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JournalISSN: 0045-6535

Chemosphere 

About: Chemosphere is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Adsorption & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 0045-6535. Over the lifetime, 36451 publication(s) have been published receiving 1270959 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Klaus Kümmerer1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This review brings up important questions that are still open, and addresses some significant issues which must be tackled in the future for a better understanding of the behavior of antibiotics in the environment, as well as the risks associated with their occurrence.
Abstract: Although antibiotics have been used in large quantities for some decades, until recently the existence of these substances in the environment has received little notice. It is only in recent years that a more complex investigation of antibiotic substances has been undertaken in order to permit an assessment of the environmental risks they may pose. Within the last decade, an increasing number of studies covering antibiotic input, occurrence, fate and effects have been published. Antibiotics are one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals. Antibiotic resistance is one of the major challenges for human medicine and veterinary medicine. However, there is still a lack of understanding and knowledge about sources, presence and significance of resistance of bacteria against antibiotics in the aquatic environment despite the numerous studies performed. This review summarizes this topic. It names important open questions and addresses some significant issues which must be tackled in the future for a better understanding of resistance related to antibiotics in the environment.

3,109 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Present knowledge does not reveal if regular therapeutic use may be the source of a substance carried by sewage effluent into the aquatic system, even though clofibrate, a lipid lowering agent, has been identified in ground and tap water samples from Berlin.
Abstract: Medical substances (pharmaceuticals) are a group of substances that until recently have been exposed to the environment with very little attention. The reason why they may be interesting as environmental micropollutants, is that medical substances are developed with the intention of performing a biological effect. Especially antibiotics used as growth promoters, as feed additives in fish farms are anticipated to end up in the environment. Very little is known about the exposure routes of the medical substances to the environment. Only few investigations have reported findings of medical substances in other field samples than sediment or treated waste water samples. Several substances seem to be persistent in the environment. This paper outlines the different anticipated exposure routes to the environment, summarises the legislation on the subject and gives an outline of present knowledge of occurrence, fate and effect on both the aquatic and terrestrial environments of medical substances. Present knowledge does not reveal if regular therapeutic use may be the source of a substance carried by sewage effluent into the aquatic system, even though clofibrate, a lipid lowering agent, has been identified in ground and tap water samples from Berlin. Further research would be necessary to assess the environmental risk involved in exposing medical substances and metabolites to the environment.

3,043 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper has attempted to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture.
Abstract: Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.

2,438 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Cynthia A. de Wit1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The presence of brominated flame retardant (BFR) chemicals, and particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), has become of increasing concern to scientists over the past decade. Environmental studies conducted primarily in Europe, Japan and North America indicate that these chemicals are ubiquitous in sediment and biota. The levels of PBDEs seem to be increasing, and several trends, including in humans, indicate that this increase may be rapid. The occurrence of high concentrations of certain PBDE isomers may be sufficient to elicit adverse effects in some wildlife. There is also concern that levels could cause adverse effects in sensitive human populations such as young children, indigenous peoples, and fish consumers. However, our knowledge about these chemicals, their sources, environmental behavior, and toxicity is limited, making risk assessment difficult. In this paper, the current state of knowledge is reviewed and areas for further research recommended to improve future monitoring and risk assessment efforts.

2,423 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Due to complexity of soil-water system in nature, the effectiveness of biochars on remediation of various organic/inorganic contaminants is still uncertain.
Abstract: Biochar is a stable carbon-rich by-product synthesized through pyrolysis/carbonization of plant- and animal-based biomass. An increasing interest in the beneficial application of biochar has opened up multidisciplinary areas for science and engineering. The potential biochar applications include carbon sequestration, soil fertility improvement, pollution remediation, and agricultural by-product/waste recycling. The key parameters controlling its properties include pyrolysis temperature, residence time, heat transfer rate, and feedstock type. The efficacy of biochar in contaminant management depends on its surface area, pore size distribution and ion-exchange capacity. Physical architecture and molecular composition of biochar could be critical for practical application to soil and water. Relatively high pyrolysis temperatures generally produce biochars that are effective in the sorption of organic contaminants by increasing surface area, microporosity, and hydrophobicity; whereas the biochars obtained at low temperatures are more suitable for removing inorganic/polar organic contaminants by oxygen-containing functional groups, electrostatic attraction, and precipitation. However, due to complexity of soil-water system in nature, the effectiveness of biochars on remediation of various organic/inorganic contaminants is still uncertain. In this review, a succinct overview of current biochar use as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water is summarized and discussed.

2,374 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2022973
20213,988
20202,980
20192,386
20182,170
20171,918