Indian Academy of Sciences
About: Current Science is an academic journal published by Indian Academy of Sciences. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Monsoon. It has an ISSN identifier of 0011-3891. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 11649 publications have been published receiving 183876 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The genes governing the proline biosynthetic pathway, its degradation and regulation are summarized and an account on transgenics raised so far to engineer the overproduction of osmolyte proline is provided.
Abstract: Dramatic accumulation of proline due to increased synthesis and decreased degradation under a variety of stress conditions such as salt, drought and metal has been documented in many plants. Similarly, a decrease in the level of accumulated proline in the rehydrated plants is due to both down regulation of proline biosynthetic pathway enzymes and upregulation of proline degrading enzymes. But, the role of proline during plant development and the molecular basis of the effect of proline accumulation during stress and upon relief of stress are still largely obscure. Here, we summarize the genes governing the proline biosynthetic pathway, its degradation and regulation. Sequentially, we provide an account on transgenics raised so far to engineer the overproduction of osmolyte proline. Also, the identification of specific cellular pathways involved in proline biosynthesis and metabolic changes occurring in transgenic plants developed for proline enhancements are discussed. Further, emphasis is also made on an untouched area of signal transduction of proline biosynthetic pathway.
TL;DR: Salinity stress response is multigenic, as a number of processes affected, such as various compatible solutes/osmolytes, polyamines, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence mecha- nism, ion transport and compartmentalization of inj u- rious ions.
Abstract: ions and to some extent Cl and SO 4 2 of Mg 2+ and nutrient imbalance caused by excess of Na + and Cl ions. Salinity stress response is multigenic, as a number of processes i n- volved in the tolerance mechanism are affected, such as var ious compatible solutes/osmolytes, polyamines, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence mecha- nism, ion transport and compartmentalization of inj u- rious ions. Various genes/cDNAs encoding proteins involved in the above-mentioned processes have been identified and isolated. The role of genes/cDNAs e n- coding proteins involved in regulating other genes/ pro- teins, signal transduction process involving hormones like ABA, JA and polyamines, and strategies to i mprove salinity stress tolerance have also been di scussed. EXCESS amount of salt in the soil adversely affects plant growth and development. Nearly 20% of the world's cul- tivated area and nearly half of the world's i rrigated lands are affected by salinity 1
TL;DR: This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of the neem compounds isolated, pharmacological actions ofThe neem extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of neem along with their safety evaluation.
Abstract: Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is perhaps the most useful traditional medicinal plant in India. Each part of the neem tree has some medicinal property and is thus commercially exploitable. During the last five decades, apart from the chemistry of the neem compounds, considerable progress has been achieved regarding the biological activity and medicinal applications of neem. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activities of some of the neem compounds isolated, pharmacological actions of the neem extracts, clinical studies and plausible medicinal applications of neem along with their safety evaluation. MEDICINAL plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. Azadirachta indica A. Juss (syn. Melia azadirachta) is well known in India and its neighbouring countries for more than 2000 years as one of the most versatile medicinal plants having a wide spectrum of biological activity. A. indica A. Juss and M. azedarach are two closely related species of Meliaceae. The former is popularly known as Indian neem (margosa tree) or Indian lilac, and the latter as the Persian lilac. Neem is an evergreen tree, cultivated in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. Every part of the tree has been used as traditional medicine for household remedy against various human ailments, from antiquity 1–6 . Neem has been extensively used in ayurveda, unani and homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. The sanskrit name of the neem tree is ‘Arishtha’ meaning ‘reliever of sickness’ and hence is considered as ‘Sarbaroganib arini’. The tree is still regarded as ‘village dispensary’ in India. The importance of the neem tree has been recognized by the US National Academy of Sciences, which published a report in 1992 entitled ‘Neem – a tree for solving global problems’. The advancement of neem research has earlier been documented 7,8
TL;DR: A tutorial is presented on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), which finds applications in computationally processing large amounts of high-dimensio nal data with the aim of obtaining low-dimensional descriptions that capture much of the phenomena of interest.
Abstract: A tutorial is presented on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), which finds applications in computationally processing large amounts of high-dimensio nal data with the aim of obtaining low-dimensional descriptions that capture much of the phenomena of interest The discrete version of the POD, which is the singular value decomposition (SVD) of matrices, is described in some detail The continuous version of the POD is outlined Low-rank approximations to data using the SVD are discussed The SVD and the eigenvalue decomposition are compared Two geometric interpretations of the SVD/POD are given Computational strategies (using standard software) are mentioned Two numerical examples are provided: one shows low-rank approximations of a surface, and the other demonstrates simple a posteriori analysis of data from a simulated vibroimpact system Some relevant computer code is supplied
TL;DR: Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects, and have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.
Abstract: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is extensively used as a spice, food preservative and colouring material in India, China and South East Asia. It has been used in traditional medicine as a household remedy for various diseases, including biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism and sinusitis. For the last few decades, extensive work has been done to establish the biological activities and pharmacological actions of turmeric and its extracts. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric has been shown to have a wide spectrum of biological actions. These include its antiinflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antifibrotic, antivenom, antiulcer, hypotensive and hypocholesteremic activities. Its anticancer effect is mainly mediated through induction of apoptosis. Its antiinflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant roles may be clinically exploited to control rheumatism, carcinogenesis and oxidative stress-related pathogenesis. Clinically, curcumin has already been used to reduce post-operative inflammation. Safety evaluation studies indicate that both turmeric and curcumin are well tolerated at a very high dose without any toxic effects. Thus, both turmeric and curcumin have the potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.