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JournalISSN: 0195-6671

Cretaceous Research

About: Cretaceous Research is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Cretaceous & Cenomanian. It has an ISSN identifier of 0195-6671. Over the lifetime, 3555 publication(s) have been published receiving 62115 citation(s). more

Topics: Cretaceous, Cenomanian, Aptian more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CRETRES.2012.03.014
Guanghai Shi1, David A. Grimaldi2, George E. Harlow2, Jing Wang1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Amber from northern Myanmar has been commercially exploited for millennia, and it also preserves the most diverse palaeobiota among the worlds' seven major deposits of Cretaceous amber. Recent estimated ages vary from Albian to Cenomanian, based on palynology, an ammonoid, and Mesozoic insect taxa preserved within the amber. The burmite-bearing rock is sedimentaryand consists mainly of rounded lithic clasts (0.03w0.15 mm in diameter), with minor fragments of quartz and feldspar. Among the lithic clasts are mostly volcanic rocks. Zircons separated from the amber matrix form two groups: Group-I zircons are overgrown and have variable CL patterns, experienced slight geological disturbances after they formed, and their Ion microprobe 206 Pb/ 238 U ages fall into a very narrow range of w102 Maew108 Ma; Group-II zircons are typical magmatic ones with rhythmically flat zones, inferred to be derived fromvolcanic rock clasts, and yielded a concordia 206 Pb/ 238 U age of 98.79 � 0.62 Ma. The dating on Group-I zircons is only for their interiors, thus hiding what age excursion might come from the overgrowth. Considering the nearshore marine environment and 1-m thickness of the burmite-bearing sediments, and the syn- and post-eruption deposition of volcanic clasts, the age of 98.79 � 0.62 Ma therefore can be used as a maximum limit for the burmite(eitheratorafter),establishinganearliestCenomanianageforthefossilizedinclusions.Theagealso indicates that volcanic eruption occurred at 98.79 � 0.62 Ma in the vicinity of the Hukawng Valley. more

Topics: Volcanic rock (55%), Clastic rock (51%), Cenomanian (50%)

901 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0195-6671(88)90003-1
Ian Jarvis, G.A. Carson1, M. K. E. Cooper, Malcolm B. Hart  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The effects of the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) in the Chalk Sea of NW Europe have been investigated using published macrofossil records combined with new detailed sedimentological, foraminiferal, ostracod, calcareous nannofossil, dinoflagellate cyst and stable-isotope data from Dover, England. The ranges of individual fossil species are displayed against lithostratigraphic logs, and their relation to the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (defined using macrofaunal data) is discussed. A positive carbon stable-isotope excursion, indicating the stratigraphic extent of the OAE, spans the stage boundary. Correlation with successions elsewhere in NW Europe suggests that the OAE was isochronous, and that major biostratigraphic marker horizons are characterised by distinctive δ13C values. All microfossil groups display uppermost Cenomanian abundance and diversity minima which correspond closely to the peak of the carbon stable-isotope excursion. We propose that the OAE was a phase of increased upwelling which led to a widespread expansion and intensification of the oxygen-minimum zone in the oceans. As a result, increasingly dysaerobic bottom waters developed within the Chalk Sea, and were responsible for progressive disappearances in the benthonic microfauna, including the extinctions of many typical Cenomanian taxa. At the same time the oxygen-minimum zone rose in the water column, causing the extinction of deeper water planktonic foraminifera and then the gradual loss of intermediate-water groups. A temporary disappearance of dinoflagellate cysts and a proliferation of calcispheres were associated with these events. As the OAE waned, new species gradually evolved to fill niches left vacant following the extinctions of Cenomanian taxa. The appearance of these new species defines the base of the Turonian, the stage division being a direct consequence of the OAE. It is concluded the OAEs provide a major mechanism for controlling rates of evolution and extinction throughout the Phanerozoic. more

Topics: Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event (62%), Cenomanian (58%), Cretaceous (54%) more

376 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CRETRES.2011.12.005
Karl B. Föllmi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Early Cretaceous life and the environment were strongly influenced by the accelerated break up of Pangaea, which was associated with the formation of a multitude of rift basins, intensified spreading, and important volcanic activity on land and in the sea. These processes likely interacted with greenhouse conditions, and Early Cretaceous climate oscillated between “normal” greenhouse, predominantly arid conditions, and intensified greenhouse, predominantly humid conditions. Arid conditions were important during the latest Jurassic and early Berriasian, the late Barremian, and partly also during the late Aptian. Humid conditions were particularly intense and widespread during shorter episodes of environmental change (EECs): the Valanginian Weissert, the latest Hauterivian Faraoni, the latest Barremian–earliest Aptian Taxy, the early Aptian Selli, the early late Aptian Fallot and the late Aptian–early Albian Paquier episodes. Arid conditions were associated with evaporation, low biogeochemical weathering rates, low nutrient fluxes, and partly stratified oceans, leading to oxygen depletion and enhanced preservation of laminated, organic-rich mud (LOM). Humid conditions enabled elevated biogeochemical weathering rates and nutrient fluxes, important runoff and the buildup of freshwater lids in proximal basins, intensified oceanic and atmospheric circulation, widespread upwelling and phosphogenesis, important primary productivity and enhanced preservation of LOM in expanded oxygen-minimum zones. The transition of arid to humid climates may have been associated with the net transfer of water to the continent owing to the infill of dried-out groundwater reservoirs in internally drained inland basins. This resulted in shorter-term sea-level fall, which was followed by sea-level rise. These sea-level changes and the influx of freshwater into the ocean may have influenced oxygen-isotope signatures. Climate change preceding and during the Early Cretaceous EECs may have been rapid, but in general, the EECs had a “pre”-history, during which the stage was set for environmental change. Negative feedback on the climate through increased marine LOM preservation was unlikely, because of the low overall organic-carbon accumulation rates during these episodes. Life and climate co-evolved during the Early Cretaceous. Arid conditions may have affected continental life, such as across the Tithonian/Berriasian boundary. Humid conditions and the corresponding tendency to develop dys- to anaerobic conditions in deeper ocean waters led to phases of accelerated extinction in oceans, but may have led to more luxuriant vegetation cover on continents, such as during the Valanginian, to the benefit of herbivores. During Early Cretaceous EECs, reef systems and carbonate platforms in general were particularly vulnerable. They were the first to disappear and the last to recover, often only after several million years. more

Topics: Aptian (54%), Cretaceous (52%), Pangaea (51%) more

307 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CRETRES.2008.05.025
Abstract: The Cretaceous is a special episode in the history of the Earth named for a unique rock type, chalk. Chalk is similar to modern deep-sea calcareous ooze and its deposition in epicontinental seas occurred as these areas became an integral part of the ocean. The shelf-break fronts that today separate inshore from openocean waters cannot have existed during the Late Cretaceous probably because the higher sea level brought the base of the wind-mixed Ekman layer above the sea floor on the continental margins. A second peculiarity of the Cretaceous is its warm equable climate. Tropical and polar temperatures were warmer than today. Meridional and ocean-continent temperature gradients were lower. The warmer climate was a reflection of higher atmospheric levels of greenhouse gasses, CO2 and possibly CH4, reinforced by higher water vapor content in response to the warmer temperatures. Most of the additional energy involved in the meridional heat transport system was transported as latent heat of vaporization of H20 by the atmosphere. Poleward heat transport may have been as much as 1 Petawatt (20%) greater than it is today. C3 plants provided for more efficient energy transport into the interior of the continents. Circulation of the Cretaceous ocean may have been very different from that of today. It is impossible for large areas of the modern ocean to become anoxic, but episodes of local anoxia occurred during the earlier Cretaceous and became regional to global during the middle of the Cretaceous. The present ocean structure depends on constant wind systems, which in turn depend on stability of the atmospheric pressure systems forced by polar ice. During most of the Cretaceous the polar regions were ice free. Without polar ice there were seasonal reversals of the high-latitude atmospheric pressure systems, resulting in disruption of the mid- and high latitude wind systems. Without constant mid-latitude westerly winds, there would be no subtropical and polar fronts in the ocean, no well-developed ocean pycnocline, and no tropical subtropical gyres dominating ocean circulation. Instead the ocean circulation would be accomplished through mesoscale eddies which could carry warmth to the polar regions. Greater knowledge and understanding of the Cretaceous is critical for learning how the climate system operates when one or both polar regions are ice free. more

Topics: Polar amplification (62%), Ocean heat content (62%), Polar low (62%) more

260 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0195-6671(91)90015-5
T. Jerzykiewicz1, D.A. RussellInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Repeated intervals of block-faulting across the Gobi Basin produced a complex mosaic of grabens and semigrabens which were infilled with vertebrate-bearing strata of late Mesozoic age. Although it is nowhere preserved in its entirety, superpositional relationships between the major lithostratigraphic units permit the reconstruction of a composite stratigraphic section. Lower through Middle Jurassic volcanics and coarse-grained clastics deposited on alluvial fans occur near the margins of the Gobi Basin and contain few vertebrate fossils. Upper Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous strata (Sharilinian and Tsagantsabian time) contain coarse-grained fluvial deposits and some fossiliferous fine-grained alluvial plain and lacustrine sediments. Large, perennial lakes prevailed during Shinkhudukian (Aptian) time, to be replaced by vast, fluvially-influenced plains with smaller lakes during Khukhtekian (Aptian-Albian) time. Vertebrate assemblages of Early Cretaceous age are depauperate and characterized by endemic taxa, while during Khukhtekian time they became more diverse owing to immigration from Europe/North America. Fluviolacustrine and lacustrine environments of Baynshirenian (Turonian through early Campanian) time were inhabitated by shamosuchids, segnosaurids and diverse chelonians. The Gobi region was then gradually transformed into semi-arid alluvial plains interrupted by seasonal lakes and dune fields with ephemeral interdune streams and ponds. Semi-arid environments were widespread during Barungoyotian (Campanian) time and supported vertebrate assemblages dominated by lizards, gobiosuchids and protoceratopsids. Increased pluviosity during Nemegtian (Maastrichtian) time is indicated by meandering stream facies containing abundant remains of ornithomimids, tyrannosaurids and hadrosaurids. Available evidence points to a steady increase in dinosaurian diversity to the end of the Cretaceous. more

Topics: Cretaceous (55%), Chronostratigraphy (54%), Aptian (53%) more

237 Citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Dong Ren

97 papers, 749 citations

Diying Huang

77 papers, 548 citations

Martin G. Lockley

65 papers, 1.6K citations

Bo Wang

52 papers, 327 citations

Chenyang Cai

44 papers, 312 citations

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