Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology
Taylor & Francis
About: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology is an academic journal published by Taylor & Francis. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Wastewater & Sewage treatment. It has an ISSN identifier of 1064-3389. Over the lifetime, 1300 publications have been published receiving 110408 citations. The journal is also known as: Environmental science and technology & CRC journals critical reviews in environmental science and technology.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the complex mechanisms of Fenton and Fenton-like reactions and the important factors influencing these reactions, from both a fundamental and practical perspective, in applications to water and soil treatment, are discussed.
Abstract: Fenton chemistry encompasses reactions of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron to generate highly reactive species such as the hydroxyl radical and possibly others. In this review, the complex mechanisms of Fenton and Fenton-like reactions and the important factors influencing these reactions, from both a fundamental and practical perspective, in applications to water and soil treatment, are discussed. The review covers modified versions including the photoassisted Fenton reaction, use of chelated iron, electro-Fenton reactions, and Fenton reactions using heterogeneous catalysts. Sections are devoted to nonclassical pathways, by-products, kinetics and process modeling, experimental design methodology, soil and aquifer treatment, use of Fenton in combination with other advanced oxidation processes or biodegradation, economic comparison with other advanced oxidation processes, and case studies.
TL;DR: In this paper, the long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status is discussed based on theory and model simulations, and it seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years.
Abstract: The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds). Existing data show high leachate concentrations of all components in the early acid phase due to strong decomposition and leaching. In the long methanogenic phase a more stable leachate, with lower concentrations and a low BOD/COD-ratio, is observed. Generally, very low concentrations of heavy metals are observed. In contrast, the concentration of ammonia does not decrease, and often constitutes a major long-term pollutant in leachate. A broad range of xenobiotic organic compounds is observed in landfill leachate. The long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status is discussed based on theory and model simulations. It seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years. This is supported by a few laboratory investigations. The existing data and model evaluations indicate that the xenobiotic organic compounds in most cases do not constitute a major long-term problem. This may suggest that ammonia will be of most concern in the long run.
TL;DR: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute important, promising, efficient, and environmental-friendly methods developed to principally remove persistent organic pollutants (POP) from waters and wastewaters.
Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) constitute important, promising, efficient, and environmental-friendly methods developed to principally remove persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from waters and wastewaters. Generally, AOPs are based on the in situ generation of a powerful oxidizing agent, such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH), obtained at a sufficient concentration to effectively decontaminate waters. This critical review presents a precise and overall description of the recent literature (period 1990–2012) concerning the main types of AOPs, based on chemical, photochemical, sonochemical, and electrochemical reactions. The principles, performances, advantages, drawbacks, and applications of these AOPs to the degradation and destruction of POPs in aquatic media and to the treatment of waters and waste waters have been reported and compared.
TL;DR: The current state of knowledge on the physicochemical behavior of mercury in the aquatic environment, and in particular the environmental factors influencing its transformation into highly toxic methylated forms is examined in this paper.
Abstract: Mercury is one of the most hazardous contaminants that may be present in the aquatic environment, but its ecological and toxicological effects are strongly dependent on the chemical species present. Species distribution and transformation processes in natural aquatic systems are controlled by various physical, chemical, and biological factors. Depending on the prevailing environmental conditions, inorganic mercury species may be converted to many times more toxic methylated forms such as methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin that is readily accumulated by aquatic biota. Despite a considerable amount of literature on the subject, the behavior of mercury and many of the transformation and distribution mechanisms operating in the natural aquatic environment are still poorly understood. This review examines the current state of knowledge on the physicochemical behavior of mercury in the aquatic environment, and in particular the environmental factors influencing its transformation into highly toxic methylated forms.
TL;DR: There is an essential relation between poverty and fluorosis as malnutrition is found to play an aggressive role in its severity, as the lack of access to clean water denies the most essential of all rights, the right to life.
Abstract: ‘Water is life,’ so central to human life, yet over one billion people across the world have no access to safe drinking water. Of late, there has been increasing global attention focused on resolving water quality problems especially in developing countries, as the lack of access to clean water denies the most essential of all rights, the right to life. The latest estimates suggest that around 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, are under the dreadful fate of fluorosis. India and China, the two most populous countries of the world, are the worst affected. India is plagued with numerous water quality problems due to prolific contaminants mainly of geogenic origin and fluoride stands first among them. The weathering of primary rocks and leaching of fluoride-containing minerals in soils yield fluoride rich groundwater in India which is generally associated with low calcium content and high bicarbonate ions. The unfettered ground water tapping exacerbates the failure of drinking water so...