About: Conservation Biology is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Biodiversity. It has an ISSN identifier of 0888-8892. Over the lifetime, 6317 publications have been published receiving 567991 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the biogeograpbic consequences of the creation of habitat islands of different sizes and have provided little of practical value to managers in the field of landscape management.
Abstract: . Abstract Research on fragmented ecosystems has focused mostly on the biogeograpbic consequences of the creation of habitat “islands” of different sizes and has provided little of practical value to managers. However, ecosystem fragmentation causes large changes in the physical environment as well as biogeograpbic changes. Fragmentation generally results in a landscape that consists of remnant areas of native vegetation surrounded by a matrix of agricultural or other developed land. As a result fluxes of radiation, momentum (La, wind), water, and nutrients across the landscape are altered significantly. These in turn can have important influences on biota within remnant areas, especially at or near the edge between the remnant and the surrounding matrix. The isolation of remnant areas by clearing also has important consequences for the biota. These consequences vary with the time since isolation distance from other remnants, and degree of connectivity with other remnants. The influences of physical and biogeographic changes are modified by the size, shape, and position in the landscape of individual remnant, with larger remnants being less adversely affected by the fragmentation process. The Dynamics of remnant areas are predominantly driven by factors arising in the surrounding landscape. Management of, and research on, fragmented ecosystems should be directed at understanding and controlling these external influences as much as at the biota of the remnants themselves. There is a strong need to develop an integrated approach to landscape management that places conservation reserves in the context of the overall landscape
TL;DR: The three primay attributes of biodiversity recognized by Jerry Franklin are expanded into a nested hierarcby that incorporates ele- ments of each attribute at four levels of organization: re- gional landscape, community-ecosystem, population- species, andgenetic.
Abstract: Biodiversity is presently a minor consideration in environmental policy. It has been regarded as too broad and vague a concept to be applied to real-world regulatoy and managernentproblems. This problem can be corrected ifbio- diversity is recognized as an end in itsea and if measurable indicators can be selected to assess the status of biodiversity over time. Biodiversity, as presently understood, encom- passes multiple levels of biological organization. In thispa- per, I expand the three primay attributes of biodiversity recognized by Jerry Franklin - composition, structure, and function - into a nested hierarcby that incorporates ele- ments of each attribute at four levels of organization: re- gional landscape, community-ecosystem, population- species, andgenetic. Indicators of each attribute in terrestrial ecosystems, at the four levels of organization, are identified for environmental monitoring purposes. Projects to monitor biodiversity will benefit from a direct linkage to long-term ecological research and a commitment to test hypotheses relevant to biodiversity conservation. A general guideline is to proceed from the top down, beginning with a coarse-scale invent0 y of landscape pattern, vegetation, habitat structure, and species distributions, then overlaying data on stress lev- els to identiD biologically significant areas at high risk of impoverishment. Intensive research and monitoring can be directed to high-risk ecosystems and elements of biodiversity, while less intensive monitoring is directed to the total land- scape (or samples thereon. In any monitoringprogram, par- ticular attention should be paid to specifying the questions that monitoring is intended to answer and validating the relationships between indicators and the components of bio- diversity they represent
TL;DR: Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes. as mentioned in this paper reviewed the scientific liter- ature on the ecological effects of roads and found support for the general conclusion that they are associated with negative effects on biotic integrity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Abstract: Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes. We reviewed the scientific liter- ature on the ecological effects of roads and found support for the general conclusion that they are associated with negative effects on biotic integrity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Roads of all kinds have seven general effects: mortality from road construction, mortality from collision with vehicles, modification of animal behavior, alteration of the physical environment, alteration of the chemical environment, spread of exotics, and increased use of areas by humans. Road construction kills sessile and slow-moving organisms, injures organisms adjacent to a road, and alters physical conditions beneath a road. Vehicle collisions affect the demography of many species, both vertebrates and invertebrates; mitigation measures to reduce roadkill have been only partly successful. Roads alter animal behavior by causing changes in home ranges, move- ment, reproductive success, escape response, and physiological state. Roads change soil density, temperature, soil water content, light levels, dust, surface waters, patterns of runoff, and sedimentation, as well as adding heavy metals (especially lead), salts, organic molecules, ozone, and nutrients to roadside environments. Roads promote the dispersal of exotic species by altering habitats, stressing native species, and providing movement corridors. Roads also promote increased hunting, fishing, passive harassment of animals, and landscape modifications. Not all species and ecosystems are equally affected by roads, but overall the pres- ence of roads is highly correlated with changes in species composition, population sizes, and hydrologic and geomorphic processes that shape aquatic and riparian systems. More experimental research is needed to com- plement post-hoc correlative studies. Our review underscores the importance to conservation of avoiding con- struction of new roads in roadless or sparsely roaded areas and of removal or restoration of existing roads to benefit both terrestrial and aquatic biota.
TL;DR: The natural disturbance regime is now unlikely to persist within conser- vation area since fragmentation and human intervention have usually modified physical and biotic conditionx Active management decisions must now be made on what distur- bance regime is require and this requires decisions on what species are to be encouraged or discouraged.
Abstract: Preservation of natural communities has historically consisted of measures protecting them from physical disturbance. Timber harvests and livestock grazing are usually excluded from preserves, and fire suppression has been practiced—within the U.S. system of national parks, for example. Ecologists and conservationists have come to recognize, however, that many forms of disturbance are important components of natural systems. Many plant communities and species are dependent on disturbance, especially for regeneration (Pickett & White 1985). Preserves should be large enough to allow the natural disturbance regime to operate and to support a mosaic of patches in different stages of disturbance, successional recovery, and community maturation (Pickett & Thompson 1978).
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method for assessing the degree of hydrologic alteration attributable to human influence within an ecosystem, referred to as the "Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration".
Abstract: Hydrologic regimes play a major role in determining the biotic composition, structure, and function of aquatic, wetland, and riparian ecosystems. But human land and water uses are substantially altering hydrologic regimes around the world. Improved quantitative evaluations of human-induced hydrologic changes are needed to advance research on the biotic implications of hydrologic alteration and to support ecosystem management and restoration plans. We propose a method for assessing the degree of hydrologic alteration attributable to human influence within an ecosystem. This method, referred to as the “Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration,” is based upon an analysis of hydrologic data available either from existing measurement points within an ecosystem (such as at stream gauges or wells) or model-generated data. We use 32 parameters, organized into five groups, to statistically characterize hydrologic variation within each year. These 32 parameters provide information on ecologically significant features of surface and ground water regimes influencing aquatic, wetland, and riparian ecosystems. We then assess the hydrologic perturbations associated with activities such as dam operations, flow diversion, groundwater pumping, or intensive land-use conversion by comparing measures of central tendency and dispersion for each parameter between user-defined “pre-impact” and “post-impact” time frames, generating 64 Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration. This method is intended for use with other ecosystem metrics in inventories of ecosystem integrity, in planning ecosystem management activities, and in setting and measuring progress toward conservation or restoration goals.