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Showing papers in "Construction Management and Economics in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors tested the hypotheses that safety training in a virtual reality (VR) construction site would be feasible and more effective, in terms of workers' learning and recall in identifying and assessing construction safety risks, than would equivalent training using conventional methods.
Abstract: Construction workers’ ability to identify and assess risks is acquired through training and experience and is among the key factors that determine their behaviour and thus their safety. Yet researchers have questioned the effectiveness of conventional safety training. This research tested the hypotheses that safety training in a virtual reality (VR) construction site would be feasible and more effective, in terms of workers’ learning and recall in identifying and assessing construction safety risks, than would equivalent training using conventional methods. Sixty-six subjects were provided training in construction safety and their safety knowledge was tested prior to the training, immediately afterward, and one month later. Half of the subjects received traditional classroom training with visual aids; the other half were trained using a 3D immersive VR power-wall. Significant advantage was found for VR training for stone cladding work and for cast-in-situ concrete work, but not for general site safety. VR...

406 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used social network analysis (SNA) to obtain measures of safety communication such as centrality, density, and betweenness within small crews and to generate sociograms that visually depicted communication patterns within effective and ineffective safety networks.
Abstract: Effective safety communication between all parties in a construction project is essential for optimal safety performance. Literature suggests that open safety communication across all levels of the organization enhances safety success. Previous studies have found that open communication and frequent interaction between employees and supervisors differentiate construction companies that have low accident rates from companies that have high rates. Through interviews with construction crew members on active construction projects in the Rocky Mountain region of the US, the patterns of safety communication were identified, modelled, and quantified. Social network analysis (SNA) was utilized to obtain measures of safety communication such as centrality, density, and betweenness within small crews and to generate sociograms that visually depicted communication patterns within effective and ineffective safety networks. A cross-case comparison revealed that the frequency and method of communication are important d...

121 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of previous studies in the area of technology applications for construction safety would be indispensable for the main stakeholders in this field to share innovative research findings and gain access to future research trends.
Abstract: Technology application is deemed an effective way to further construction safety management. Various technologies have been adopted for construction safety, including information communication technology (ICT), sensor-based technology, 3S (GIS/GPS/RS) technology, radio frequency identification (RFID) and virtual reality. A review of previous studies in the area of technology applications for construction safety would be indispensable for the main stakeholders in this field to share innovative research findings and gain access to future research trends. A three-step method was used to obtain relevant publications (119 papers met the ultimate selection criteria) and compile a database of the findings. The results present a general review of technology application for construction safety from the aspects of number of papers published annually, publication type, publication name, country/region of distribution, research level, project phase and project type. Corresponding analysis was performed with the colle...

116 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For and Syed M. Ahmed, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, 2011 490 pp, ISBN 978 1 4200 6312 7, US$130.00 For some time now, I have had two books on my desk as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Lincoln H. Forbes and Syed M. Ahmed, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2011 490 pp, ISBN 978 1 4200 6312 7, US$130.00 For some time now, I have had two books on my desk. The newer book, Modern Constructio...

116 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study of 48 Malaysian construction stakeholders classified into three categories, namely, developers, consultants and contractors, was conducted to gain a renewed understanding of the emerging trend of critical success factors (CSFs) considered by various stakeholders in the local industry.
Abstract: Although extensive research has been undertaken on the critical success factors (CSFs) for construction projects, very little of this research contains information specific to the local context. While several local studies have been conducted within a similar research boundary, variables with growing importance in the literature, the human-related factors, have yet to garner much attention. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to gain a renewed understanding of the emerging trend of CSFs considered by various stakeholders in the local industry. This was achieved through a comparative study of 48 Malaysian construction stakeholders classified into three categories, namely, developers, consultants and contractors. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on 46 factors suggests that the stakeholders favour a more balanced approach to CSFs. Apart from the 'hard' factors, there is a strong consistency among the perception of project stakeholders in recognizing the significance of human-related 'soft' factors. The analysis further reveals that the high scoring factors are mostly related to three major aspects: (1) project personnel; (2) commitment and communication; and (3) site management and supervision. Implementation of human-related factors will help to stimulate an atmosphere of trust among stakeholders amidst a widespread adversarial attitude in the industry.

113 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Helen Lingard1
TL;DR: The expectation that workers be able to work productively without suffering harm as a result of wealth-generating activities is the sign of a mature, responsible and equitable industry.
Abstract: The expectation that workers be able to work productively without suffering harm as a result of wealth-generating activities is the sign of a mature, responsible and equitable industry. The Interna...

113 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify the critical success factors (CSFs) for ERM and analyse the interrelationships among these CSFs in Chinese construction companies (CCCs).
Abstract: Construction businesses are risky ventures and enterprise risk management (ERM) has been advocated in construction companies. To ensure ERM success and the subsequent benefits, it is necessary to understand the key activities of ERM. The objectives are to identify the critical success factors (CSFs) for ERM and analyse the interrelationships among these CSFs in Chinese construction companies (CCCs). To achieve this objective, 16 CSFs were identified through a comprehensive literature review and 89 completed survey questionnaires were received. The results of the analysis show that the three most important CSFs are ‘commitment of the board and senior management’, ‘risk identification, analysis and response’ and ‘objective setting’. Additionally, the three underlying CSF groupings are (1) execution and integration; (2) communication and understanding; and (3) commitment and involvement of top management. The commitment and involvement of top management positively contributed to the communication and underst...

106 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of automatic safety rule-checking for building information models is examined using a customizable automatic safety checker for the construction industry, which is designed to be add-on to existing building information modelling (BIM) software and check models for safety hazards early in the design and planning process.
Abstract: Worldwide occupational safety statistics show that the construction industry in many countries experiences one of the highest accident rates of all industry sectors. Falls remain a major concern as they contribute to very serious injuries or even fatalities on construction projects around the world. Since the standards and rules for protective safety equipment vary by country, the growing numbers of internationally operating companies are in need of tools that allow ubiquitous understanding and planning of safety regardless of the country where they operate. The problem is examined using a customizable automatic safety rule-checking platform for building information models. The applied rule-based checking algorithms are designed to be add-ons to existing building information modelling (BIM) software and can check models for safety hazards early in the design and planning process. Once hazards have been identified preventative safety equipment can be designed, estimated, and included in the construction sc...

102 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a neural network analysis was conducted on a quantitative occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS) audit with accident data obtained from the Singapore construction industry, which was meant to investigate, through a case study, how neural network methodology can be used to understand the relationship between OSHMS elements and safety performance.
Abstract: A neural network analysis was conducted on a quantitative occupational safety and health management system (OSHMS) audit with accident data obtained from the Singapore construction industry. The analysis is meant to investigate, through a case study, how neural network methodology can be used to understand the relationship between OSHMS elements and safety performance, and identify the critical OSHMS elements that have significant influence on the occurrence and severity of accidents in Singapore. Based on the analysis, the model may be used to predict the severity of accidents with adequate accuracy. More importantly, it was identified that the three most significant OSHMS elements in the case study are: incident investigation and analysis, emergency preparedness, and group meetings. The findings imply that learning from incidents, having well-prepared consequence mitigation strategies and open communication can reduce the severity and likelihood of accidents on construction worksites in Singapore. It wa...

95 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental results show that proximity detection and alert technologies can provide alerts to equipment operators at different pre-calibrated proximity alert ranges, and suggest that the presented testing method adequately evaluated the reliability and effectiveness of the proximity detection
Abstract: The US construction industry continues to be among the leading industries for workplace fatalities after experiencing 818 fatalities in 2009. Approximately 21% of these fatalities resulted from workers being struck by an object or piece of construction equipment. The nature of construction sites often produces hazardous conditions by requiring ground workers and heavy construction equipment to operate in close proximity. The primary objective is to present a method for testing proximity detection and alert systems. Experimental trials were designed to deploy emerging radio frequency (RF) remote sensing technology to demonstrate the ability of the test method to evaluate the capability of proximity detection and alert systems to provide alerts when heavy construction equipment and workers are in too close proximity to each other. Numerous field experiments were designed and conducted to emulate typical interactions between workers on foot and construction equipment. These devices were installed on pieces o...

89 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the development of scales to measure beliefs about the consequences of building information modelling and their use in a survey of employees of a large construction contracting organization in the United Kingdom.
Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) is becoming increasingly important in construction although the rate of adoption is considered slow and the industry faces specific implementation challenges. Mainstream information systems research has shown that individuals’ beliefs and expectations of the consequences of ICT use predict subsequent usage. We describe the development of scales to measure beliefs about the consequences of building information modelling (BIM) and their use in a survey of employees of a large construction contracting organization in the United Kingdom. Scales for performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, compatibility, and attitude toward using technology were adapted from existing measures. In an analysis of responses from 762 construction employees the scales showed acceptable measurement properties. Expectations about the consequences of BIM use were broadly favourable although there is a need for more data for comparisons. The str...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the causes of Chinese scaffolders not using safety harnesses through theoretical analyses and empirical tests, and found that the major cause of scaffolds' not using harnesses was their personal decisions not to do so.
Abstract: Chinese scaffolders not using safety harnesses is commonplace, despite scaffolders being constantly exposed to fall hazards on construction sites and the use of safety harnesses being required by law. The causes of Chinese scaffolders not using safety harnesses are explored through theoretical analyses and empirical tests. In theoretical analyses, based on Surry’s model, the major cause of scaffolders not using safety harnesses was identified as their personal decisions not to do so. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to analyse why scaffolders decided not to use safety harnesses. In empirical tests, scaffolders on seven sites completed questionnaires developed based on TPB, and nine safety officers participated in a focus group meeting to collect their views on scaffolders’ use of safety harnesses. In addition, two scaffolders, one gangmaster, one safety officer, and one foreman were interviewed to verify the results of the questionnaire survey. Empirical tests results show that the inconveni...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors conducted a survey of Swedish construction companies to identify the degree of renewal, as well as the factors affecting it, and the resulting picture shows a clear connection between the inter-organizational interfaces within the industry and h...
Abstract: The construction business network is generally seen as conservative and non-innovative, for which a number of reasons have been identified. One of these reasons relates to the special inter-organizational setting that exists within the industry. The starting point of our study was to investigate whether there is any truth in this perceived lack of innovation. One reason for the industry’s bad reputation could be that the way innovation generally is defined and measured is unsuitable for the construction business. Therefore, renewal was used as the central concept of change in our investigation. The second issue concerns factors that either assist or impede renewal, and the ambition was to identify those factors driving, as well as those hindering renewal. In order to identify the degree of renewal, as well as the factors affecting it, we conducted a survey of Swedish construction companies. The resulting picture shows a clear connection between the inter-organizational interfaces within the industry and h...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Modern Construction Management as discussed by the authors is a textbook for advanced studies in construction management with a substantial volume of 572 pages with general descriptions, partly detailed texts, numerous exam papers, and many references.
Abstract: Modern Construction Management is a textbook for advanced studies in construction management. It is a substantial volume of 572 pages with general descriptions, partly detailed texts, numerous exam...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined how both gender and sexuality interact to shape women's working lives within the UK construction sector, drawing on 22 interviews and a focus group with heterosexual women and lesbians in male-dominated occupations in construction.
Abstract: UK employers have been broadening their equality and diversity activities to include the issue of sexual orientation; however, the construction industry has been slow to follow. Equally there is a lack of research on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) workers in construction. While women’s sexuality soon becomes a focus of interest when they enter male-dominated work, little research has discussed how sexual minorities–and in particular lesbians–fare in such environments. This article examines how both gender and sexuality interact to shape women’s working lives within the UK construction sector, drawing on 22 interviews and a focus group with heterosexual women and lesbians in male-dominated occupations in construction. While women share common experiences of heightened interest and questioning, open lesbians can sometimes minimize the sexualized content of workplace interactions. However the potential for exclusion on the basis of minority sexuality also exists. Sexual hara...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the Loughborough construction accident causality model was applied to State Department of Transportation construction accidents, and is proposed as a tool to facilitate organizational learning in the construction industry.
Abstract: In order for the construction industry to improve its poor safety performance it needs to learn from its safety mistakes and put the lessons learned to good use. Incident investigation theories and techniques vary widely in the peer-reviewed literature. The Loughborough Construction Accident Causation (ConAC) model was applied to State Department of Transportation construction accidents, and is proposed as a tool to facilitate organizational learning in the construction industry. Details of the methodology utilized are described so that it can be duplicated in research and in practice. By investigating 27 DOT construction incidents, the research demonstrates how the model can be used both in research and in practice. The model yielded 6.63 causes/factors/influences identified per incident, and correlated the causes to determine relationships. Incident causality is complex and multi-faceted. The Loughborough model facilitates a holistic view of incident causality and thus organizational learning.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A very well-researched and well-written summary of hundreds of research reports, papers and books on current problems concerning the planet and the construction industry can be found in this paper.
Abstract: While slightly dated, this is a very well-researched and well-written summary of hundreds of research reports, papers and books on current problems concerning the planet and the construction indust...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that it is problematic to define or measure culture as different paradigms adopt radically different approaches and argue that culture is an all-pervading construct of human existence but its conceptualization is contested.
Abstract: Culture is an all-pervading construct of human existence but its conceptualization is contested. As such, it is problematic to define or measure culture as different paradigms adopt radically different approaches. Emic approaches are, essentially, inward-looking and, via a constructivist paradigm, assert that a culture can be investigated validly only from that culture’s own perspective (idiographic). Etic approaches are concerned with an outside view, especially for cross-cultural investigations, and so tend to adopt a positivist perspective using surveys, models and dimensions (nomothetic). With increasing acceptance of varying conceptualizations, multiple methodologies and methods of research, founded on alternative philosophical stances, differing approaches to researching culture are pursued. However, several important issues of debate remain and are addressed, especially surrounding the seminal work of Geert Hofstede. Further concerns relate to levels of analyses (notably, the ecological fallacy and...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the Mann-Whitney U test showed that female and male managers possess equal managerial competencies in 17 of the 20 competencies, while male managers rated themselves as having better managerial competency than females in two of the twenty competencies.
Abstract: The construction industry is one of the most male dominated industries around the world, not only when it comes to workers, but also as regards managers. Only 5% of the managers in the Swedish construction industry are women. The managerial competencies of individuals working as managers in the Swedish construction industry are researched to get a clearer understanding of the situation, and to investigate if this lack of balance between male and female managers has to do with differences in managerial competence. The management development questionnaire provided by Human Resource Development Press was sent to 143 managers in the Swedish construction industry and 112 respondents (44 women and 68 men) assessed themselves in 20 competencies, resulting in a response rate of 78%. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that female and male managers possess equal managerial competencies in 17 of the 20 competencies. Male managers rated themselves as having better managerial competency than females in two of the 20 compe...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the most prominent discourses of safety on large UK construction sites were found to be safety as enforcement and safety as engagement, reflecting the change in safety management strategies.
Abstract: Developments in safety management on large UK construction sites have seen a paradigm shift from enforcement-based systems to safety-culture programmes, which seek to engage with the workforce to create fully cooperative and safety-conscious sites. Founded in social constructionism, recent research sought out the master discourses of safety on large UK construction sites through the examination of safety signage, talk around safety and safety documentation. Two of the most prominent discourses of safety on sites were found to be safety as enforcement and safety as engagement, reflecting the change in safety management strategies. These discourses were found to be interrelated in their constructions of safety, yet also varied in their associations with practice, responsibility, social interactions and the management hierarchy of the sites. These findings develop the current understanding of safety found on sites, with relation to the hierarchical structures of safety management and the discourses of enforc...

Journal ArticleDOI
Xueqing Wang1, Yuan Chen1, Bingsheng Liu1, Yinghua Shen2, Hui Sun1 
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors put forward a set of systematic methodologies for selecting a productivity index, to develop a TFP measure for the construction industry and to conduct an analysis of spatial differences.
Abstract: In the context of unbalanced regional economic development in China, there are large regional differences in the development of the construction industry. These long-standing and increasing differences not only influence the total productivity of China’s construction industry but also hinder effective resource distribution. Total factor productivity (TFP) is a measure of long-term economic growth and a comprehensive industry-level productivity measure. The objectives are to put forward a set of systematic methodologies for selecting a productivity index, to develop a TFP measure for the construction industry and to conduct an analysis of spatial differences. First, the input and output index system of the construction industry is established, and China’s construction industry TFP is measured with the DEA–Malmquist index. Second, spatial differences in the construction industry TFP are analysed in terms of the coefficient of variation (CV) and using spatial clustering analysis. The results indicate that Ch...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a four-step model called "design for construction" (DFC) has been developed to capture and use production experience from similar previous projects to improve constructability without risking customer values.
Abstract: The design process has a significant impact on the performance and profitability of a housing project. Therefore, decisions made during the design process should take into consideration knowledge and experience from other processes in previously accomplished projects, specifically from the production phase. How to capture and use production experience in housing has not gained enough interest, possibly leading to sub-optimal improvements during the construction process. This motivates research on how onsite production experience from similar previous projects can be captured and used to improve constructability without risking customer values. Based on the concept of constructability, ‘design for manufacturing and assembly’ and the theory of waste, the method ‘design for construction’ (DFC) has been developed. The four-step model complements the conventional construction process, and consists of the following steps: (1) specify customer values and similar previous projects; (2) identify onsite waste and c...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide contextually rich explanations for the development and diffusion of supply chain management in the UK construction industry that explicitly connect with and draw upon robust, relevant and reliable theories of institutions, innovation diffusion, triads, quasifirms and...
Abstract: Largely taken for granted within the UK construction sector has been a view that supply chain management theory is robust, relevant and reliable. As such it has formed a substantial aspect of previous and contemporary policy and government funded research. Despite this, the general view of its development and diffusion over the last 15 years within the construction industry has been problematic. Coincidentally, prevailing debates within the supply chain management academic community point to the lack of unified theory, models of diffusion and strong connections to organization theory. Using Straussian grounded theory, iterations between data and organization theory provided a fresh perspective on the development and diffusion of supply chain management in construction. This inductive research provided contextually rich explanations for development and diffusion that explicitly connected with and drew upon robust, relevant and reliable theories of institutions, innovation diffusion, triads, quasifirms and ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors study the impact of the engineer-to-order production strategy and its consequences for platform organization by studying its use in house-building and report the core capabilities for E2O firms: procurement and tendering, market knowledge, engineering, multi-skilled manufacturing, and coordination of sales and manufacturing.
Abstract: Construction is a trade where the dominating production strategy is engineer-to-order. House-builders can pre-engineer their design to different degrees, resulting in variations of the engineer-to-order strategy: design-to-order, adapt-to-order, and engineer-to-stock. This variation causes different settings for the use of platforms in house-building. The aim of this research is to diversify the engineer-to-order production strategy and its consequences for platform organization by studying its use in house-building. The multiple case study on four engineering/contractor firms reports the core capabilities for engineer-to-order firms: procurement and tendering, market knowledge, engineering, multi-skilled manufacturing, and coordination of sales and manufacturing. Design-to-order, adapt-to-order and engineer-to stock were shown to be production strategies in use in house-building. In design-to-order platforms parts of the platform are undefined while engineer-to-stock platforms are fully predefined. Coord...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the literature in organizational studies centred on culture, identity, empowerment, and trust is offered, and these constructs are explored in relation to project performance issues and outcomes, and they are predominantly studied at the project and industry levels.
Abstract: Individual-level constructs are seldom taken into consideration in construction management research relating to project performance. This is antithetical to the objectives of properly conceptualizing and contextualizing the research we do because many project performance outcomes, such as the extent of cooperation and level of communication or teamwork are influenced and moderated by individuals' perceptions, values and behaviour. A brief review of the literature in organizational studies centred on culture, identity, empowerment and trust is offered. These constructs are then explored in relation to project performance issues and outcomes, and it is noted that they are predominantly studied at the project and industry levels. We argue that focusing these constructs at the individual unit of analysis has significant implications for project performance and therefore their effects need to be systematically accounted for in explanations of the success and failure of projects. Far from being prescriptive, th...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the relationship between the environmental performance of residential buildings and their rental levels and found that building characteristics, such as water efficiency, the health and comfort level and the building's safety and security, have significant positive price effects.
Abstract: Given the centrality of the price mechanism to resource allocation in market economies, the effect of sustainable construction on real estate prices has become an increasingly important empirical issue for market participants and policy makers in the real estate sector. Drawing upon a sample of approximately 2500 residential building units in Switzerland, this study assesses the effects of buildings’ sustainability on their rental prices. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies that have focused on the price effects of eco-labels, this study investigates the effects of individual sustainability attributes. Overall, we find a positive relationship between the environmental performance of residential buildings and their rental levels. Sustainable building characteristics, especially those which enhance the water efficiency, the health and comfort level and the building’s safety and security, have significant positive price effects. It is argued that the unexpected negative relationship between energy performance and rental prices is attributed to the bundling of energy costs and rents in Swiss lease structures.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a decoupled net present value (DNPV) valuation method that decouples the time value of money from the risk associated with a project.
Abstract: Despite its shortcomings, because of its simplicity, the net present value (NPV) technique (or its close relative, the internal rate of return) remains the valuation method most widely used by investors. In this method, all risks associated with a project are lumped into a single parameter (i.e. the risk premium) that is added to the risk-free interest rate to obtain a risk-adjusted discount rate; thus, in essence, the time value of money is adjusted for risk. However, because risk and time are two separate variables, accounting for risk in this manner can lead to substantial valuation errors, particularly for long-term investments which are typical for large infrastructure projects. In this paper, an alternative valuation method that decouples the time value of money from the risk associated with a project is presented. The proposed method, termed decoupled net present value (DNPV), is also simple yet flexible, consistent and robust. The method allows investors to integrate heuristic (i.e. experience bas...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the embodied experiences of women who work in a particular area of construction, that of manual skilled trades, and found that gender was not experienced as stable or simple, instead gender was contradictory.
Abstract: The construction industry remains male dominated despite reforms in recruitment, training and some workplaces since the 1970s. That said some women do still enter the industry. The aim of this research was to explore the embodied experiences of women who work in a particular area of construction, that of manual skilled trades. Fifteen tradeswomen between the ages of 21 and 60 were interviewed using a life history framework. Unstructured and in-depth, the life history interviews covered a broad range of topics including family history, education, embodiment, sexuality and work. This method aimed to contextualize participants’ experiences of work within broader relations, allowing a space for participants to discuss their labour processes beyond a conception of them as challenging. The central finding of the research was that gender was not experienced as stable or simple. Instead gender was contradictory. Some women also found that being ‘outside’ the expectations of masculine cultures allowed them to use ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a real-time monitoring system that integrates the use of a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is developed to identify unauthorized work or entrance of personnel within a pre-defined risk zone by obtaining positioning data of both site workers and the crane.
Abstract: Mobile/tower cranes are the most essential forms of construction plant in use in the construction industry but are also the subject of several safety issues. Of these, blind lifting has been found to be one of the most hazardous of crane operations. To improve the situation, a real-time monitoring system that integrates the use of a Global Positioning System (GPS) and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is developed. This system aims to identify unauthorized work or entrance of personnel within a pre-defined risk zone by obtaining positioning data of both site workers and the crane. The system alerts to the presence of unauthorized workers within a risk zone-currently defined as 3m from the crane. When this happens, the system suspends the power of the crane and a warning signal is generated to the safety management team. In this way the system assists the safety management team to manage the safety of hundreds of workers simultaneously. An onsite trial with debriefing interviews is presented to illustr...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an example case study of a partnering project, activity theory is applied in an analysis of how project outcomes are shaped mutually by the underlying dynamics of construction and innovative initiatives like partnering.
Abstract: For more than a decade, partnering has been pursued as a promising way of overcoming the drawbacks of the building process. Despite intense and repeated efforts, promises have only to some extent been satisfied. Based on an example case study of a partnering project, activity theory is applied in an analysis of how project outcomes are shaped mutually by the underlying dynamics of construction and innovative initiatives like partnering. The case was studied through a combination of questionnaire surveys, interactive workshops, semi-structured qualitative research interviews and onsite observations. Three main findings are presented. First, that the dynamics of construction can be understood as the interrelation of three activity systems on production, values and interests. Second, partnering as a change strategy is overlaid on existing practice rather than substituting it. Third, partnering may reduce some contradictions but induces others simultaneously. In conclusion, the potential of partnering as a ch...