Royal Entomological Society
About: Ecological Entomology is an academic journal published by Royal Entomological Society. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Genus. It has an ISSN identifier of 0307-6946. Over the lifetime, 5119 publications have been published receiving 145561 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Natural populations of pea aphids in California contain at least two facultative bacterial secondary symbionts (pea aphidsecondary symbiont, PASS, or pea Aphid rickettsia, PAR) in a range of frequencies throughout the state.
Abstract: 1. Natural populations of pea aphids in California contain at least two facultative bacterial secondary symbionts (pea aphid secondary symbiont, PASS, or pea aphid rickettsia, PAR) in a range of frequencies throughout the state. 2. Two pea aphid clones without either of these facultative associates failed to reproduce in the first 8 days after the final moult if they had been heat-stressed for a period of about 4 h at 39 °C as 1-day-old larvae in the laboratory. 3. Aphids infected artificially with PASS, however, were able to produce up to 48% of the normal complement of offspring produced by PASS-positive aphids that had not been heat-stressed. Clones infected artificially with PAR did not have the same advantage as those with PASS after heat stress. 4. In aphids without PASS or PAR, heat stress reduced the number of bacteriocytes (in which the obligate primary symbiont, Buchnera, resides) to 7% of non-heat-stressed aphids, while aphids with only PASS retained 70% of their bacteriocytes. Bacteriocytes in aphids with PAR but not PASS were reduced to 42% of controls. 5. When larvae were heat-stressed as older instars (5 days old), a similar pattern emerged, though the effect of heat stress was less extreme. Clones containing PASS produced the most offspring, three to 14 times as many as aphids without PASS or PAR. Aphids with PAR only, or PASS and PAR together, had reduced or no advantage over aphids without facultative symbionts. 6. Aphids of all clones that had been heat-stressed as later instars gave birth to a variable number of stillborn offspring. Aphids without facultative symbionts produced the most stillborn larvae. 7. Field studies showed a higher incidence of PASS in aphids collected in California in summer compared with aphids from the same sites collected 2–4 months earlier. The difference was significant in two of three widely dispersed locations.
TL;DR: The habitat components determining the structure of bee communities are well known when considering foraging resources; however, there is little data with respect to the role of nesting resources.
Abstract: 1. The habitat components determining the structure of bee communities are well known when considering foraging resources; however, there is little data with respect to the role of nesting resources. 2. As a model system this study uses 21 diverse bee communities in a Mediterranean landscape comprising a variety of habitats regenerating after fire. The findings clearly demonstrate that a variety of nesting substrates and nest building materials have key roles in organising the composition of bee communities. 3. The availability of bare ground and potential nesting cavities were the two primary factors influencing the structure of the entire bee community, the composition of guilds, and also the relative abundance of the dominant species. Other nesting resources shown to be important include availability of steep and sloping ground, abundance of plant species providing pithy stems, and the occurrence of pre-existing burrows. 4. Nesting resource availability and guild structure varied markedly across habitats in different stages of post-fire regeneration; however, in all cases, nest sites and nesting resources were important determinants of bee community structure.
TL;DR: Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or providing nutrients that are limited or lacking in the diet.
Abstract: 1. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or providing nutrients that are limited or lacking in the diet. Thereby, endosymbionts open niches to their insect host that would otherwise be unavailable. 2. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including enhanced parasite resistance, enhanced heat tolerance, and influences on insect–plant interactions such as manipulation of plant physiology to the benefit of the insect. 3. Traits mediated by endosymbionts are often identified by correlative studies where traits are found to be altered in the presence of a particular symbiont. Recent developments in genomic tools offer the opportunity for studying the impact of bacteria–insect symbioses under natural conditions in a population and community ecology context. In vivo experiments specifically testing putative functions of endosymbionts in parallel to population-level studies on the prevalence of endosymbionts allow disentangling host versus symbiont contribution to phenotypic variability observed in individuals. Effects of symbionts on host phenotype are often large and relevant to host fitness, e.g. by significantly enhancing survival or fecundity in a context-dependent manner. 4. Predominantly vertically transmitted endosymbionts contribute to the heritable genetic variation present in a host species. Phenotypic variation on which selection can act may be due to differences either among host genomes, symbiont genomes, or genotype × genotype interactions. Therefore the holobiont, i.e. the host including all symbionts, should be regarded as the unit of selection as the association between host and symbionts may affect the fitness of the holobiont depending on the environment.
TL;DR: In double mating experiments with Drosophila melanogaster in which one male had been irradiated, it was confirmed that sperm displacement is extensive, i.e. the second male to mate displaces most of the previously‐stored sperm.
Abstract: 1 In double mating experiments with Drosophila melanogaster in which one male had been irradiated, it was confirmed that sperm displacement is extensive, i.e. the second male to mate displaces most of the previously-stored sperm. 2 The predominance of the second ejaculate over the first increases with the interval between the two matings, from about P2= 0.83 (second mating on the first day after the first mating) to about P2= 0.99 (interval between mating = 14 days) where P2 is the proportion of offspring fathered by the second male. 3 A more accurate method for calculating P2 values is developed for experiments in which sperm are ‘labelled’ by irradiation treatment (equation 1). 4 Observations of the reducing egg production of the female throughout life were also obtained. A model is examined which incorporates both the sperm competition and egg production data to predict the reproductive value to a male of a mating with a given type of female, varying in age and mating status. The relative value (in terms of probable numbers of progeny gained) of a mating with a virgin or 4 day post-mating female is about twice that of a 14 day post-mating female, mainly because of the fecundity difference. 5 Some evolutionary aspects of sperm competition and multiple mating in insects are reviewed and discussed.
TL;DR: The species composition and spatial distribution of small insects and arachnids and Araneae, Opiliones, and Pseudoscorpiones were investigated in three indigenous, upland grasslands identified as the National Vegetation Classification Festuca–Agrostis–Galium typical subcommunity.
Abstract: 1. The species composition and spatial distribution of small insects (Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera) and arachnids (Araneae, Opiliones, and Pseudoscorpiones) were investigated in three indigenous, upland grasslands identified as the National Vegetation Classification Festuca–Agrostis–Galium typical subcommunity (code U4a), Festuca–Agrostis–Galium, Vaccinium–Deschampsia subcommunity (code U4e), and Nardus stricta species-poor sub-community (code U5a), on which grazing management was manipulated experimentally. 2. Two hypotheses were tested that predicted arthropod diversity in upland grasslands. The habitat heterogeneity hypothesis predicts that the species number and abundance of arthropods will have an asymptotic relationship with increasing numbers of plant species and greater structural heterogeneity in the vegetation. The symbiosis between patches hypothesis states that the species number and abundance of arthropods will express a unimodal relationship with the grain size of sward patches created by grazing. The sward patches must be large enough to be apparent to, and support populations of, arthropods, but small enough that interspersed tussocks provide shelter from weather and a deterrent to disturbance by grazers. 3. The hypotheses were tested by sampling arthropods from the geometrical patterns represented by the individual tussocks and intermediate sward components of three indigenous grasslands produced by different grazing treatments. Paired samples of arthropods were taken by motorized suction sampler, the first of the pair from the grazed sward and the second, the accumulated samples from the surrounding triad of tussocks (U4a and U5a grasslands) or hummocks (U4e grassland). The paired samples were taken from six randomly-selected locations across both replicates of each of the grazing treatments. 4. Arthropod species composition and abundance were compared between the paired sward and tussock samples and in turn with measures of the vertical and horizontal components of vegetation structure, i.e. the variance in vegetation height per unit area and the area covered by tussock compared with sward. 5. There were consistently more species and a greater abundance of arthropods associated with tussocks than with swards and the average species number and abundance for the combined pair of samples declined with increased grazing pressure. The relationship between vertical and horizontal components of vegetation structure and the species number and abundance of selected arthropods was asymptotic as opposed to unimodal, supporting the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, rather than the symbiosis between patches hypothesis. 6. Small and relatively sedentary insects and arachnids are more sensitive to grazing intensity and species of grazer in these upland, indigenous grasslands than are larger Coleoptera and Araneae, which respond less directly to varied grazing management. The overall linear reduction of small herbivorous and predatory arthropods with increased grazing intensity was buffered in grasslands with substantial tussock patches.