Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
About: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Anxiety & Schizophrenia. It has an ISSN identifier of 1958-5969. Over the lifetime, 839 publication(s) have been published receiving 47154 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The role of the HPA axis in the integration of adaptive responses to stress is discussed and the major neuronal and endocrine systems that contribute to the regulation of theHPA axis and the maintenance of homeostasis in the face of aversive stimuli are identified.
Abstract: Animals respond to stress by activating a wide array of behavioral and physiological responses that are collectively referred to as the stress response. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in the stress response by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In response to stress, CRF initiates a cascade of events that culminate in the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. As a result of the great number of physiological and behavioral effects exerted by glucocorticoids, several mechanisms have evolved to control HPA axis activation and integrate the stress response. Glucocorticoid feedback inhibition plays a prominent role in regulating the magnitude and duration of glucocorticoid release. In addition to glucocorticoid feedback, the HPA axis is regulated at the level of the hypothalamus by a diverse group of afferent projections from limbic, mid-brain, and brain stem nuclei. The stress response is also mediated in part by brain stem noradrenergic neurons, sympathetic andrenornedullary circuits, and parasympathetic systems. In summary, the aim of this review is to discuss the role of the HPA axis in the integration of adaptive responses to stress. We also identify and briefly describe the major neuronal and endocrine systems that contribute to the regulation of the HPA axis and the maintenance of homeostasis in the face of aversive stimuli.
TL;DR: Comprehensive management of the patient with dementia includes building a partnership between health professionals and family caregivers, referral to Alzheimer's Associations, and psychosocial interventions where indicated.
Abstract: Family caregivers of people with dementia, often called the invisible second patients, are critical to the quality of life of the care recipients. The effects of being a family caregiver, though sometimes positive, are generally negative, with high rates of burden and psychological morbidity as well as social isolation, physical ill-health, and financial hardship. Caregivers vulnerable to adverse effects can be identified, as can factors which ameliorate or exacerbate burden and strain. Psychosocial interventions have been demonstrated to reduce caregiver burden and depression and delay nursing home admission. Comprehensive management of the patient with dementia includes building a partnership between health professionals and family caregivers, referral to Alzheimer's Associations, and psychosocial interventions where indicated.
TL;DR: A review of the magnitude of mental disorders in children and adolescents from recent community surveys across the world shows that approximately one fourth of youth experience a mental disorder during the past year, and about one third across their lifetimes.
Abstract: This article provides a review of the magnitude of mental disorders in children and adolescents from recent community surveys across the world. Although there is substantial variation in the results depending upon the methodological characteristics of the studies, the findings converge in demonstrating that approximately one fourth of youth experience a mental disorder during the past year, and about one third across their lifetimes. Anxiety disorders are the most frequent conditions in children, followed by behavior disorders, mood disorders, and substance use disorders. Fewer than half of youth with current mental disorders receive mental health specialty treatment. However, those with the most severe disorders tend to receive mental health services. Current issues that are now being identified in the field of child psychiatric epidemiology include: refinement of classification and assessment, inclusion of young children in epidemiologic surveys, integration of child and adult psychiatric epidemiology, and evaluation of both mental and physical disorders in children.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the structural modifications of the DNA can be established through environmental programming and that, in spite of the inherent stability of this epigenomic marker, it is dynamic and potentially reversible.
Abstract: Early experience permanently alters behavior and physiology. These effects are, in part, mediated by sustained alterations in gene expression in selected brain regions. The critical question concerns the mechanism of these environmental “programming” effects. We examine this issue with an animal model that studies the consequences of variations in mother-infant interactions on the development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress in adulthood. Increased levels of pup licking/grooming by rat mothers in the first week of life alter DNA structure at a glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in the hippocampus of the offspring. Differences in the DNA methylation pattern between the offspring of high- and low-lickinglgrooming mothers emerge over the first week of life; they are reversed with cross-fostering; they persist into adulthood; and they are associated with altered histone acetylation and transcription factor (nerve growth factor-induced clone A [NGFIA]) binding to the glucocorticoid receptor promoter. DNA methylation alters glucocorticoid receptor expression through modifications of chromatin structure. Pharmacological reversal of the effects on chromatin structure completely eliminates the effects of maternal care on glucocorticoid receptor expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stress, thus suggesting a causal relation between the maternally induced, epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene and the effects on stress responses in the offspring. These findings demonstrate that the structural modifications of the DNA can be established through environmental programming and that, in spite of the inherent stability of this epigenomic marker, it is dynamic and potentially reversible.
TL;DR: There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years, but in cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable and heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences.
Abstract: Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and separation anxiety disorder, are the most prevalent mental disorders and are associated with immense health care costs and a high burden of disease. According to large population-based surveys, up to 33.7% of the population are affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime. Substantial underrecognition and undertreatment of these disorders have been demonstrated. There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years. In cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable. It is more likely that this heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences. Anxiety disorders follow a chronic course; however, there is a natural decrease in prevalence rates with older age. Anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders.