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Showing papers in "Contemporary Sociology in 1991"


MonographDOI
TL;DR: Iyengar's "Is Anyone Responsible?" anchors with powerful evidence suspicions about the way in which television has impoverished political discourse in the United States and at the same time molds American political consciousness.
Abstract: A disturbingly cautionary tale, "Is Anyone Responsible?" anchors with powerful evidence suspicions about the way in which television has impoverished political discourse in the United States and at the same time molds American political consciousness. It is essential reading for media critics, psychologists, political analysts, and all the citizens who want to be sure that their political opinions are their own. "Not only does it provide convincing evidence for particular effects of media fragmentation, but it also explores some of the specific mechanisms by which television works its damage. . . . Here is powerful additional evidence for those of us who like to flay television for its contributions to the trivialization of public discourse and the erosion of democratic accountability." William A. Gamson, "Contemporary Sociology" "Iyengar's book has substantial merit. . . . [His] experimental methods offer a precision of measurement that media effects research seldom attains. I believe, moreover, that Iyengar's notion of framing effects is one of the truly important theoretical concepts to appear in recent years." Thomas E. Patterson, "American Political Science Review""

3,680 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The "warm look" as mentioned in this paper is a synergistic approach to the roles of "hot" motivations and "cold" cognitions in the production of behavior, and it can be seen as an attempt to bridge the gap between thought and action.
Abstract: The apparent success of cognitive principles in accounting for several behaviors has led social psychologists to question the need for motivations and other "hot" dispositional constructs. In their place, they postulate nonmotivational "cold" cognitions. Behavioral variations between individuals are thus reduced to differences in information processing abilities, while biases and other apparently motivated behaviors are explained on the "faulty computer" model. However, as many cognitive psychologists now acknowledge this mechanistic theory fails to tie the processing of information to the performance of actions. In a creative attempt to bridge this gap, the editors and investigators have begun to challenge the prevailing hot/cold, either/or dichotomy. Instead, they propose the "warm look" - a synergistic approach to the roles of "hot" motivations and "cold" cognitions in the production of behavior. In their view, neither one alone is sufficient to explain social phenomena. In fact, outside of theory, the two are inseparable. This comprehensive handbook attempts an integration of contrasting approaches to behavior discusses the dual contributions of cognition and motivation to affective states, the development and evaluation of the self, and the setting and attainment of goals. Central themes include the notion of different public and private selves forming distinct influences on motivational behavior; the key role of affect in mediating social information processing; and the differences between informational and affective value, or between behavior geared to finding out versus behavior prompted by a desire to feel good. While much remains to be learned about the complex interplay of motivation and cognition, these studies demonstrate that the two can no longer be treated as separate, unrelated factors. Subjective states and goals clearly influence information processing, while the acquisition of information alters affect and behavior. An ambitious and original attempt to bridge the gap between thought and action, the Handbook is an indispensable reference for all social cognitive and developmental psychologists, investigators of personality and motivation, and advanced students in these areas.

2,554 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Black Church in the African American Experience as discussed by the authors is the largest nongovernmental study of urban and rural churches ever undertaken and the first major field study on the subject since the 1930s.
Abstract: Black churches in America have long been recognized as the most independent, stable, and dominant institutions in black communities. In The Black Church in the African American Experience, based on a ten-year study, is the largest nongovernmental study of urban and rural churches ever undertaken and the first major field study on the subject since the 1930s. Drawing on interviews with more than 1,800 black clergy in both urban and rural settings, combined with a comprehensive historical overview of seven mainline black denominations, C. Eric Lincoln and Lawrence H. Mamiya present an analysis of the Black Church as it relates to the history of African Americans and to contemporary black culture. In examining both the internal structure of the Church and the reactions of the Church to external, societal changes, the authors provide important insights into the Church’s relationship to politics, economics, women, youth, and music. Among other topics, Lincoln and Mamiya discuss the attitude of the clergy toward women pastors, the reaction of the Church to the civil rights movement, the attempts of the Church to involve young people, the impact of the black consciousness movement and Black Liberation Theology and clergy, and trends that will define the Black Church well into the next century. This study is complete with a comprehensive bibliography of literature on the black experience in religion. Funding for the ten-year survey was made possible by the Lilly Endowment and the Ford Foundation.

1,480 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Asher et al. as discussed by the authors studied the role of poor peer relationships in the development of disorder and found that poor relationships are predictive of poor social status of rejected children in early childhood.
Abstract: Introduction 1. Recent advances in the study of peer rejection S. R. Asher Part I. Behavioural Characteristics of Peer Rejected Children: 2. Peer group behavior and social status J. D. Coie, K. A. Dodge and J. Kupersmidt 3. Children's entry behavior M. Putallaz and A. Wasserman 4. Preschooler's behavioral orientations and patterns of peer contact: predictive of peer status? G. R. Ladd, J. M. Price and C. H. Hart Part II. Parent-Child Relations and Peer Rejection: 5. Social withdrawal in childhood: developmental pathways to peer rejection K. H. Rubin, L. J. Lemare and S. Lollis 6. Parent-child interaction M. Putallaz and A. H. Heflin Part III. Social-Cognitive Process: 7. Issues in social cognition and sociometric status K. A. Dodge and E. Feldman 8. Reputational bias: view from the peer group S. Hymel, E. Wagner and L. J. Butler Part IV. Consequences of Peer Rejection: 9. Peer rejection and loneliness in childhood S. R. Asher, J. T. Parkhurst, S. Hymell and G. A. Williams 10. The role of poor peer relationships in the development of disorder J. Kupersmidt, J. D. Coie and K. A. Dodge Part V. Issues in Intervention Research: 11. Adapting intervention to the problems of aggressive and disruptive rejected children J. D. Coie and G. K. Koeppl 12. Toward the development of successful social skill training for preschool children J. Mize and G. W. Ladd Conclusion: 13. Toward a theory of peer rejection J. D. Coie.

1,287 citations




MonographDOI
TL;DR: In this article, three reactionaries and three reactionary theses are compared and compared in a Synoptic Table with a comparison of the three Theses' effects on the French Revolution and the Universal Suffrage movement.
Abstract: * Preface *1. Two Hundred Years of Reactionary Rhetoric * Three Reactions and Three Reactionary Theses * A Note on the Term "Reaction" *2. The Perversity Thesis * The French Revolution and Proclamation of the Perverse Effect * Universal Suffrage and Its Alleged Perverse Effects * The Poor Laws and the Welfare State * Reflections on the Perversity Thesis *3. The Futility Thesis * Questioning the Extent of Change Wrought by the French Revolution: Tocqueville * Questioning the Extent of Change Likely to Follow from Universal Suffrage: Mosca and Pareto * Questioning the Extent to Which the Welfare State Delivers the Goods to the Poor * Reflections on the Futility Thesis *4. The Jeopardy Thesis * Democracy as a Threat to Liberty * The Welfare State as a Threat to Liberty and Democracy * Reflections on the Jeopardy Thesis *5. The Three Theses Compared and Combined * A Synoptic Table * The Comparative Influence of the Theses * Some Simple Interactions * A More Complex Interaction *6. From Reactionary to Progressive Rhetoric * The Synergy Illusion and the Imminent-Danger Thesis *"Having History on One's Side" * Counterparts of the Perversity Thesis *7. Beyond Intransigence * A Turnabout in Argument? * How Not to Argue in a Democracy * Notes * Acknowledgments * Index

852 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present comparative theoretical perspectives on the American system, the Third Italy, the Industrial District as Collective Entrepeneur, and the New Competition: Interpretations and Challenges.
Abstract: Introduction. Part I: The Old Competition. 1. The American System. 2. Big Business: Mass Production and Managerial Hierarchy. 3. Big Business and Sector Regulation. 4. Comparative Theoretical Perspectives on the Firm. Part II: The New Competition. 5. The Entrepeneurial Firm in Japan. 6. Industrial Policy and Antitrust in Japan. 7. The Third Italy: Regional Cooperation and International Competition. 8. The Industrial District as Collective Entrepeneur. 9. The New Competition: Interpretations and Challenges.

833 citations






BookDOI
Paul Atkinson1
TL;DR: The Ethnographic Imagination explores how sociologists use literary and rhetorical conventions to convey their findings and arguments, and to 'persuade' their colleagues and students of the authenticity of their accounts as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: First published in 1990, The Ethnographic Imagination explores how sociologists use literary and rhetorical conventions to convey their findings and arguments, and to 'persuade' their colleagues and students of the authenticity of their accounts. Looking at selected sociological texts in the light of contemporary social theory, the author analyses how their arguments are constructed and illustrated, and gives many new insights into the literary convention of realism and factual accounts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the re-emergence of the "woman question" and the great divide between politico-feminist schism are discussed. And the ascendance of cultural feminism is discussed.
Abstract: Introduction Prologue: the re-emergence of the "woman question" The great divide: the politico-feminist schism Breaking away from the left Varieties of radical feminism -- redstockings, Cell 16, the feminists, New York radical feminists The eruption of difference The ascendance of cultural feminism Epilogue

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The official U.S. poverty measures were adopted in the late 1960s and were based on data from the mid-1950s and as mentioned in this paper argues for a reevaluation of the experts' consensus on where we draw the poverty line.
Abstract: The official U.S. poverty measures were adopted in the late 1960s and were based on data from the mid-1950s. This book argues for a reevaluation of the experts' consensus on where we draw the poverty line.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sanday et al. as mentioned in this paper found that gang rape occurs with regularity in fraternities, in athletic dorms, and in other exclusively male enclaves, and that the role played by pornography, male bonding, degrading jokes, and ritual dances in shaping the attitude toward women and toward sexuality.
Abstract: This book on gang rape in fraternities tells explicitly about sexual practices on university campuses. The evidence shows how gang rape occurs with regularity in fraternities, in athletic dorms, and in other exclusively male enclaves. Male bonding, pornography, what culture teaches adolescents about sex, and the "boys will be boys" attitude of authorities all contribute, according to the author, to an atmosphere which leads to sexual harassment, to date rape, to gang rape. Beginning with one incident at one fraternity when, after a Thursday night party, one woman - all accounts agree - had sex with five or six fraternity brothers, the book explores what happened through interviews with the victim, the participants, onlookers, and university administrators. Professor Sanday reconstructs the daily life in the fraternity, showing the role played by pornography, male bonding, degrading jokes, and ritual dances in shaping the fraternities' attitude toward women and toward sexuality. Two fraternity brothers were willing to share details of the humiliating initiation rituals they were compelled to undergo, and they are presented here. According to the research, gang rape occurs widely on college campuses. The evidence suggests a common pattern, in which the brothers seek out a "party girl", a vulnerable young woman, one who is seeking acceptance, or is high on alcohol - sometimes her drinks have been deliberately spiked - and then take her to a room. She may or may not agree to have sex with one man. She then generally passes out and a "train" of men have sex with her. Party invitations may even suggest the possibility of a "train". Incidents of this sort are rarely prosecuted or even labeled rape, part of an institutional attitude which privileges men and sanctions sexual power. This sobering view of sexual life among America's youth is one which some may, despite all evidence, choose to disbelieve. Yet what cannot be denied or ignored is the struggle by college-aged men and women to define their sexuality in the terms society offers them. Taught to deny the feminine and embrace sexual power, as this view suggests, men can see it their natural right to degrade and to assault women. And women - the unwilling victims - through their own lack of self esteem or sense of power, may seek social status by attaching themselves to men in power, in this case, the fraternity brothers.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Conley and O'Barr examine the experiences of litigants seeking redress of everyday difficulties through the small claims courts of the American legal system and find two major and contrasting ways in which they formulate and express their problems in terms of specific rule violations and seek concrete legal remedies that would mend soured relationships.
Abstract: In "Rules versus Relationships," John M. Conley and William M. O'Barr examine the experiences of litigants seeking redress of everyday difficulties through the small claims courts of the American legal system. The authors find two major and contrasting ways in which litigants formulate and express their problems in terms of specific rule violations and seek concrete legal remedies that would mend soured relationships and respond to their personal and social needs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Sexuality of Organization - Gibson Burrell and Jeff Hearn Gender, Sexuality and Organization Theory - Albert J Mills Gender, sexuality and the Labour Process - Peta Tancred-Sheriff Sexuality in the Workplace - Barbara A Gutek Key Issues in Social Research and Organizational Practice Sexuality, Discrimination and Harassment - Nancy DiTomaso.
Abstract: The Sexuality of Organization - Gibson Burrell and Jeff Hearn Gender, Sexuality and Organization Theory - Albert J Mills Gender, Sexuality and the Labour Process - Peta Tancred-Sheriff Sexuality in the Workplace - Barbara A Gutek Key Issues in Social Research and Organizational Practice Sexuality in the Workplace - Nancy DiTomaso Discrimination and Harassment Sexuality in the Workplace - David L Collinson and Margaret Collinson The Domination of Men's Sexuality Private Experiences in the Public Domain - Wendy Parkin Sexuality and Residential Care Organizations Private Experiences in the Public Domain - Marny Hall Lesbians in Organizations Organizations, Power and Sexuality - Deborah L Sheppard The Image and Self-Image of Women Managers Bureaucracy, Rationality and Sexuality - Rosemary Pringle The Case of Secretaries The Sexuality of Organization - The Editors A Postcript



BookDOI
TL;DR: Examining changes in mental health care between 1940 and 1970, Grob shows that community psychiatric and psychological services grew rapidly, while new treatments enabled many patients to lead normal lives.
Abstract: The distinguished historian of medicine Gerald Grob analyzes the post- World War II policy shift that moved many severely mentally ill patients from large state hospitals to nursing homes, families, and subsidized hotel rooms--and also, most disastrously, to the streets. On the eve of the war, public mental hospitals were the chief element in the American mental health system. Responsible for providing both treatment and care and supported by major portions of state budgets, they employed more than two-thirds of the members of the American Psychiatric Association and cared for nearly 98 percent of all institutionalized patients. This study shows how the consensus for such a program vanished, creating social problems that tragically intensified the sometimes unavoidable devastation of mental illness. Examining changes in mental health care between 1940 and 1970, Grob shows that community psychiatric and psychological services grew rapidly, while new treatments enabled many patients to lead normal lives. Acute services for the severely ill were expanded, and public hospitals, relieved of caring for large numbers of chronic or aged patients, developed into more active treatment centers. But since the main goal of the new policies was to serve a broad population, many of the most seriously ill were set adrift without even the basic necessities of life. By revealing the sources of the euphemistically designated policy of "community care, " Grob points to sorely needed alternatives.

BookDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an ethnomethodology and the foundational respecification of the human sciences Graham Button and his co-authors discuss the importance of language and culture in moral judgement.
Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction: ethnomethodology and the foundational respecification of the human sciences Graham Button 2. Respecification Harold Garfinkel 3. Logic Jeff Coulter 4. Epistemology Wes Sharrock and Bob Anderson 5. Method: measurement Mike Lynch 6. Method: evidence and inference Douglas Benson and John Hughes 7. The social actor Wes Sharrock and Graham Button 8. Cognition Jeff Coulter 9. Language and culture John R. E. Lee 10. Values and moral judgement Lena Jayyusi References Index.


BookDOI
TL;DR: Lindberg and Campbell as mentioned in this paper studied the evolution of economic governance in the United States from 1830-1986 and found that the state and the organization of economic activity in the US changed with economic growth.
Abstract: List of contributors List of figures List of tables Preface Part I. Conceptual and Historical Foundations: 1. Economic governance and the analysis of structural change in the American economy Leon N. Lindberg, John L. Campbell and J. Rogers Hollingsworth 2. The logic of coordinating American manufacturing sectors J. Rogers Hollingsworth Part II. Empirical Studies of Governance of the American Transformations in the United States: 3. Transformations in the governance of the American telecommunications industry Kenneth N. Bickers 4. Contradictions of governance in the nuclear energy sector John L. Campbell 5. The statist evolution of rail governance in the United States, 1830-1986 Robert Dawson Kennedy Jr 6. Governance of the steel industry: what caused the disintegration of the oligopoly? Christoph Scherrer 7. Governance of the automobile industry: the transformation of labour and and supplier relations Christoph Scherrer 8. The dairy industry: form yeomanry to the institutionalization of multilateral governance Brigitte Young 9. Economic governance and the American meatpacking industry John Portz 10. The invisible hand in healthcare: the rise of financial markets in the US hospital industry Patricia J. Arnold Part III. Theoretical Evaluation of the Empirical Cases: 11. The evolution of governance regimes John L. Campbell and Leon N. Lindberg 12. The state and the organization of economic activity Leon N. Lindberg and John L. Campbell References Index.

BookDOI
TL;DR: Elster and Roemer as mentioned in this paper discuss the moral basis of interpersonal comparisons of well-being and interpersonal comparison of utility in the context of the Harsanyi-Sen debate on utilitarianism.
Abstract: Acknowledgments Introduction Jon Elster and John E. Roemer 1. The moral basis of interpersonal comparisons Thomas M. Scanlon 2. Against the taste model James Griffin 3. Utilitarian metaphysics? John Broome 4. Local justice and interpersonal comparisons Jon Elster 5. Notes on the psychology of utility Daniel Kahneman and Carol Varey 6. Adult-equivalence scales, interpersonal comparisons of well-being, and applied welfare economics Charles Blackorby and David Donaldson 7. Interpersonal comparisons of utility: why and how they are and should be made Peter J. Hammond 8. A consideration of the Harsanyi-Sen debate on utilitarianism John A. Weymark 9. Deducing interpersonal comparisons from local expertise Ignacio Ortuno-Ortin and John E. Roemer 10. Subjective interpersonal comparison Aanund Hylland 11. Utilitarian fundamentalism and limited information C. D'Aspremont and L. A. Gerard-Varet Index.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nature and extent of rape three contemporary theories of rape as discussed by the authors, the feminist theory, the social learning theory and the evolutionary theory, and a model and general discussion of the synthesized theory.
Abstract: The nature and extent of rape three contemporary theories of rape the feminist theory - hypotheses and evidence the social learning theory - hypotheses and evidence the evolutionary theory - hypothoses and evidence a synthesized theory of rape a model and general discussion of the synthesized theory.