About: Desalination is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Membrane & Desalination. It has an ISSN identifier of 0011-9164. Over the lifetime, 15412 publications have been published receiving 666363 citations. The journal is also known as: Membrane science and desalination.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a review of membrane characteristics, membrane-related heat and mass transfer concepts, fouling and the effects of operating condition is presented, as well as state-of-the-art research results in these different areas are discussed.
Abstract: article i nfo Membrane Distillation (MD) is a thermally-driven separation process, in which only vapour molecules trans- fer through a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The driving force in the MD process is the vapour pres- sure difference induced by the temperature difference across the hydrophobic membrane. This process has various applications, such as desalination, wastewater treatment and in the food industry. This review addresses membrane characteristics, membrane-related heat and mass transfer concepts, fouling and the effects of operating condition. State of the art research results in these different areas will be pre- sented and discussed.
TL;DR: The most commonly used desalination technologies are reverse osmosis (RO) and thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED) as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Throughout the world, water scarcity is being recognised as a present or future threat to human activity and as a consequence, a definite trend to develop alternative water resources such as desalination can be observed. The most commonly used desalination technologies are reverse osmosis (RO) and thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED). In Europe, reverse osmosis, due to its lower energy consumption has gained much wider acceptance than its thermal alternatives. This review summarises the current state-of-the art of reverse osmosis desalination, dealing not only with the reverse osmosis stage, but with the entire process from raw water intake to post treatment of product water. The discussion of process fundamentals, membranes and membrane modules and of current and future developments in membrane technology is accompanied by an analysis of operational issues as fouling and scaling and of measures for their prevention such as adequate cleaning procedures and antiscalant use. Special focus is placed on pre-treatment of raw water and post-treatment of brine as well as of product water to meet drinking and irrigation water standards, including evaluation of current boron removal options. Energy requirements of reverse osmosis plants as well as currently applied energy recovery systems for reduction of energy consumption are described and cost and cost structure of reverse osmosis desalination are outlined. Finally, current practices of waste management and disposal as well as new trends such as the use of hybrid plants, i.e. combining reverse osmosis with thermal processes and/or power generation are addressed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the use of agricultural solid wastes to remove two classes of dye, cationic and anionic dyes, was discussed and a simple comparison among cationi-and anionic dye adsorption by the same adsorbent was made, thus possibly opening the door for a better understanding of the dye-classified adaption process.
Abstract: Recently many researchers have proved the capability of agricultural solid wastes as adsorbents to remove many types of pollutants including dyes. This review represents the use of agricultural solid wastes to remove two classes of dye, cationic and anionic dyes and makes a simple comparison among cationic and anionic dye adsorption by the same adsorbent, thus possibly opening the door for a better understanding of the dye-classified adsorption process. Both these classes of dyes are toxic and cause severe problems to aquatic environment. Some agricultural solid wastes can remove both dye classes, although they need activation. The dye adsorption capacities of agricultural waste adsorbents vary, depending on the pH of solution, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and process temperature. The pH of solution is directly related to the dye-classified adsorption, where it affects the surface charge of the adsorbent and the degree of ionization of the adsorbate.
TL;DR: Nanofiltration (NF) membranes have come a long way since it was first introduced during the late 80's as mentioned in this paper, and significant development has taken place in terms of the fundamental understanding of the transport mechanism in NF membranes, which has been translated into predictive modeling based on the modified extended Nernst-Planck equation.
Abstract: Nanofiltration (NF) membranes have come a long way since it was first introduced during the late 80's. With properties in between those of ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO), NF membranes have been used in many interesting applications especially in water and wastewater treatment and desalination. Other applications include those in pharmaceutical and biotechnology, food and non-aqueous types of application. This review will comprehensively look at the recent advances in NF membranes research. Significant development has taken place in terms of the fundamental understanding of the transport mechanism in NF membranes. This has been translated into predictive modeling based on the modified extended Nernst–Planck equation. Similarly various methods have been used to fabricate improved NF membranes especially through interfacial polymerization incorporating nanoparticles and other additives, UV grafting/photografting, electron beam irradiation, plasma treatment and layer-by-layer modification. New applications were also explored in many industries. However fouling is still a prevalent issue that may hinder successful application of NF membranes. Efforts towards NF fouling prevention and mitigation have also been reported. The review ends with several recommendations on the future prospect of NF membranes research and development.
TL;DR: A number of seawater desalination technologies have been developed during the last several decades to augment the supply of water in arid regions of the world as mentioned in this paper, however, many countries are unable to afford these technologies as a fresh water resource.
Abstract: A number of seawater desalination technologies have been developed during the last several decades to augment the supply of water in arid regions of the world. Due to the constraints of high desalination costs, many countries are unable to afford these technologies as a fresh water resource. However, the steady increasing usage of seawater desalination has demonstrated that seawater desalination is a feasible water resource free from the variations in rainfall. A seawater desalination process separates saline seawater into two streams: a fresh water stream containing a low concentration of dissolved salts and a concentrated brine stream. The process requires some form of energy to desalinate, and utilizes several different technologies for separation. Two of the most commercially important technologies are based on the multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. Although the desalination technologies are mature enough to be a reliable source for fresh water from the sea, a significant amount of research and development (R&D) has been carried out in order to constantly improve the technologies and reduce the cost of desalination. This paper reviews the current status, practices, and advances that have been made in the realm of seawater desalination technologies. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of R&D activities and outlines future prospects for the state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies. Overall, the present review is made with special emphasis on the MSF and RO desalination technologies because they are the most successful processes for the commercial production of large quantities of fresh water from seawater.