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Showing papers in "Child Abuse Review in 1993"


Journal ArticleDOI

74 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the importance of the experience of initial disclosure as a mediator in a case series of eating-disordered women was considered, and the extent of psychopathology (particularly the frequency of vomiting and the presence of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder) was associated with the nature of the perceived response to an attempted disclosure.
Abstract: Reported child sexual abuse is associated with the development of anorexia and bulimia nervosa overall, but the mediating factors that determine whether such abuse is relevant in individual cases are not adequately understood. This study considers the importance of the experience of initial disclosure as a mediator in a case series of eating-disordered women. The extent of psychopathology (particularly the frequency of vomiting and the presence of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder) was associated with the nature of the perceived response to an attempted disclosure. A perceived lack of response or a negative, hostile response was associated with specific patterns of symptomatology. Further research is suggested to extend these conclusions, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

38 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A project is described through which carers' children express their feelings and conflicts and present a demand for a review of foster care, to be seen as care by families, not only parents.
Abstract: One of the risk factors in foster placement breakdown is the presence of the carers' own children. A project is described through which carers' children express their feelings and conflicts and present a demand for a review of foster care, to be seen as care by families, not only parents. Many children in care have a powerful psychological impact on their carers, and the impact on other children in the household is underestimated and poorly understood. There is a confusion of role between carers' children and children who are fostered—on the one hand, the former are peers, and on the other, considerable demands of patience and understanding are made on them. This understanding, and perhaps also fear of allegations, may make them prematurely adult and distort aspects of their own development. The need for further research into the direct experience of foster care is highlighted and a training model of preparation for carers and their children is described, based on direct work with adolescents.

34 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Thirty-five child abuse inquiry reports, published in Britain between 1973 and 1989, were reviewed and the cases reanalysed using a systemic framework, finding relational aspects of each case interacted and progressively skewed the course of events.
Abstract: Thirty-five child abuse inquiry reports, published in Britain between 1973 and 1989, were reviewed and the cases reanalysed using a systemic framework. Problematic interactions were identified within the families, among members of the professional networks and between the families and professionals. These relational aspects of each case interacted and progressively skewed the course of events. The findings have important implications for the practice of child protection, including the assessment of risk and decisions by statutory professionals to employ controlling interventions such as Emergency Protection Orders.

26 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that primary school teachers are reasonably well informed about sexual abuse but many have inaccurate knowledge about the age groups of victims and abusers, and male teachers were less well informed and less likely to believe a child's disclosure of sexual abuse than their female colleagues.
Abstract: Primary school teachers are reasonably well informed about sexual abuse but many have inaccurate knowledge about the age groups of victims and abusers. Male teachers were less well informed and less likely to believe a child's disclosure of sexual abuse than their female colleagues. Professional experience of an abused child did not affect teachers' level of knowledge or their likelihood of believing a disclosure.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Prevention efforts have been associated with more positive parenting knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviour, as well as fewer child injuries, emergency room visits, and reports to protective agencies among at-risk parents and children.
Abstract: For over two decades, child abuse interventions have been plagued by poor definitions of what (or who) exactly is being treated, what constitutes ‘success’, and how services can be delivered in such a way as to minimize the harm to the child and to his/her family. Most recently, intervention/prevention programmes reflect the growing recognition that child maltreatment is the product of the interaction between the parent's abilities and resources and the child's emerging behavioural and emotional characteristics (i.e. the parent–child relationship), and place less emphasis on individual psychopathology. Accordingly, ways to strengthen this relationship offer considerably more promise than those aimed at correcting only one component (i.e. the parent) or treating only the visible symptoms of conflict. In an attempt to focus greater effort on prevention and early intervention, this paper reviews prominent risk factors that have been linked to physical abuse and neglect of children and their consequences. Major intervention targets are identified from this literature and discussed in reference to: (a) problems related to the family context; (b) child treatment needs; and (c) parent/caregiver treatment needs. The paper concludes with a discussion of promising developments in early intervention that are beginning to address problems in the early formation of the parent–child relationship (i.e. the pre-natal and infancy periods of development) and problems associated with parental competency and family support. Most notably, preventive efforts have been associated with more positive parenting knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviour, as well as fewer child injuries, emergency room visits, and reports to protective agencies among at-risk parents and children. Further evaluation and expansion of these programmes appears to be warranted by these data.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a number of survivors of physical and sexual abuse have been referred to the National Centre for Mental Health and Deafness, Preston, and some of these referrals have been inappropriate and due to a dearth of local resources.
Abstract: Deaf children are uniquely disadvantaged in terms of access to information on safety and abuse. This is often due to misunderstood linguistic and cultural needs which relate to the deaf community. Consequently, a greater number of children who are deaf are placed in potentially abusive situations when compared to their non-deaf peer group. A high percentage of deaf children have also acquired negative self-concepts. This is often due to external influences such as educational experiences and family communication. Many deaf children believe that abuse is part of their being deaf. The implications of this are that deaf children are at risk of neglect and abuse as well as long-term damage to their emotional development and self-esteem. A number of survivors of physical and sexual abuse have been referred to the National Centre for Mental Health and Deafness, Preston. Some of these referrals have been inappropriate and due to a dearth of local resources. Extremely little support is available for deaf people who have been or are being abused. There are few appropriately trained counsellors equipped with the necessary skills in communicating with deaf people and even fewer trained in deaf awareness. A number of risk factors have been identified and are illustrated in this article. Three case studies are described to highlight the issues involved.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper provides a model for the conduct of large-scale therapeutic trials without losing sight of the need for smaller descriptive studies which may create new opportunities for therapy and research design.
Abstract: The seriousness with which juvenile sex offences are viewed by professionals must be matched by the skill and rigour through which therapeutic goals are achieved. This paper argues for an empirical, creative and flexible approach to therapeutic intervention and to the research needed to demonstrate its effectiveness. It provides a model for the conduct of large-scale therapeutic trials without losing sight of the need for smaller descriptive studies which may create new opportunities for therapy and research design.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the literature reveals that children of learning-disabled parents are particularly vulnerable to abuse/neglect and removal from their natural family and emphasizes the need for a systematic approach in the assessment of these parents prior to the implementation of parental teaching programmes.
Abstract: Despite the success of some programmes in raising the parental competency of parents who have learning disabilities, many services are still providing only minimal support to such families, often following crisis intervention. Recent legislative changes within the UK have meant that statutory services are now required to adopt a preventative approach to children and families in need. A review of the literature reveals that children of learning-disabled parents are particularly vulnerable to abuse/neglect and removal from their natural family. This article addresses the difficulties that many clinicians currently experience in the early identification of parents who have learning disabilities. It also emphasizes the need for a systematic approach in the assessment of these parents prior to the implementation of parental teaching programmes.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Clinical and outcome features of 237 cases of child sexual abuse diagnosed by Leeds paediatrician after Cleveland in 1989 were compared with previously published characteristics of 337 children diagnosed by the same paediatricians before Cleveland in 1985 and 1986.
Abstract: We report a retrospective cohort study in which clinical and outcome features of 237 cases of child sexual abuse diagnosed by Leeds paediatricians after Cleveland in 1989 were compared with previously published characteristics of 337 children diagnosed by the same paediatricians before Cleveland in 1985 and 1986. Clinical and diagnostic features also were analysed in two subgroups of the 1989 cohort, those for whom there was no case conference and those in whom further abuse was detected at follow-up examination. The number of cases diagnosed annually remained high, and source of referrals and age and sex distribution were similar. Most suspected perpetrators were from within the home in both cohorts. Some clinical features of the 1989 cohort suggested more physically severe abuse. In 1989 fewer children were registered as sexually abused, or were taken into care, and fewer suspected perpetrators were convicted. From the 1989 cohort those children for whom there was no case conference tended to be older, to disclose and were abused less severely by someone outside their home as compared to those for whom a case conference was held. The children in whom further abuse was detected tended to be younger, to not disclose. to be more severely abused by a perpetrator within the home and to be taken into care as compared to those in whom further abuse was not detected. One or more case conferences were held for nearly all of the children in whom further abuse was detected. For most of the 1989 children no evidence was found indicating receipt of mental health services from other than the key social worker. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of professional and public knowledge and attitudes regarding children's and parental rights and family preservation.

Journal ArticleDOI
Kevin Ireland1
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the reduction in individual and social constraints associated with tourism and international travel, and an easier access to children for sex in certain destinations, also increases the potential for "situational" child sexual abuse to occur.
Abstract: The sexual abuse of children in developing countries by international tourists has received increasing attention recently, much of it concentrating upon the activities of paedophiles. This paper argues that the reduction in individual and social constraints associated with tourism and international travel, and an easier access to children for sex in certain destinations, also increases the potential for ‘situational’ child sexual abuse to occur. It reports on a literature study of the situation in the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, which found extensive evidence of the use of children for sex by international tourists. The paper suggests that remedial action is required on three levels: in the tourist receiving and sending countries and in the international arena.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The label "organized abuse" has been widely used but without an agreed meaning as mentioned in this paper, and an agreed definition would improve communication among practitioners and make it easier to compare the results of different pieces of research.
Abstract: The label ‘organized abuse’ is widely used but without an agreed meaning. An agreed definition would improve communication among practitioners and make it easier to compare the results of different pieces of research. Items classified together must possess at least one feature in common: in the case of organized abuse this is that they all involve more than one perpetrator. Some types of case for which the label ‘organized’ has been used, like those that concern children's sexual abuse in an institution or that include allegations of a ritual context, do not fulfil even this initial criterion. Some cases of institutional or ritual abuse may also be cases of organized abuse but the terms are not synonymous with each other. Domestic cases, where all the perpetrators and the victims are members of a single household, are also sufficiently unlike the paradigmatic case of organized abuse for them to be excluded from the category. The recognition that exclusion is as necessary to rigorous definition as inclusion requires making explicit what definitions are and what they are for.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present evidence to show that abused and neglected children in care have special needs in three particular areas: education, health, and social behaviour, and it is important to examine their special needs and the problems they present to carers.
Abstract: Estimates vary on how many abused and neglected children are admitted to care and how many children in care are there because of abuse and neglect. Nevertheless, it is important to examine their special needs and the problems they present to carers. Although research findings are difficult to interpret, there is enough evidence to show that abused and neglected children in care have special needs in three particular areas: education, health and social behaviour. The evidence is available from research into children in care and research into child maltreatment. Children in care run the risk of disrupted educational careers; abused and neglected children have additional problems in school. Many children in care have a patchy and neglected medical history; abused and neglected children are seriously at risk of further ill-health. Abused and neglected children have been shown to have behaviour problems that jeopardize their relationships with peers and adults; they run the risk of placement breakdown. Foster care of abused and neglected children is a specialist and demanding task, requiring knowledge of, and sensitivity to special needs. Because many abused and neglected children return to their parents, foster carers also need to include the natural family in their task. High expectations of these foster carers, however, should not lead to exploitation but rather an enhancing of fostering assessment, preparation, support and training.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a brief definition of ritual abuse, drawn from a process of conversation and reflection between practitioners and academics of various kinds, and hopes that it might allow us to recognize empirical instances which do not conform to the authors' expectations based on past experience.
Abstract: This paper presents a brief definition of ritual abuse, drawn from a process of conversation and reflection between practitioners and academics of various kinds. The authors' aim has been to work towards a definition which is clear and concise in its expression, yet very broad in its range of application. The definition itself therefore concentrates on distilling out the essence of ritual abuse from the cases known to us, and avoids making any assumptions about motivation, effect, type of belief system or symbolic network, number of people involved, etc.; indeed, anything which might unnecessarily rule out an empirical instance from consideration. In effect, we have assumed that we do not know the full range of instances which might be termed ritual abuse, and so have resisted the temptation of universalizing the details of concrete cases known to us. In this way, we hope that we have come up with a theoretical definition which might allow us to recognize empirical instances which do not conform to our expectations based on past experience. We have, however, included some observations based on the experience of the group. These detail what we believe to be common aspects of ritual abuse as it has so far been identified in cases of which we are aware. The observations do not form part of the definition proper, but should aid the recognition of ritual abuse, if read together with it.





Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article outlines work that needs to be covered in training of frontline workers, in order that they can respond effectively to abused children and undertake appropriate prevention work.
Abstract: This article examines the training needs of people who work directly with children and families–frontline workers It argues that such people are working with child abuse, whether they have recognized this to be the case or not The article outlines work that needs to be covered in training of frontline workers, in order that they can respond effectively to abused children and undertake appropriate prevention work A range of relevant publications which can support this training are discussed

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The protection of children worldwide requires a framework and criteria agreed upon by the international community that need to be applied at a national as well as an international level.
Abstract: The protection of children worldwide requires a framework and criteria agreed upon by the international community. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the World Summit for Children have gone some way in setting out agreed minimum standards for children's survival, health and education and the minimum protection required by children against abuse, exploitation and neglect in war, at work or in the home. These principles need to be applied at a national as well as an international level. The current situation in Asian countries is presented and discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper summarizes the calls received on a national helpline promoted after the screening of a television programme on ritual abuse in the Dispatches series on Channel 4 in February 1992.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the calls received on a national helpline promoted after the screening of a television programme on ritual abuse in the Dispatches series on Channel 4 in February 1992. The helpline was organized by the educational charity Broadcasting Support Services. The helpline dealt with 191 calls of which nearly half concerned ritual abuse. Thirty-nine per cent of all calls were from current victims or survivors of ritual abuse.




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The importance of multi-agency working and training is emphasized and the main issues included in the new Rochdale multi-disciplinary training courses are identified.
Abstract: These notes make particular reference to the central role that members of the education service can play in protecting children, within the context of both the Children Act and Working Together. They also provide a brief account of training available for teachers in Rochdale, in both single agency and multi-disciplinary courses. The importance of multi-agency working and training is emphasized and the main issues included in the new Rochdale multi-disciplinary training courses are identified.