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Showing papers in "Contemporary Sociology in 1986"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Giddens as mentioned in this paper has been in the forefront of developments in social theory for the past decade and outlines the distinctive position he has evolved during that period and offers a full statement of a major new perspective in social thought, a synthesis and elaboration of ideas touched on in previous works but described here for the first time in an integrated and comprehensive form.
Abstract: Anthony Giddens has been in the forefront of developments in social theory for the past decade. In "The Constitution of Society" he outlines the distinctive position he has evolved during that period and offers a full statement of a major new perspective in social thought, a synthesis and elaboration of ideas touched on in previous works but described here for the first time in an integrated and comprehensive form. A particular feature is Giddens' concern to connect abstract problems of theory to an interpretation of the nature of empirical method in the social sciences. In presenting his own ideas, Giddens mounts a critical attack on some of the more orthodox sociological views. "The Constitution of Society" is an invaluable reference book for all those concerned with the basic issues in contemporary social theory.

15,794 citations


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4,600 citations


BookDOI
TL;DR: Farriss and Reddy as discussed by the authors presented a cultural biography of things: commoditization as process Igor Kopytoff Part II, and two kinds of value in the Eastern Solomon Islands William H. Davenport and William M. Cassanelli Part V.
Abstract: Foreword Nancy Farriss Preface Part I. Toward an anthropology of things: 1. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value Arjun Appadurai 2. The cultural biography of things: commoditization as process Igor Kopytoff Part II. Exchange, Consumption, and Display: 3. Two kinds of value in the Eastern Solomon Islands William H. Davenport 4. Newcomers to the world of goods: consumption among the Muria Gonds Alfred Gell Part III. Prestige, Commemoration, and Value: 5. Varna and the emergence of wealth in prehistoric Europe Colin Renfrew 6. Sacred commodities: the circulation of medieval relics Patrick Geary Part IV. Production Regimes and the Sociology of Demand: 7. Weavers and dealers: the authenticity of an oriental carpet Brian Spooner 8. Qat: changes in the production and consumption of a quasilegal commodity in northeast Africa Lee V. Cassanelli Part V. Historical Transformations and Commodity Codes: 9. The structure of a cultural crisis: thinking about cloth in France before and after the Revolution William M. Reddy 10. The origins of swadeshi (home industry): cloth and Indian society, 1700-1930 C. A. Bayly Index.

3,909 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

2,287 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The author discusses culture theory's romantic rebellion against the enlightenment, or there's more to thinking than reason and evidence, and reflections on cultural determinism and relativism with special reference to emotion and reason.
Abstract: Preview: a colloquy of culture theorists Richard A. Shweder Part I. Culture Theory: An Introduction 1. Anthropology's romantic rebellion against the enlightenment, or there's more to thinking than reason and evidence Richard A. Shweder 2. Properties of culture: an ethnographic view Robert A. LeVine 3. Cultural meaning systems Roy G. D'Andrade Part II. Culture, Self, and Emotion: 4. 'From the native's point of view: on the nature of anthropological understanding Clifford Geertz 5. Toward an anthropology of self and feeling Michelle Z. Rosaldo 6. Does the concept of the person vary cross-culturally? Richard A. Shweder and Edmund J. Bourne 7. Understanding people Zeno Vendler 8. Emotion, knowing and culture Robert I. Levy 9. Getting angry: the Jamesian theory of emotion in anthropology Robert C. Solomon Part III. Culture, Language, and Thought: 10. The development of competence in culturally defined domains: a preliminary framework Howard Gardner 11. Language acquisition and socialization: three developmental stories and their implications Elinor Ochs and Bambi B. Schieffelin Part IV. Commentary: 12. Some reflections on cultural determinism and relativism with special reference to emotion and reason Melford E. Spiro Name index Subject index.

1,123 citations





Journal ArticleDOI

537 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Crosscutting social circles as mentioned in this paper describes a theory of groups' relations to each other, and tests the theory in the 125 largest metropolitan areas In the United States, where the focus is on the Influence social structure exerts on intergroup relations.
Abstract: Crosscutting Social Circles describes a theory of groups' relations to each other, and tests the theory in the 125 largest metropolitan areas In the United States. The focus is on the Influence social structure exerts on intergroup relations. Blau and Schwartz show how role relations are influenced by how people are distributed among social positions. Examples are a community's racial composition, division of labor, ethnic heterogeneity, income Inequality, or the extent to which educational differences are related to income differences. Blau and Schwartz test their theory by considering its impact on such structural conditions as intermarriage, an important form of intergroup relations. The authors derive the main principles of previously formulated theories of intergroup relations and present them in simpler and clearer form. They empirically test the power of the theory by analyzing its ability to predict how social structure affects intermarriage in the largest American cities, where three-fifths of the American population live. They selected cities because population distribution of a small neighborhood might be affected by casual associations among neighbors; it is much more sociologically interesting if population distribution also affects mate selection in a city of millions. Unlike most theories that emphasize the implications of such cultural orientations as shared values and common norms, this volume focuses on the significance of various forms of inequality and heterogeneity. As one of the few books that supplies a large-scale empirical test of implications of a theory, Crosscutting Social Circles serves as a model. The new introduction by Peter Blau reviews the origins and impact of the book. It will be of immense value to sociologists, psychologists, and group relations specialists.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the major social and political components of energy policy and highlight the importance of seeing energy problems and solutions in terms of social systems rather than single causes, designing energy systems for adaptability as an alternative to detailed planning, and treating energy policies and programs as the social experiments they are.
Abstract: This book discusses the major social and political components of energy policy. By putting energy in its human context, the report generates new policy options for solving specific energy problems and suggests broad new approaches to energy policy. Commissioned by the Department of Energy, the book demonstrates the folly of making energy decisions without a basic understanding of the continuing social conflict over the nature of energy and the many noneconomic factors that influence its use. It emphasizes the importance of seeing energy problems and solutions in terms of social systems rather than single causes; designing energy systems for adaptability as an alternative to detailed planning; and treating energy policies and programs as the social experiments they are. The contents are: The Human Dimension; Thinking About Energy; Some Barriers to Energy Efficiency; Individuals and Households as Energy Users; Operations and Energy Consumption; Energy Emergencies; Local Energy Action; Conclusions and Recommendations.


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TL;DR: In the past ten years, research on stress has increased dramatically as mentioned in this paper, which brings researchers, clinicians, and academics up-to-date on the many facets of this research, including factors, situations, and personality variables that elicit and mediate stress.
Abstract: In the past ten years, research on stress has increased dramatically. Psychosocial Stress: Perspectives on Structure, Theory, Life-Course, and Methods brings researchers, clinicians, and academics up-to-date on the many facets of this research. Key Features * The components of stress: factors, situations, and personality variables that elicit and mediate stress * Theoretical perspectives in the study of stress * Life-course perspectives on stress * Methodology used in stress research

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the overall degree of sex segregation in the workplace has remained stable in this century and informal barriers keep it in place, while women have made substantial progress in a number of formerly male occupations.
Abstract: Even though women have made substantial progress in a number of formerly male occupations, sex segregation in the workplace remains a fact of life. This volume probes pertinent questions: Why has the overall degree of sex segregation remained stable in this century? What informal barriers keep it in place? How do socialization and educational practices affect career choices and hiring patterns? How do family responsibilities affect women's work attitudes? And how effective is legislation in lessening the gap between the sexes? Amply supplemented with tables, figures, and insightful examination of trends and research, this volume is a definitive source for what is known today about sex segregation on the job.

BookDOI
TL;DR: The need principle of distributive justice in personal conflict has been studied extensively in the literature as mentioned in this paper, where the need principle is defined as "the need for a sense of justice in interpersonal conflict".
Abstract: I Conflict, Power, and Justice.- 1 Cooperation, Conflict, and Justice.- Cooperation-Competition: Initial Studies of Distributive Justice.- Conflict and Bargaining Studies: Conditions for Establishing a System of Justice.- Distributive Justice.- Experimental Studies of the Effects of Different Systems of Distributive Justice.- The Choice of Distribution System.- The Sense of Injustice.- Some Conclusions.- References.- 2 Justice and Power: An Exchange Analysis.- Power as a Determinant of Reward Distributions.- Power as a Determinant of Reactions to Injustice.- An Exchange Analysis and Some Preliminary Evidence.- Perceptions of Fairness in Exchange Networks.- The Perceived Origins of Inequality and Reactions to Injustice.- Concluding Comments: From Interpersonal to Intergroup Relations.- References.- 3 Justice Considerations in Interpersonal Conflict.- A Glance at the Literature.- Interpersonal Conflict: Definition, Delimitation, and Analytic Approach.- Interpersonal Justice.- Justice Considerations in Interpersonal Conflict: Conditions of Occurrence and Effects.- At the Intra-Individual Level: Justice Thoughts.- At the Interindividual Level: Justice Statements.- Justice Conflict.- Types and Psychological Concomitants of Justice Conflict.- The Justice Dispute.- Significance of Justice Conflict for the Outcome of the Primary Conflict.- Conclusions.- The Role of Different Justice Motivations.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 4 Power and Justice in Intergroup Relations.- Justice and Power.- Private Problems and Public Issues.- The Effects of Power.- Endorsement, Authorization, and Legitimation.- Revolutionary Mobilization.- The Symbols of Justice.- Conclusion.- References.- II Theoretical Perspectives on Justice.- 5 Justice Ideology and Social Legitimation: A Revised Agenda for Psychological Inquiry.- Overview.- Personhood and Justice.- The Personhood Ideal.- Justice.- Enlarging Personhood.- Toward an Objective Base for Justice.- Bases of Legitimation.- Critique.- Caretaking and Receiving.- Vulnerability to Ideology.- Psychology and the Reproduction of Injustice.- Conclusion.- References.- 6 The Experience of Injustice: Toward a Better Understanding of its Phenomenology.- Retrospective Reports on Experiences of Injustice.- Procedure.- Results.- Discussion.- Role-Playing Investigation 1.- Role-Playing Investigation 2.- Categories of Cognitions and Feelings.- Objectivity of Coding.- Results.- Discussion.- Conclusion.- References.- 7 Thinking about Justice and Dealing with One's Own Privileges: A Study of Existential Guilt.- The Concept of Existential Guilt.- Coping with One's Own Privileges: An Empirical Study.- Sample.- Research Instruments.- Cognitive Analysis of Inequality and Existential Guilt.- Distributive Justice and Existential Guilt.- The Role of Perceived Control.- Felt Responsibility for and Attitude toward the Disadvantaged.- Belief in a Just World and Existential Guilt.- The Moderating Role of Centrality of Justice.- A Predictive Model for Existential Guilt.- Discriminating Existential Guilt from Empathie Distress.- Criterion Group Validity of Existential Guilt.- Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8 Rethinking Equity Theory: A Referent Cognitions Model.- Levels of Referent Outcomes.- Effects of Referent and Likelihood Cognitions.- Levels of Justification.- Distributive and Procedural Effects.- Context Effects.- Summary and Conclusion.- References.- III Norms and Justice.- 9 Social Context and Perceived Justice.- Justice in Interpersonal Relations: Equity or Equality.- Equity versus Equality and Response to Reward Allocation.- Gender Differences Revisited: Response to Equity and Equality.- The Other Way Around.- Just World, Expectations, and Scripts.- Summary.- References.- 10 Levels of Interest in the Study of Interpersonal Justice.- Levels of Interpersonal Justice Phenomena.- Specific Domains.- The Justice Motive.- Justice Principles as Different Forms of Social Interdependence.- Determination of Value and Perception of Inputs.- Postscript.- References.- 11 The Need Principle of Distributive Justice.- Traditional Theoretical Perspectives.- Consideration of Needs in Allocation Situations: Conclusions from Experiments.- Need Satisfaction as the Basis of Distributive Justice.- Prototypes of Relationships and Transaction Principles.- Empirical Findings.- Conclusion.- References.- 12 Group Categorization and Distributive Justice Decisions.- Reward Distribution Behavior as Reasoned Action.- Target Characteristics as Mediators of Norm Salience: A Role-Theory Analysis.- Group Categorization as a Mediator of the Influence of the Norm of Equity on Reward Distributions to Workers.- Supervisors' Pay Allocations when Outgroup Norms are Unknown.- Supervisors' Pay Allocations when Beliefs Exist about Workers' Relevant Norms.- Implications of Reasoned-Action-Role-Theory Approach for Past and Future Work.- References.- 13 Children's Use of Justice Principles in Allocation Situations: Focus on the Need Principle.- Cognitive Developmental Models of Distributive Justice.- Investigations into Concrete Allocation Behavior.- Studies of Distributive Justice.- Differentiation between Just and Unjust Aims.- Preschool Children's Preferences for Justice Principles.- Primary School Children's Preferences for Justice Principles.- Encouraging the Consideration of Need.- Summary and Concluding Remarks.- Distinguishing Just from Unjust.- Preference for Equality.- Instability in the Preference for Equality.- Children's Social Knowledge.- The Need Principle.- References.- IV Applications of Justice Research.- 14 Two Rotten Apples Spoil the Justice Barrel.- Methods.- Subjects.- Procedures.- Results.- Preliminary Analyses.- Testing the Hypotheses.- Additional Analyses.- Discussion.- References.- 15 Justice as Fair and Equal Treatment before the Law: The Role of Individual Versus Group Decision Making.- Implicit Psychological Assumptions in the Law.- Equality before the Law as a Minimum Standard.- Equality before the Law as a General Desideratum.- Procedures to Ensure Equality before the Law in Legal Decision Making.- Individual versus Group Decision Making in the Legal Process.- Examples from a Comparative Legal Analysis.- Decision Making by Jurors, Juries, and Judges: Social Psychological Evidence.- Sentencing Councils and their Effects on Equal Treatment before the Law.- Method.- Results.- Discussion.- Conclusions.- References.- 16 The Psychology of Leadership Evaluation.- Factors Influencing Leadership Evaluations.- Research.- The Evaluation of Legal Authority.- The Evaluation of Political Authority.- Other Research.- Implications.- The Meaning of Procedural Justice.- When Is Procedural Justice Important?.- References.- 17 When Expectations and Justice Do Not Coincide: Blue-Collar Visions of a Just World.- Questioning the Contentment of the Disadvantaged.- Equity and Exchange.- Relative Deprivation.- Self-Blame and the Disadvantaged.- Hypotheses.- Method.- Subject Sample.- Locus of Control.- Political Ideology.- Videotape.- Expected, Satisfying, and Perfectly Just Pay-Plan Designs.- Results.- Political Profile.- Visions of a Perfectly Just World.- Discussion.- Limited Visions of Perfect Justice: Why?.- Cognitive Limits of Imagination.- The Generation of Radically Different Just World Views.- References.- 18 The Distributive Justice of Organizational Performance Evaluations.- Distributive Justice in the Context of Performance Appraisal.- Channels of Influence in Appraisal Systems.- Performance Appraisal and Organizational Justice.- A Taxonomy of Organizational Performance Evaluations as Outcomes.- The Input-Defining Function of Organizational Performance Evaluations.- Performance Evaluations as Ultimate and Penultimate Outcomes: Research Evidence.- Using Performance Evaluations to Qualify Reactions to Monetary Outcomes.- Using Performance Evaluations to Qualify Reactions to Job Titles as Outcomes.- Implications.- Implications for Conceptualizations of Distributive Justice.- Implications for Organizational Theory and Practice.- References.- Author Index.


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BookDOI
TL;DR: The role of class analysis in the study of race relations - a Weberian perspective John Rex 4. Varieties of Marxist conceptions of 'race', class and the state: a critical analysis John Solomos 5. Class concepts, class struggle and racism Harold Wolpe 6.
Abstract: Preface John Rex Introduction. Controversies and continuities in race and ethnic relations theory David Mason 1. Intersecting strands in the theorisation of race and ethnic relations J. Milton Yinger 2. Epistemological assumptions in the study of racial differentiation Michael Banton 3. The role of class analysis in the study of race relations - a Weberian perspective John Rex 4. Varieties of Marxist conceptions of 'race', class and the state: a critical analysis John Solomos 5. Class concepts, class struggle and racism Harold Wolpe 6. A political analysis of local struggles for racial equality Gideon Ben-Tovim, John Gabriel, Ian Law and Kathleen Stredder 7. Ethnicity and Third World development: political and academic contexts Marshall W. Murphree 8. Social anthropological models of inter-ethnic relations Richard Jenkins 9. Pluralism, race and ethnicity in selected African countries M. G. Smith 10. Ethnicity and the boundary process in context Sandra Wallman 11. Ethnicity and the sociobiology debate Pierre L. van der Berghe 12. Rational choice theory and the study of race and ethnic relations Michael Hechter 13. The 'Chicago School' of American sociology, symbolic interactionism, and race relations theory Barbara Ballis Lal 14. The operationalisation of identity theory in racial and ethnic relations Peter Weinreich Bibliography Index.



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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first comprehensive theoretical and empirical study of Mexican fertility in the United States was published by MASSEY et al. as discussed by the authors, who presented a review of the theoretical and research literature.
Abstract: \"Professors Bean and Swicegood have written a most impressive book. It is the first comprehensive theoretical and empirical study of Mexican fertility in the United States. Its review of the theoretical and research literature is superb, and its analyses illuminating. It will be a benchmark study for years to come.\" -DOUGLAS S. MASSEY, Chair Graduate Group in Demographye Associate Professor of Sociology, 5 University of Pennsylvania

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TL;DR: In this paper, an exceptionally well-known social psychologist offers the most definitive work to date on life-cycle sociology, which is appropriate as a text or supplement for courses on socialization, social psychology, and aging.
Abstract: An exceptionally well-known social psychologist offers the most definitive work to date on life-cycle sociology. Appropriate as a text or supplement for courses on socialization, social psychology, and aging. Foundations of Modern Sociology series.