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Showing papers in "Crime and Justice in 1979"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both as discussed by the authors, which are especially useful.
Abstract: Longitudinal research involves study, over time, of a group of people, or of samples from the same population, using records, interviews, or both. Studies which extend over a long period, which are prospective, and which include interviews with the subjects are especially useful. The longitudinal method has been used to investigate criminal careers, especially the incidence and prevalence of official delinquency at different ages, the peak age for convictions, the relationship between juvenile delinquency and adult crime, and offense specialization. It has also been used to predict the onset of convictions, recidivism, and the ending of criminal careers; to study the effects of penal treatments and other events such as marriage on delinquency; and to investigate the transmission of criminality from one generation to the next. Longitudinal and cross-sectional methods each have a part to play in research into crime and delinquency and each has its advantages and disadvantages. Major methodological questions...

122 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a paradigm for reviewing the degree to which social programs represent the ideas underlying them and whether deinstitutionalization and diversion programs truly embody the ideas which underlie them.
Abstract: Deinstitutionalization and diversion of juvenile offenders have been prominent goals of recent juvenile justice reform efforts. Both are attempts to replace formal, institutional processing with various forms of community treatment. Legislatively mandated, theoretically justified, and responsive to a professional consensus that the conventional juvenile justice system is seriously deficient, both kinds of program enjoy broadly based support. For all that, however, neither program has often been established in accordance with its premises. They have not been meaningfully evaluated and their effectiveness, accordingly, cannot be shown. The words "diversion" and "deinstitutionalization" refer to both ideas and programs. Whether deinstitutionalization and diversion programs truly embody the ideas which underlie them is a critical question in any attempt to evaluate their effectiveness. This essay presents a paradigm for reviewing the degree to which social programs represent the ideas underlying them. It then...

113 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The extensive scholarly literature on prisoner subculture has, until quite recently, virtually ignored race relations as mentioned in this paper, and this oversight is significant; prisons have a long history of segregation and racial discrimination.
Abstract: The extensive scholarly literature on prisoner subculture has, until quite recently, virtually ignored race relations. The oversight is significant; prisons have a long history of segregation and racial discrimination. Descriptions and theories of prisoner subculture which do not take racial cleavages into account are incomplete and need to be reconsidered. Since the late 1950s race relations have precipitated enormous changes in prisoner subcultures and in prison organization. The Black Muslims challenged the hegemony of white officials and prisoners and their legal activism led to the intervention of the federal courts in prison administration. Present-day prisoner subcultures are characterized by racial polarization and conflict, and by the dominance of blacks and other minorities who now constitute the majority of the national prisoner population. The next generation of research should link the prison society, including its patterns of race relations, to both the unique characteristics of prisons and ...

56 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the structural aspects of discretion and peacekeeping in police work, and the emergence of the ideology of police-community relations, and provide a critique of traditional police rationales and demonstrate the complexity and contradictions inherent in the exercise of police power.
Abstract: Contemporary conceptions of the police and of the problems of policing in the United States have been shaped by the political upheavals and crisis of legitimacy that confronted all institutions of government in the 1960s. Recent research has focused attention on the structural aspects of discretion and peacekeeping in police work, and on the emergence of the ideology of police-community relations. Such studies have provided a critique of traditional police rationales and have demonstrated the complexity and contradictions inherent in the exercise of police power. Meanwhile. police reform in the 1970s has become an established enterprise, increasingly under the technical and administrative control of a class of professional change-makers. The present direction of technologically and legalistically determined reforms reflects an accelerated movement away from concerns of "substantive rationality" to those of "formal rationality" so that the reform process has become depoliticized and lacks policy direction....

41 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines comparative and historical studies of the function, structure, and control of the police in Western Europe and North America, assessing what is known about variations in each and whether explanations for these variations have been convincingly demonstrated.
Abstract: This essay examines comparative and historical studies of the function, structure, and control of the police in Western Europe and North America, assessing what is known about variations in each and whether explanations for these variations have been convincingly demonstrated. Study of the nature of police work has employed three quite different measures of function-the number of personnel assigned to different specialized units, the kind of occasions that trigger police mobilizations, and the nature of outcomes from mobilizations. The bulk of police personnel appears always to have been assigned to patrol. Though policing is a many-faceted undertaking, state imposition of tasks on the police has declined in all countries during the past century. Adequate historical or comparative data are not available on whether as large a portion of patrol officers' time is taken up with service tasks in other times and places as in the modern United States. Because measures of function differ so significantly, there i...

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite a growing body of criticism of the ecological approach to the study of delinquency, the number of criminological studies based upon it, both in Great Britain and in the United States, has shown no signs of decreasing as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Despite a growing body of criticism of the ecological approach to the study of delinquency, the number of criminological studies based upon it, both in Great Britain and in the United States, has shown no signs of decreasing. Given the sheer numbers of such studies that have been conducted in postwar years and their increasing statistical complexity, it is important to make some critical assessment of their contribution to our understanding of delinquency. In much of this work, the objectives of the research have become blurred, conceptual difficulties and ambiguities have been overlooked, and conclusions have been presented as if the use of a technically sophisticated methodology obviated the need for careful explanation. There are some promising directions for further research. Particular attention should be paid to the research that has been stimulated in recent years by the publication of Oscar Newman's Defensible Space (1972). New sources of crime data-particularly victimization studies and self-repo...

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data collected to date are far more ambiguous than has been acknowledged in the current debates about "cracking down" on youth violence or identifying and isolating "hard core" or career adolescent offenders as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Census and arrest data suggest that all forms of violent youth crime increased more than the youth population during the 1960s. Since 1970, however, per capita rates of youth homicide and rape have been stable as measured by arrest trends. Robbery by young offenders in 1977 was close to the per capita rate in 1970. Only the heterogeneous crime of aggravated assault has increased significantly through the 1970s, and this increase may be a result of different patterns of police classification and reporting. Recent studies of youth crime have produced insufficient information on the concentration, predictability, and responsiveness to sanctions of youth violence. The data collected to date are far more ambiguous than has been acknowledged in the current debates about "cracking down" on youth violence or identifying and isolating "hard core" or career adolescent offenders. Language: en

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of differential anticipation is proposed for criminal policy. But it does not address the problem of crime causation and does not provide a sound foundation for sensible and hopeful public policies.
Abstract: Crime control policies are inextricably connected to efforts to understand the causes of crime. As theories of crime causation change, so-imperfectly and with delay-do efforts to contain, prevent, and respond to criminal acts. A tendency to isolate crime control policy from theory has recently developed, influenced in part by the belief that "nothing works," that we do not know how to reduce the future criminality of convicted offenders. The tendency is unfortunate and uninformed. Research and theory in many disciplines and from many perspectives have identified a number of basic notions about crime which can inform criminal policy. Those basic notions-including concern for social ties, social learning, and perceived risks and opportunities-can be integrated into a theory of "differential anticipation" which provides a sound foundation for sensible and hopeful public policies.

20 citations