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Showing papers in "Clinical leadership & management review : the journal of CLMA in 2004"


Journal Article
TL;DR: It is argued that organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.
Abstract: The traditional view of management, back in 1977 when Abraham Zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. Managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. That view, Zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion which drive corporate success. The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly--sometimes before they fully understand a problems significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.

1,163 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Investigation of patient barcoding in point-of-care testing found it to be successful in significantly reducing identification errors with POCT, improving patient care, and enhancing interdisciplinary communication.
Abstract: Medical errors are a major concern in health care today. Errors in point-of-care testing (POCT) are particularly problematic because the test is conducted by clinical operators at the site of patient care and immediate medical action is taken on the results prior to review by the laboratory. The Performance Improvement Program at Baystate Health System, Springfield, Massachusetts, noted a number of identification errors occurring with glucose and blood gas POCT devices. Incorrect patient account numbers that were attached to POCT results prevented the results from being transmitted to the patient's medical record and appropriately billed. In the worst case, they could lead to results being transferred to the wrong patient's chart and inappropriate medical treatment. Our first action was to lock-out operators who repeatedly made identification errors (3-Strike Rule), requiring operators to be counseled and retrained after their third error. The 3-Strike Rule significantly decreased our glucose meter errors (p = 0.014) but did not have an impact on the rate of our blood gas errors (p = 0.378). Neither device approached our ultimate goal of zero tolerance. A Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was conducted to determine the various processes that could lead to an identification error. A primary source of system failure was the manual entry of 14 digits for each test, five numbers for operator and nine numbers for patient account identification. Patient barcoding was implemented to automate the data entry process, and after an initial familiarization period, resulted in significant improvements in error rates for both the glucose (p = 0.0007) and blood gas devices (p = 0.048). Despite the improvements, error rates with barcoding still did not achieve zero errors. Operators continued to utilize manual data entry when the barcode scan was unsuccessful or unavailable, and some patients were found to have incorrect patient account numbers due to hospital transfer, multiple wristbands on a single patient, and selection of expired account numbers from previous hospitalizations when printing the barcoded wristbands. Barcoding can thus improve the incidence of identification errors, but hospitals need to take additional steps to ensure successful barcode scanning and to verify that patient wristbands contain correct information. Implementation of patient barcoding was successful in significantly reducing identification errors with POCT, improving patient care, and enhancing interdisciplinary communication.

44 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: DSI Laboratories has used Lean and Six-Sigma methodologies to systematically eliminate waste and reduce variation in its hospital clinical laboratory, resulting in a savings of more than $400,000 in the first year.
Abstract: DSI Laboratories has used Lean and Six-Sigma methodologies to systematically eliminate waste and reduce variation in its hospital clinical laboratory. The net result was a savings of more than $400,000 in the first year. After mapping its process, the laboratory found that phlebotomists were submitting samples in large batches, which created an early-morning flood of specimens. Switching to single-piece workflow and distributing the workload more evenly allowed DSI to cover the same number of patients with two to three phlebotomists instead of 12. By establishing a more efficient workflow process within the laboratory, a single technologist could quickly move between stations and perform those tests that made up 80% of the work volume. New inventory management techniques reduced both excess inventory and the risk of shortages. Cost savings for the first year were: Reduced overtime spending by 60% ($78,000), Reassigned six phlebotomists for an annual savings of $160,000, 4.5 fewer technologist positions for a savings of $250,000.

42 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: FMEA is a proactive, systematic, multidisciplinary team-based approach to error prevention that assumes everything will fail, humans err frequently, and the cause of an error often is beyond the individual's control.
Abstract: Patient care errors occur in the laboratory. Traditionally, most errors have been thought to occur because of individual human failure. The assumption is that with adequate training, education; and orientation, technologists will perform flawlessly. Laboratory processes are designed on the premise that nothing will go wrong. Health-care professionals are looking at new methods of error prevention including Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Based on long experience in the engineering field, FMEA assumes everything will fail, humans err frequently, and the cause of an error often is beyond the individual's control. FMEA is a proactive, systematic, multidisciplinary team-based approach to error prevention. Patient safety is now a high priority with the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and this article introduces FMEA, a new method for improving our processes to enhance patient safety.

38 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Six trends in the US economy affecting retention of employees in all industries and professions are addressed, and fifteen practical strategies are presented that can be used to build a high-retention culture.
Abstract: Retention of employees is a major challenge for healthcare. Success at retaining employees requires an organizational culture that inspires loyalty and commitment. This article addresses six trends in the US economy affecting retention of employees in all industries and professions. Fifteen practical strategies are presented that can be used to build a high-retention culture.

27 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: FMEA technique can be applied to the processes of a clinical laboratory, even if of small dimensions, and offers a high potential of improvement, but such activity needs a thorough planning because it is complex and even if the laboratory already operates an ISO 9000 Quality Management System.
Abstract: The authors have experimented the application of the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) technique in a clinical laboratory. FMEA technique allows: a) to evaluate and measure the hazards of a process malfunction, b) to decide where to execute improvement actions, and c) to measure the outcome of those actions. A small sample of analytes has been studied: there have been determined the causes of the possible malfunctions of the analytical process, calculating the risk probability index (RPI), with a value between 1 and 1,000. Only for the cases of RPI > 400, improvement actions have been implemented that allowed a reduction of RPI values between 25% to 70% with a costs increment of < 1%. FMEA technique can be applied to the processes of a clinical laboratory, even if of small dimensions, and offers a high potential of improvement. Nevertheless, such activity needs a thorough planning because it is complex, even if the laboratory already operates an ISO 9000 Quality Management System.

27 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: It is concluded that point-of-care testing in an ED satellite laboratory may improve ED operations and contribute to improved outcomes when implemented as part of a larger interdepartmental effort.
Abstract: The emergency departments (ED) at many medical centers are experiencing increased crowding and prolonged ED patient length of stay. During periods of heavy patient volume, the ED may go on divert status and be unable to care for new patients except for life-threatening illness. As part of a larger interdepartmental effort to improve ED operations, we implemented an ED satellite laboratory (kiosk) in the ED of Massachusetts General Hospital. The tests performed included cardiac markers, urinalysis, urine pregnancy testing, and whole blood glucose testing. The resulting average test turnaround time decreased by 51.5 minutes (87%) compared with the central laboratory, and physician satisfaction increased markedly. ED patient length of stay decreased by an average of 41 minutes for each patient tested, and the number of ED divert hours has steadily decreased. We therefore have concluded that point-of-care testing in an ED satellite laboratory may improve ED operations and contribute to improved outcomes when implemented as part of a larger interdepartmental effort.

22 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Reference laboratory testing comprises a major component of hospital clinical laboratory services as mentioned in this paper, and these services account for the majority of the hospital laboratory test menu and a disproportionate percentage of laboratory costs.
Abstract: Background Utilization of outside reference laboratories for selected laboratory testing is common in the United States. However, relatively little data exist in the literature describing the scope and impact of these services. In this study, we reviewed use of reference laboratory testing at the Massachusetts General Hospital, a large urban academic medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. Methods A retrospective review of hospital and laboratory administrative records over an 8-year period from fiscal years (FY) 1995-2002. Results Over the 8 years studied, reference laboratory expenses increased 4.2-fold and totaled 12.4% of the total laboratory budget in FY 2002. Total reference laboratory test volume increased 4-fold to 68,328 tests in FY 2002 but represented only 1.06% of the total test volume in the hospital. The menu of reference laboratory tests comprised 946 tests (65.7% of the hospital test menu) compared to 494 (34.3%) of tests performed in house. The average unit cost of reference laboratory tests was essentially unchanged but was approximately 13 times greater than the average unit cost in the hospital laboratory. Much of the growth in reference laboratory cost can be attributed to the addition of new molecular, genetic, and microbiological assays. Four of the top 10 tests with the highest total cost in 2002 were molecular diagnostic tests that were recently added to the test menu. Conclusion Reference laboratory testing comprises a major component of hospital clinical laboratory services. Although send out tests represent a small percentage of the total test volume, these services account for the majority of the hospital laboratory test menu and a disproportionate percentage of laboratory costs.

18 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This article aims to address concerns that the regulatory requirements do not address extraneous factors that may adversely affect a laboratory's PT performance and to convince the reader that while the scope of PT has expanded beyond its original intent as an educational tool for the laboratory, PT can still function in that capacity.
Abstract: The idea of comparing laboratories' test results against one another predated federal regulations by decades (1) and was initially used as an educational tool. The introduction of federal regulations altered the proficiency testing (PT) environment (2,3) and today there is concern that the regulatory requirements do not address extraneous factors that may adversely affect a laboratory's PT performance (6). This article aims to address these concerns and hopes to convince the reader that while the scope of PT has expanded beyond its original intent as an educational tool for the laboratory, PT can still function in that capacity. Improvements in laboratory performance and laboratory medicine as a whole continue to be supported by proficiency testing for numerous reasons. Several mistakes laboratories have made in the past are addressed and suggestions for improvement are given. Laboratory managers who take proactive steps to ensure quality patient test results should experience fewer PT failures, and in turn can focus more attention on the educational benefits that participating in PT can offer.

13 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Reports of laboratory quality assurance activities provide evidence of the need for significant improvement in the total laboratory path of workflow when measured on the Six Sigma scale.
Abstract: Historical management activities such as quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) have not prevented medical errors or patient safety problems related to the laboratory. Reports of laboratory quality assurance activities provide evidence of the need for significant improvement in the total laboratory path of workflow when measured on the Six Sigma scale. The old paradigm has been: people are the cause of medical errors and the solution is to name, blame, and shame them. This bias is being replaced by a new awareness that system failures cause medical errors and that a systematic process management approach to improving patient safety can prevent these hazards.

11 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The response to consolidation from clinicians was decidedly mixed before implementation of the plan because of fear of increased turnaround times and limited access to laboratory information, but the consolidation process was smooth with few physician complaints.
Abstract: To determine the cost-effectiveness of consolidating clinical microbiology services in a three-hospital health-care network while maintaining high-quality laboratory services, a retrospective review of the total costs of maintaining separate clinical microbiology laboratories within our health-care system was compared to the cost of providing these services after consolidation. Turnaround times before and after consolidation were compared to assess efficiency of the consolidated services. Input of clinicians was also solicited to ensure that quality of services and customer satisfaction remained high. The results of the consolidation project show that the net fiscal saving because of consolidation of clinical microbiology services within our health-care system will be approximately 100,000 dollars per fiscal year. This value includes increased courier charges as well as personnel savings. Although fiscal savings are an integral part of any laboratory consolidation plan, the financial considerations must be balanced by quality of service. The response to consolidation from clinicians was decidedly mixed before implementation of the plan because of fear of increased turnaround times and limited access to laboratory information. The consolidation process, however, was smooth with few physician complaints. The consolidation of our clinical microbiology services illustrates that significant financial savings can be achieved without compromise of efficiency or quality of service.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A step-by-step guide to how to design a balanced scorecard and lessons to avoid implementation problems in government and nonprofit settings is addressed.
Abstract: The balanced scorecard has been referred to as the management innovation of the century, and extensive articles have been written using case studies of organizations that use this performance measurement system. This article addresses the key issues of design and implementation with a step-by-step guide to how to design a balanced scorecard and lessons to avoid implementation problems in government and nonprofit settings.


Journal Article
TL;DR: Key problem areas include: order entry, patient identification, phlebotomy-induced suffering and injury, medical vampirism, and dangerously inaccurate test results caused by failures in preanalytic technique.
Abstract: The preanalytic phase of testing includes a variety of procedural steps and variables that affect the patient and the test results. During the preanalytic phase, the patient may be directly harmed or injured. Failures of technique during the preanalytic phase lead to incorrect laboratory results, which threaten the patient's health. This article highlights key problems in the preanalytic phase and offers plans to reduce the problems based on a review of the literature. The key problem areas include: order entry, patient identification, phlebotomy-induced suffering and injury, medical vampirism, and dangerously inaccurate test results caused by failures in preanalytic technique.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The intent of this article is to provide some common sense activities that can contribute to managing a meeting in a productive and timely manner.
Abstract: "The significant problems we face today cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them." --Albert Einstein Woody Allen once said we live in a world with "too many moving parts." Health care is a prime example of this level of complexity. To meet the challenges of change, the ability of leaders to work constructively with each other is essential. This requires team effort, extracting from a variety of venues, incorporating diverse experts, and effective use of available resources. To achieve this, a well-functioning committee process is generally required. Examination of this process and noting various employable techniques is useful in order to effectively respond to the constant changes in health care and how they apply to the laboratory environment. It is a well-established fact that committee meetings can be a waste of time if not properly prepared for or perceived by committee members or others to be poorly managed. Committee participants quickly recognize this and can be less than cooperative, resulting in failing to meet the desired goals for that committee. The intent of this article is to provide some common sense activities that can contribute to managing a meeting in a productive and timely manner.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Using resources and tools made available through the OEC project, the laboratory was re-engineered to simplify workflow, increase productivity, and decrease costs by adding automation and changing to centralized specimen processing.
Abstract: Saint Francis Health System (SFHS) consists of three hospitals and one clinic: Saint Francis Hospital (SFH); Broken Arrow Medical Center; Laureate Psychiatric Hospital; and Warren Clinic. SFHS has 670 physicians on staff and serves medical (oncology, orthopedic, neurology, and renal), surgical, cardiac, women and infant, pediatric, transplant, and trauma patients in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, which has a population of 660,000. SFH incorporates 706 staffed beds, including 126 pediatric beds and 119 critical care beds. Each year, the health system averages 38,000 admissions, 70,000 emergency department visits, 25,000 surgeries, and 3,500 births. Saint Francis Laboratory is located within the main hospital facility (SFH) and functions as a core lab for the health system. The lab also coordinates lab services with Saint Francis Heart Hospital, a physician-system joint venture. The Optimal Equipment Configuration (OEC) Project was designed by the Clinical Laboratory Services division of Premier, a group purchasing organization, with the goal of determining whether laboratories could improve efficiency and decrease unit cost by using a single-source vendor. Participants included seven business partners (Abbott, Bayer, Beckman/Coulter, Dade/Behring, J&J/ Ortho, Olympus, and Roche) and 21 laboratory sites (a small, mid-sized, and large site for each vendor). SFH laboratory staff embraced Premier's concept and viewed the OEC project as an opportunity to "energize" laboratory operations. SFH partnered with Abbott, their primary equipment vendor, for the project. Using resources and tools made available through the project, the laboratory was re-engineered to simplify workflow, increase productivity, and decrease costs by adding automation and changing to centralized specimen processing. Abbott and SFH shared a common vision for the project and enhanced their partnership through increased communication and problem solving. Abbott's area representatives provided for third-party design expertise and quarterly metric reporting through Argent Consulting. Abbott incorporated lessons learned from the SFH OEC project with organizational changes to improve the way they work with customers. Following is a step-by-step description of the OEC project to allow others to benefit from the experience (Figure 1).

Journal Article
Kris R Arney1, Mary H Hopper1, Sheryl A. Tran1, Melissa Ward1, Curtis A Hanson 
TL;DR: The journey for quality in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at Mayo Clinic is described, which provides the background of the department and the process for the development and implementation of the quality program.
Abstract: This article describes our journey for quality in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (DLMP) at Mayo Clinic. It provides the background of the department and the process for the development and implementation of the quality program. In addition, a quality conference and the development of a quality school are outlined. Throughout the course of this process, valuable lessons were learned and are discussed. We are pleased with the success of the quality journey. However, we realize that the quest has just begun. We look forward to the future and the challenges that lie ahead.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that health-care providers, insurers, employees, and patients need to work together to improve each and every process and procedure, whether clinical or administrative.
Abstract: Increasingly concerned about the escalating costs of health-care insurance coverage, the quality of health-care delivery, and the escalating costs of delivering clinical services, employers are taking action. They are prodding health-care providers and insurers to adopt breakthrough management systems aimed at reducing costs related to poorly performing services and processes--and at the same time improving clinical outcomes. Doing this will require all members of the health-care value chain to work together to improve each and every process and procedure, whether clinical or administrative. This development presents formidable challenges to all health-care providers, insurers, employees, and patients.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A program to provide physician-directed information from a molecular testing facility to assist physicians in selecting and counseling patients and interpreting genetic test results and confirmed the utility of the program as an educational tool for themselves, and for other non-patient educational activities in which they are involved.
Abstract: Strategies to facilitate the provisioning of genetic health-care services by primary care physicians will improve access to these services for the average patient while making the most efficient use of limited human and financial resources within the health-care system. Genetic laboratories have become a major source of information and consultation for clinicians ordering genetic tests. This article describes the development and evaluation of a program to provide physician-directed information from a molecular testing facility to assist physicians in selecting and counseling patients and interpreting genetic test results. Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to gather physicians' opinions about the utility of the program and the way in which the information was used in their practice. Forty-three percent of those interviewed were unfamiliar with some of the information provided, with test methodology and sensitivity/specificity most often identified as novel information. Fifty-two percent of pediatric specialists were unfamiliar with some aspect of the information Sheet, despite being the highest consumers of testing services in this sample. Pediatricians and pediatric specialists also rated the initiative highest in terms of its usefulness in their practice, followed by genetic specialists. Overall, physicians confirmed the utility of the program as an educational tool for themselves, and for other non-patient educational activities in which they are involved.

Journal Article
Terry Jo Gile1
TL;DR: The latest information on fabric needed for lab coats is included with a extensive discussion of the fabric tests used by the American Society for Testing and Materials, which OSHA mentions in its compliance document 2-2.69.
Abstract: For the past 14 years, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has mandated the protection of laboratory workers from hazardous chemicals and bloodborne pathogens. Laboratory policies and procedures must protect each worker on a daily basis. The latest document OSHA Compliance Officers use to determine compliance is CPL 2-2.69. Laboratory managers can also check the OSHA website at http://www.osha.gov on a regular basis for the latest requirements. This article includes a discussion of engineering controls, work practice controls, and personal protective equipment. Safety needles and single-use needle holders are OSHA-required engineering controls that have been mandated by law. Work practice controls include controlling ergonomic risk factors to improve employee comfort, productivity, and job satisfaction, and lowering workers compensation costs. Many of the ergonomic factors inherent in the laboratory can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) web site at http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/Ergonomics/labergo.htm. The latest information on fabric needed for lab coats is included with a extensive discussion of the fabric tests (water repellency, Suter hydrostatic pressure, break test, soil release, and air permeability) used by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), which OSHA mentions in its compliance document 2-2.69.

Journal Article
Dina Battisto1
TL;DR: To explore the nature and rate of change in clinical laboratories, a multi-methodological approach employing both survey research and case study research was used to triangulate conclusions and supports the premise of planning and designing clinical laboratory environments that are flexible and versatile to support multiple laboratory applications.
Abstract: In response to the accelerating changes in the health-care field, there has been a great deal of attention devoted to creating flexible designs and furnishings in hospital-based clinical laboratories. Even so, the hypothesis that hospital laboratories require a high degree of flexibility has been essentially untested. The aim of this study is to confirm or negate this need for flexible designs and furnishings as well as provide guidance for addressing flexibility in future hospital laboratory constructions and renovations. To explore the nature and rate of change in clinical laboratories, a multi-methodological approach employing both survey research and case study research was used to triangulate conclusions. Findings are organized into three areas: specific activities, technological processes, and the physical environment. The physical environment is further divided into three physical layers: infrastructure systems, space plan, and contents in the laboratory. This research supports the premise of planning and designing clinical laboratory environments that are flexible and versatile to support multiple laboratory applications. The goal of this study is to contribute to a body of knowledge that will help reduce the recurring problem of obsolescence in health-care buildings by understanding the relationship between activities, the technological processes, and the physical environment.

Journal Article
TL;DR: This study identified both favorable as well as unfavorable factors that influence students' employment choices, and provided crucial information for laboratory directors, managers, and supervisors who are interested in creating an ideal climate in which to recruit graduating medical laboratory science students.
Abstract: This study reflects an assessment conducted at the University of Utah to determine medical laboratory science students' perceptions and influence of clinical rotations on job choice criteria A mixed method design was used, incorporating semistructured interviews and mailed questionnaires This study identified both favorable as well as unfavorable factors that influence students' employment choices Clinical managers should: 1) foster a positive organizational climate; 2) encourage constructive employee-student interaction and respect; 3) promote the clinical facilities' reputation of excellence in health care; and 4) continue to offer competitive wages and employee benefits Clinical managers should avoid: 1) a lack of positive attitudes toward students; and 2) a lack of respect for the student's knowledge This study provides crucial information for laboratory directors, managers, and supervisors who are interested in creating an ideal climate in which to recruit graduating medical laboratory science (MLS) students


Journal Article
TL;DR: The key to preventing workplace violence is to deal with anger and recognize and handle suspicious behavior before it turns violent.
Abstract: Human resources managers have reported increased violence (1) stating it can happen anywhere (2). One million workers are assaulted each year (3), and in some years more than 1,000 workers have been killed (4). Almost 25% of workplace violence incidences occur in the health-care industry (5). Women commit nearly one fourth of all threats or attacks (6). Have you ever gotten angry at work? Have you ever had to deal with an angry patient or coworker? Has there been any violence where you work? The key to preventing workplace violence is to deal with anger and recognize and handle suspicious behavior before it turns violent.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Testing for serum tumor markers is becoming more established in large hospital laboratories, and increasing test volumes and the availability of consolidated instrument platforms with a broad menu of tumor marker tests facilitates consolidation and insourcing of many tumor marker assays.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Laboratory testing for serum tumor markers traditionally has been performed in low volume in most hospitals. Many markers are sent out to reference laboratories. Over the past decade, serum tumor marker testing in patient management has become more defined, resulting in increasing test volume and wider availability of assays on automated immunodiagnostic platforms. METHODS A retrospective review of laboratory operations, test volumes, and budgets over a 10-year period. Results of utilization initiatives as part of a clinical practice management team also were reviewed. RESULTS The volume of serum tumor marker requests in our institution increased 2.25-fold over an 8-year period. In contrast, total laboratory test volume increased only 1.3-fold. Implementation of an on-site tumor marker laboratory using a consolidated platform (Elecsys 2010) decreased the average unit cost per test from $12.36/test to $6.79/test. This was accomplished by a combination of insourcing and by consolidation of multiple semi-automated instruments. Total savings were $219,972 per year, including direct budget reductions and cost avoidance due to volume increases. Various institutional practice standards were implemented, and turnaround time was markedly reduced for selected tests. CONCLUSIONS Testing for serum tumor markers is becoming more established in large hospital laboratories. Increasing test volumes and the availability of consolidated instrument platforms with a broad menu of tumor marker tests (such as the Elecsys 2010) facilitates consolidation and insourcing of many tumor marker assays. This permits the laboratory to reduce unit and overall cost, to leverage excess capacity on existing instrumentation, and to create an opportunity to add value to the service by reducing turnaround time and implementing practice standards.

Journal Article
TL;DR: IPS provides pathology services to nine hospitals, including two large tertiary-care medical centers, a progressive and renowned children's hospital, a cancer survival center, five surgery centers, and numerous physician's offices and clinics throughout east Tennessee.
Abstract: Innovative Pathology Services (IPS) is an Associate Practice of Pathology Service Associates (PSA) PSA is an organization known as the "Business Solution for Pathology" IPS provides pathology services to nine hospitals, including two large tertiary-care medical centers, a progressive and renowned children's hospital, a cancer survival center, five surgery centers, and numerous physician's offices and clinics throughout east Tennessee We accept specimen referrals from other pathology practices and providers from across the country The center of operations is in Knoxville, a mid-sized metropolitan district Until January 1, 2003, we were known as Knoxville Pathology Group (KPG) We renamed our practice because KPG did not reflect our service area, was limiting by perception, barely distinguished us from other groups, and did not describe our culture and philosophy IPS is a new name for a well-established pathology group with a solid foundation and a long history of providing services at the point-of-care As such, we offer all services that we offered through our foundation practice, and, in addition, these services were enhanced and new services were added Our entire "team" and, in particular, the pathologists, were involved in the successful "branding" of IPS Whether you are an independent anatomic pathology or clinical laboratory or you are hospital based, you may benefit from our experiences detailed in this article