction are focused on.
Abstract: During the past decade, fluorescent chemosensors have become an important research field of supramolecular chemistry and have attracted great attention because of their simplicity, high selectivity and sensitivity in fluorescent assays. In the design of new fluorescent chemosensors, exploration of new sensing mechanisms between recognition and signal reporting units is of continuing interest. Based on different photophysical processes, conventional sensing mechanisms including photo-induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), metal–ligand charge transfer (MLCT), twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT), electronic energy transfer (EET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excimer/exciplex formation have been investigated and reviewed extensively in the literature. This tutorial review will mainly focus on new fluorescent sensing mechanisms that have emerged in the past five years, such as aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and CN isomerization, which can be ascribed to fluorescence changes via conformational restriction. In addition, excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) has not been well reviewed yet, although a number of chemosensors based on the ESIPT mechanism have been reported. Thus, ESIPT-based chemosensors have been also summarized in this review.

1,511 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review briefly reviews the current status of MIT, particular emphasis on significant progresses of novel imprinting methods, some challenges and effective strategies for MIT, and highlighted applications of MIPs.
Abstract: Molecular imprinting technology (MIT) concerns formation of selective sites in a polymer matrix with the memory of a template. Recently, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have aroused extensive attention and been widely applied in many fields, such as solid-phase extraction, chemical sensors and artificial antibodies owing to their desired selectivity, physical robustness, thermal stability, as well as low cost and easy preparation. With the rapid development of MIT as a research hotspot, it faces a number of challenges, involving biological macromolecule imprinting, heterogeneous binding sites, template leakage, incompatibility with aqueous media, low binding capacity and slow mass transfer, which restricts its applications in various aspects. This critical review briefly reviews the current status of MIT, particular emphasis on significant progresses of novel imprinting methods, some challenges and effective strategies for MIT, and highlighted applications of MIPs. Finally, some significant attempts in further developing MIT are also proposed (236 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The potential of LnMOFs as multifunctional systems, which combine light emission with properties such as microporosity, magnetism, chirality, molecule and ion sensing, catalysis and activity as multimodal imaging contrast agents, is discussed.
Abstract: Metal–organic frameworks based on trivalent lanthanides (LnMOFs) are a very promising class of materials for addressing the challenges in engineering of luminescent centres. Lanthanide-bearing phosphors find numerous applications in lighting, optical communications, photonics and biomedical devices. In this critical review we discuss the potential of LnMOFs as multifunctional systems, which combine light emission with properties such as microporosity, magnetism, chirality, molecule and ion sensing, catalysis and activity as multimodal imaging contrast agents. We argue that these materials present a unique chance of observing synergy between several of these properties, such as the coupling between photoluminescence and magnetism. Moreover, an integrated approach towards the design of efficient, stable, cheap, environmentally-friendly and multifunctional luminescent LnMOFs is still missing. Although research into LnMOFs is at its early stage and much basic knowledge is still needed, the field is ripe for new ideas, which will enable sensor devices and photonic prototypes to become a commercial reality (81 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review summarizes key properties of azobenzene that enable its use as a photoswitch in biological systems and describes strategies for using azobensene photoswitches to drive functional changes in peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Abstract: The photoisomerization of azobenzene has been known for almost 75 years but only recently has this process been widely applied to biological systems. The central challenge of how to productively couple the isomerization process to a large functional change in a biomolecule has been met in a number of instances and it appears that effective photocontrol of a large variety of biomolecules may be possible. This critical review summarizes key properties of azobenzene that enable its use as a photoswitch in biological systems and describes strategies for using azobenzene photoswitches to drive functional changes in peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates (192 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This tutorial review describes selected recent examples of how the metal-catalysed C-H bond functionalisation has been able to positively affect the synthesis of natural products.
Abstract: Metal-catalysed C–H bond functionalisation has had a significant impact on how chemists make molecules. Translating the methodological developments to their use in the assembly of complex natural products is an important challenge for the continued advancement of chemical synthesis. In this tutorial review, we describe selected recent examples of how the metal-catalysed C–H bond functionalisation has been able to positively affect the synthesis of natural products.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review presents a detailed analysis of data on the in vitro and in vivo biodistribution and toxicity of most popular gold nanoparticles, including atomic clusters and colloidal particles of diameters from 1 to 200 nm, gold nanoshells, nanorods, and nanowires.
Abstract: Recent advances in wet chemical synthesis and biomolecular functionalization of gold nanoparticles have led to a dramatic expansion of their potential biomedical applications, including biosensorics, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and targeted drug delivery. As the range of gold nanoparticle types and their applications continues to increase, human safety concerns are gaining attention, which makes it necessary to better understand the potential toxicity hazards of these novel materials. Whereas about 80 reports on the in vivo biodistribution and in vitrocell toxicity of gold nanoparticles are available in the literature, there is lack of correlation between both fields and there is no clear understanding of intrinsic nanoparticle effects. At present, the major obstacle is the significant discrepancy in experimental conditions under which biodistribution and toxicity effects have been evaluated. This critical review presents a detailed analysis of data on the in vitro and in vivo biodistribution and toxicity of most popular gold nanoparticles, including atomic clusters and colloidal particles of diameters from 1 to 200 nm, gold nanoshells, nanorods, and nanowires. Emphasis is placed on the systematization of data over particle types and parameters, particle surface functionalization, animal and cell models, organs examined, doses applied, the type of particle administration and the time of examination, assays for evaluating gold particle toxicity, and methods for determining the gold concentration in organs and distribution of particles over cells. On the basis of a critical analysis of data, we arrive at some general conclusions on key nanoparticle parameters, methods of particle surface modification, and doses administered that determine the type and kinetics of biodistribution and toxicity at cellular and organismal levels (197 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of Li(+) conductors for use as electrolytes in lithium polymer batteries and all-solid state microbatteries and focuses on the physico-chemical and functional parameters relevant for optimal electrolytes preparation.
Abstract: This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of Li(+) conductors for use as electrolytes in lithium polymer batteries and all-solid state microbatteries. Initially, we recall the main models for ion transport and the structure-transport relationships at the basis of the observed conductivity behaviours. Emphasis is then placed on the physico-chemical and functional parameters relevant for optimal electrolytes preparation, as well as on the techniques of choice for their evaluation. Finally, the state of the art of polymer and ceramic electrolytes is reported, and the most interesting strategies for the future developments are described (121 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review focuses on developments in the Sonogashira reaction achieved in recent years concerning catalysts, reaction conditions and substrates.
Abstract: The coupling of aryl or vinyl halides with terminal acetylenes catalysed by palladium and other transition metals, commonly termed as Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction, is one of the most important and widely used sp2–sp carbon–carbon bond formation reactions in organic synthesis, frequently employed in the synthesis of natural products, biologically active molecules, heterocycles, molecular electronics, dendrimers and conjugated polymers or nanostructures. This critical review focuses on developments in the Sonogashira reaction achieved in recent years concerning catalysts, reaction conditions and substrates (352 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review, from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials, will cover recent significant advances in synthesis, molecular engineering, thin film, hybrids, and energy and analytical applications of the "star-material" GN together with discussion on its major challenges and opportunities for future GN research.
Abstract: The emergence of graphene nanosheet (GN, 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics) has recently opened up an exciting new field in the science and technology of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with continuously growing academic and technological impetus. GN exhibits unique electronic, optical, magnetic, thermal and mechanical properties arising from its strictly 2D structure and thus has many important technical applications. Actually, GN-based materials have enormous potential to rival or even surpass the performance of carbon nanotube-based counterparts, given that cheap, large-scale production and processing methods for high-quality GN become available. Therefore, the studies on GN in the aspects of chemistry, physical, materials, biology and interdisciplinary science have been in full flow in the past five years. In this critical review, from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials, we will cover recent significant advances in synthesis, molecular engineering, thin film, hybrids, and energy and analytical applications of the “star-material” GN together with discussion on its major challenges and opportunities for future GN research (315 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The description and discussion of the major applications of hybrid inorganic-organic (or biologic) materials are the major topic of this critical review.
Abstract: Today cross-cutting approaches, where molecular engineering and clever processing are synergistically coupled, allow the chemist to tailor complex hybrid systems of various shapes with perfect mastery at different size scales, composition, functionality, and morphology. Hybrid materials with organic–inorganic or bio–inorganic character represent not only a new field of basic research but also, via their remarkable new properties and multifunctional nature, hybrids offer prospects for many new applications in extremely diverse fields. The description and discussion of the major applications of hybrid inorganic–organic (or biologic) materials are the major topic of this critical review. Indeed, today the very large set of accessible hybrid materials span a wide spectrum of properties which yield the emergence of innovative industrial applications in various domains such as optics, micro-electronics, transportation, health, energy, housing, and the environment among others (526 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The applications and potentials of thin film coatings of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) supported on various substrates are discussed in this critical review and the possibility of using MOF thin films as model systems for detailed studies on MOF-related phenomena is demonstrated.
Abstract: The applications and potentials of thin film coatings of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) supported on various substrates are discussed in this critical review. Because the demand for fabricating such porous coatings is rather obvious, in the past years several synthesis schemes have been developed for the preparation of thin porous MOF films. Interestingly, although this is an emerging field seeing a rapid development a number of different applications on MOF films were either already demonstrated or have been proposed. This review focuses on the fabrication of continuous, thin porous films, either supported on solid substrates or as free-standing membranes. The availability of such two-dimensional types of porous coatings opened the door for a number of new perspectives for functionalizing surfaces. Also for the porous materials themselves, the availability of a solid support to which the MOF-films are rigidly (in a mechanical sense) anchored provides access to applications not available for the typical MOF powders with particle sizes of a few μm. We will also address some of the potential and applications of thin films in different fields like luminescence, QCM-based sensors, optoelectronics, gas separation and catalysis. A separate chapter has been devoted to the delamination of MOF thin films and discusses the potential to use them as free-standing membranes or as nano-containers. The review also demonstrates the possibility of using MOF thin films as model systems for detailed studies on MOF-related phenomena, e.g. adsorption and diffusion of small molecules into MOFs as well as the formation mechanism of MOFs (101 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review provides insights into the state-of-the-art accomplishments in the chemocatalytic technologies to generate fuels and value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, with an emphasis on its major component, cellulose.
Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and bio-renewable resource with great potential for sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. This critical review provides insights into the state-of the-art accomplishments in the chemocatalytic technologies to generate fuels and value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, with an emphasis on its major component, cellulose. Catalytic hydrolysis, solvolysis, liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation are the major processes presently studied. Regarding catalytic hydrolysis, the acid catalysts cover inorganic or organic acids and various solid acids such as sulfonated carbon, zeolites, heteropolyacids and oxides. Liquefaction and fast pyrolysis of cellulose are primarily conducted over catalysts with proper acidity/basicity. Gasification is typically conducted over supported noble metal catalysts. Reaction conditions, solvents and catalysts are the prime factors that affect the yield and composition of the target products. Most of processes yield a complex mixture, leading to problematic upgrading and separation. An emerging technique is to integrate hydrolysis, liquefaction or pyrolysis with hydrogenation over multifunctional solid catalysts to convert lignocellulosic biomass to value-added fine chemicals and bio-hydrocarbon fuels. And the promising catalysts might be supported transition metal catalysts and zeolite-related materials. There still exist technological barriers that need to be overcome (229 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review examines transition metal-catalyzed decarboxylative couplings that have emerged within recent years as a powerful strategy to form carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bonds starting from carboxylic acids.
Abstract: This critical review examines transition metal-catalyzed decarboxylative couplings that have emerged within recent years as a powerful strategy to form carbon–carbon or carbon–heteroatom bonds starting from carboxylic acids. In these reactions, C–C bonds to carboxylate groups are cleaved, and in their place, new carbon–carbon bonds are formed. Decarboxylative cross-couplings constitute advantageous alternatives to traditional cross-coupling or addition reactions involving preformed organometallic reagents. Decarboxylative reaction variants are also known for Heck reactions, direct arylation processes, and carbon–heteroatom bond forming reactions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review discusses recent work in the field of molecule-based spin crossover materials with a special focus on these emerging issues, including chemical synthesis, physical properties and theoretical aspects as well (223 references).
Abstract: Recently we assisted a strong renewed interest in the fascinating field of molecular spin crossover complexes by (1) the emergence of nanosized spin crossover materials through direct synthesis of coordination nanoparticles and nanopatterned thin films as well as by (2) the use of novel sophisticated high spatial and temporal resolution experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for the study of spatiotemporal phenomena in cooperative spin crossover systems. Besides generating new fundamental knowledge on size-reduction effects and the dynamics of the spin crossover phenomenon, this research aims also at the development of practical applications such as sensor, display, information storage and nanophotonic devices. In this critical review, we discuss recent work in the field of molecule-based spin crossover materials with a special focus on these emerging issues, including chemical synthesis, physical properties and theoretical aspects as well (223 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review focuses on small-molecular organic host materials as triplet guest emitters in PhOLEDs, using typical hole and electron transport materials used in OLEDs.
Abstract: Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) unfurl a bright future for the next generation of flat-panel displays and lighting sources due to their merit of high quantum efficiency compared with fluorescent OLEDs. This critical review focuses on small-molecular organic host materials as triplet guest emitters in PhOLEDs. At first, some typical hole and electron transport materials used in OLEDs are briefly introduced. Then the hole transport-type, electron transport-type, bipolar transport host materials and the pure-hydrocarbon compounds are comprehensively presented. The molecular design concept, molecular structures and physical properties such as triplet energy, HOMO/LUMO energy levels, thermal and morphological stabilities, and the applications of host materials in PhOLEDs are reviewed (152 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review of C-H functionalization logic will be analyzed through the critical lens of total synthesis, and takes the reader through a series of case studies in which it has already been successfully applied.
Abstract: In this critical review, the strategic and economic benefits of C–H functionalization logic will be analyzed through the critical lens of total synthesis. In order to illustrate the dramatically simplifying effects this type of logic can potentially have on synthetic planning, we take the reader through a series of case studies in which it has already been successfully applied. In the first section, a chronological look at key historical syntheses will be examined, leading into modern day examples. In the second section, our own experience with applying and executing synthesis with a C–H functionalization “mindset” will be discussed (114 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review systematically evaluates the advantages of phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes as bioimaging probes, including their photophysical properties, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake mechanisms.
Abstract: The application of phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes with d6, d8 and d10 electron configurations for bioimaging is a new and promising research field and has been attracting increasing interest. In this critical review, we systematically evaluate the advantages of phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes as bioimaging probes, including their photophysical properties, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake mechanisms. The progress of research into the use of phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes for staining different compartments of cells, monitoring intracellular functional species, providing targeted bioimaging, two-photon bioimaging, small-animal bioimaging, multimodal bioimaging and time-resolved bioimaging is summarized. In addition, several possible future directions in this field are also discussed (133 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art research in the area is described: the design and synthesis of catecholic molecules, their adsorption mechanisms and the stability of assemblies in solution, and their applications etc.
Abstract: The attachment strategy based on catecholic chemistry has been arousing renewed interest since the work on polymerized catecholic amine (polydopamine) (Messersmith et al., Science, 2007, 318, 426) was published. Catechols and their derived compounds can self-assemble on various inorganic and organic materials, including noble metals, metals, metal oxides, mica, silica, ceramics and even polymers. It opens a new route to the modification of various substrates and the preparation of functional composite materials by simple chemistry. However, there is still not a full review so far about the attachment chemistry despite the dramatically increasing number of publications. This critical review describes the state-of-the-art research in the area: the design and synthesis of catecholic molecules, their adsorption mechanisms and the stability of assemblies in solution, and their applications etc. Some perspectives on future development are raised (195 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cross-coupling reactions using Pd-NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) catalysts are discussed in this critical review and examined in terms of catalytic activity and how these have permitted advances in the area as they developed.
Abstract: Cross-coupling reactions using Pd-NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) catalysts are discussed in this critical review and examined in terms of catalytic activity and how these have permitted advances in the area as they developed (95 references).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This critical review aims to present an overview of the current understanding of the toxicity and environmental impact of the principal ionic liquid groups, and highlights some emerging concerns.
Abstract: Ionic liquids were initially proposed as replacements for conventional organic solvents; however, their chemistry has developed remarkably and offers unexpected opportunities in numerous fields, ranging from electrochemistry to biology As a consequence of ionic liquids advancing towards potential and actual applications, a comprehensive determination of their environmental, health and safety impact is now required This critical review aims to present an overview of the current understanding of the toxicity and environmental impact of the principal ionic liquid groups, and highlights some emerging concerns Each cation type is considered separately, examining the significance of the biological data, and identifying the most critical questions, some yet unresolved The need for more, and more detailed, studies is highlighted (176 references)

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this critical review, ionogels are presented as a new class of hybrid materials, in which the properties of the IL are hybridized with those of another component, which may be organic, inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic, which opens new routes for designing advanced materials, especially (bio)catalytic membranes, sensors and drug release systems.
Abstract: The current interest in ionic liquids (ILs) is motivated by some unique properties, such as negligible vapour pressure, thermal stability and non-flammability, combined with high ionic conductivity and wide electrochemical stability window. However, for material applications, there is a challenging need for immobilizing ILs in solid devices, while keeping their specific properties. In this critical review, ionogels are presented as a new class of hybrid materials, in which the properties of the IL are hybridized with those of another component, which may be organic (low molecular weight gelator, (bio)polymer), inorganic (e.g.carbon nanotubes, silicaetc.) or hybrid organic–inorganic (e.g.polymer and inorganic fillers). Actually, ILs act as structuring media during the formation of inorganic ionogels, their intrinsic organization and physicochemical properties influencing the building of the solid host network. Conversely, some effects of confinement can modify some properties of the guest IL, even though liquid-like dynamics and ion mobility are preserved. Ionogels, which keep the main properties of ILs except outflow, while allowing easy shaping, considerably enlarge the array of applications of ILs. Thus, they form a promising family of solid electrolyte membranes, which gives access to all-solid devices, a topical industrial challenge in domains such as lithium batteries, fuel cells and dye-sensitized solar cells. Replacing conventional media, organic solvents in lithium batteries or water in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), by low-vapour-pressure and non flammable ILs presents major advantages such as improved safety and a higher operating temperature range. Implementation of ILs in separation techniques, where they benefit from huge advantages as well, relies again on the development of supported IL membranes such as ionogels. Moreover, functionalization of ionogels can be achieved both by incorporation of organic functions in the solid matrix, and by encapsulation of molecular species (from metal complexes to enzymes) in the immobilized IL phase, which opens new routes for designing advanced materials, especially (bio)catalytic membranes, sensors and drug release systems (194 references).