Current Medicinal Chemistry
About: Current Medicinal Chemistry is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Cancer & Receptor. It has an ISSN identifier of 0929-8673. Over the lifetime, 6186 publication(s) have been published receiving 266801 citation(s).
Topics: Cancer, Receptor, Oxidative stress, Population, Signal transduction
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 May 2005-Current Medicinal Chemistry
TL;DR: This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals.
Abstract: Metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is reviewed. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to DNA bases, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Lipid peroxides, formed by the attack of radicals on polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids, can further react with redox metals finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and other exocyclic DNA adducts (etheno and/or propano adducts). Whilst iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), vanadium (V) and cobalt (Co) undergo redox-cycling reactions, for a second group of metals, mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Arsenic (As) is thought to bind directly to critical thiols, however, other mechanisms, involving formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions, have been proposed. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Common mechanisms involving the Fenton reaction, generation of the superoxide radical and the hydroxyl radical appear to be involved for iron, copper, chromium, vanadium and cobalt primarily associated with mitochondria, microsomes and peroxisomes. However, a recent discovery that the upper limit of "free pools" of copper is far less than a single atom per cell casts serious doubt on the in vivo role of copper in Fenton-like generation of free radicals. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be involved in arsenite-induced DNA damage and pyrimidine excision inhibition. Various studies have confirmed that metals activate signalling pathways and the carcinogenic effect of metals has been related to activation of mainly redox-sensitive transcription factors, involving NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. Antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) provide protection against deleterious metal-mediated free radical attacks. Vitamin E and melatonin can prevent the majority of metal-mediated (iron, copper, cadmium) damage both in vitro systems and in metal-loaded animals. Toxicity studies involving chromium have shown that the protective effect of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation may be associated rather with the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants than the activity of enzymatic antioxidants. However, a very recent epidemiological study has shown that a daily intake of vitamin E of more than 400 IU increases the risk of death and should be avoided. While previous studies have proposed a deleterious pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C (ascorbate) in the presence of iron (or copper), recent results have shown that even in the presence of redox-active iron (or copper) and hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in humans in vitro. Experimental results have also shown a link between vanadium and oxidative stress in the etiology of diabetes. The impact of zinc (Zn) on the immune system, the ability of zinc to act as an antioxidant in order to reduce oxidative stress and the neuroprotective and neurodegenerative role of zinc (and copper) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed. This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals.
01 May 2003-Current Medicinal Chemistry
TL;DR: This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities and finds essential oils of spices and herbs were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.
Abstract: In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.
01 Jan 2003-Current Medicinal Chemistry
TL;DR: This review details developments of new, highly atom-economic MCR derived chemical methods, which enable the fast and efficient production of chemical libraries comprised of a variety of biologically relevant templates, and focuses on applications of isocyanide based MCR (IMCR) reactions.
Abstract: With the recent emergence of combinatorial chemistry and high-speed parallel synthesis for drug discovery applications, the multi-component reaction (MCR) has seen a resurgence of interest. Easily automated one-pot reactions, such as the Ugi and Passerini reactions, are powerful tools for producing diverse arrays of compounds, often in one step and high yield. Despite this synthetic potential, the Ugi reaction is limited by producing products that are flexible and peptide-like, often being classified as 'non drug-like'. This review details developments of new, highly atom-economic MCR derived chemical methods, which enable the fast and efficient production of chemical libraries comprised of a variety of biologically relevant templates. Representative examples will also be given demonstrating the successful impact of MCR combinatorial methods at different stages of the lead discovery, lead optimization and pre-clinical process development arenas. This will include applications spanning biological tools, natural products and natural product-like diversity, traditional small molecule and 'biotech' therapeutics respectively. In particular, this review will focus on applications of isocyanide based MCR (IMCR) reactions.
30 Jun 2000-Current Medicinal Chemistry
TL;DR: Polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes are considered as multi-cytokine inducers that are able to induce gene expression of vaious immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors and act as biological response modifiers.
Abstract: In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The most promising biopharmacological activities of these biopolymers are their immunomodulation and anti-cancer effects. They are mainly present as glucans with different types of glycosidic linkages such as (1-->3), (1-->6)-beta-glucans and (1-->3)-alpha-glucans, and as true herteroglycans, while others mostly bind to protein residues as polysaccharide-protein complexes. Three antitumor mushroom polysaccharides, i.e. lentinan, schizophyllan and protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK, Krestin), isolated respectively, from Lentinus edodes, Schizophyllum commune and Coriolus versicolor, have become large market items in Japan. Lentinan and schizophyllan are pure beta-glucans, whereas PSK is a protein-bound beta-glucan. A polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from a strain of Coriolus versicolor in China, has also been widely used as an anti-cancer and immunomodulatory agent. Although the mechansim of their antitumor action is still not completely clear, these polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes are suggested to enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro and act as biological response modifiers. Potentiation of the host defense system may result in the activation of many kinds of immune cells that are vitally important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes are considered as multi-cytokine inducers that are able to induce gene expression of vaious immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors. Some interesting studies focus on investigation of the relationship between their structure and antitumor activity, elucidation of their antitumor mechanism at the molecular level, and improvement of their various biological activities by chemical modifications.
01 May 2007-Current Medicinal Chemistry
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of recent findings of mechanisms and signaling pathways by which microglial cells are activated in CNS inflammatory diseases and various forms of potential therapeutic options to inhibit the microglia activation which amplifies the inflammation-related neuronal injury in neurodegenerative diseases are summarized.
Abstract: An inflammatory process in the central nervous system (CNS) is believed to play an important role in the pathway leading to neuronal cell death in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, multiple sclerosis and HIV-dementia. The inflammatory response is mediated by the activated microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, which normally respond to neuronal damage and remove the damaged cells by phagocytosis. Activation of microglia is a hallmark of brain pathology. However, it remains controversial whether microglial cells have beneficial or detrimental functions in various neuropathological conditions. The chronic activation of microglia may in turn cause neuronal damage through the release of potentially cytotoxic molecules such as proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen intermediates, proteinases and complement proteins. Therefore, suppression of microglia-mediated inflammation has been considered as an important strategy in neurodegenerative disease therapy. Several anti-inflammatory drugs of various chemical ingredients have been shown to repress the microglial activation and to exert neuroprotective effects in the CNS following different types of injuries. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these effects occur remain unclear. In recent years, several research groups including ours have attempted to explain the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways for the repressive effect of various drugs, on activation of microglial cells in CNS injury. We provide here a comprehensive review of recent findings of mechanisms and signaling pathways by which microglial cells are activated in CNS inflammatory diseases. This review article further summarizes the role of microglial cells in neurodegenerative diseases and various forms of potential therapeutic options to inhibit the microglial activation which amplifies the inflammation-related neuronal injury in neurodegenerative diseases.
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