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JournalISSN: 0012-9658


About: Ecology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Species richness. It has an ISSN identifier of 0012-9658. Over the lifetime, 17731 publication(s) have been published receiving 1750013 citation(s). The journal is also known as: environmental sciences.

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1945-Ecology

9,129 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1992-Ecology
Abstract: This book is the second of two volumes in a series on terrestrial and marine comparisons, focusing on the temporal complement of the earlier spatial analysis of patchiness and pattern (Levin et al. 1993). The issue of the relationships among pattern, scale, and patchiness has been framed forcefully in John Steele’s writings of two decades (e.g., Steele 1978). There is no pattern without an observational frame. In the words of Nietzsche, “There are no facts… only interpretations.”

5,508 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1986-Ecology
Abstract: A new multivariate analysis technique, developed to relate community composition to known variation in the environment, is described. The technique is an extension of correspondence analysis (reciprocal averaging), a popular ordination technique that extracts continuous axes of variation from species occurrence or abundance data. Such ordination axes are typically interpreted with the help of external knowledge and data on environmental variables; this two—step approach (ordination followed by environmental gradient identification) is termed indirect gradient analysis. In the new technique, called canonical correspondence analysis, ordination axes are chosen in the light of known environmental variables by imposing the extra restriction that the axes be linear combinations of environmental variables. In this way community variation can be directly related to environmental variation. The environmental variables may be quantitative or nominal. As many axes can be extracted as there are environmental variables. The method of detrending can be incorporated in the technique to remove arch effects. (Detrended) canonical correspondence analysis is an efficient ordination technique when species have bell—shaped response curves or surfaces with respect to environmental gradients, and is therefore more appropriate for analyzing data on community composition and environmental variables than canonical correlation analysis. The new technique leads to an ordination diagram in which points represent species and sites, and vectors represent environmental variables. Such a diagram shows the patterns of variation in community composition that can be explained best by the environmental variables and also visualizes approximately the "centers" of the species distributions along each of the environmental variables. Such diagrams effectively summarized relationships between community and environment for data sets on hunting spiders, dyke vegetation, and algae along a pollution gradient.

5,440 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2004-Ecology
TL;DR: This work has developed a quantitative theory for how metabolic rate varies with body size and temperature, and predicts how metabolic theory predicts how this rate controls ecological processes at all levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere.
Abstract: Metabolism provides a basis for using first principles of physics, chemistry, and biology to link the biology of individual organisms to the ecology of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Metabolic rate, the rate at which organisms take up, transform, and expend energy and materials, is the most fundamental biological rate. We have developed a quantitative theory for how metabolic rate varies with body size and temperature. Metabolic theory predicts how metabolic rate, by setting the rates of resource uptake from the environment and resource allocation to survival, growth, and reproduction, controls ecological processes at all levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere. Examples include: (1) life history attributes, including devel- opment rate, mortality rate, age at maturity, life span, and population growth rate; (2) population interactions, including carrying capacity, rates of competition and predation, and patterns of species diversity; and (3) ecosystem processes, including rates of biomass production and respiration and patterns of trophic dynamics. Data compiled from the ecological literature strongly support the theoretical predictions. Even- tually, metabolic theory may provide a conceptual foundation for much of ecology, just as genetic theory provides a foundation for much of evolutionary biology.

5,192 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
David M. Post1
01 Mar 2002-Ecology
Abstract: The stable isotopes of nitrogen (8'5N) and carbon (8'3C) provide powerful tools for estimating the trophic positions of and carbon flow to consumers in food webs; however, the isotopic signature of a consumer alone is not generally sufficient to infer trophic position or carbon source without an appropriate isotopic baseline. In this paper, I develop and discuss methods for generating an isotopic baseline and evaluate the assump- tions required to estimate the trophic position of consumers using stable isotopes in multiple ecosystem studies. I test the ability of two primary consumers, surface-grazing snails and filter-feeding mussels, to capture the spatial and temporal variation at the base of aquatic food webs. I find that snails reflect the isotopic signature of the base of the littoral food web, mussels reflect the isotopic signature of the pelagic food web, and together they provide a good isotopic baseline for estimating trophic position of secondary or higher trophic level consumers in lake ecosystems. Then, using data from 25 north temperate lakes, I evaluate how 815N and 8'3C of the base of aquatic food webs varies both among lakes and between the littoral and pelagic food webs within lakes. Using data from the literature, I show that the mean trophic fractionation of b'5N is 3.4%o (1 SD = 1%M) and of 8'3C is 0.4%o (1 SD = 1.3%o), and that both, even though variable, are widely applicable. A sen- sitivity analysis reveals that estimates of trophic position are very sensitive to assumptions about the trophic fractionation of '5 N, moderately sensitive to different methods for gen- erating an isotopic baseline, and not sensitive to assumptions about the trophic fractionation of 8'3C when 8'3C is used to estimate the proportion of nitrogen in a consumer derived from two sources. Finally, I compare my recommendations for generating an isotopic baseline to an alternative model proposed by M. J. Vander Zanden and J. B. Rasmussen. With an appropriate isotopic baseline and an appreciation of the underlying assumptions and model sensitivity, stable isotopes can help answer some of the most difficult questions in food web ecology.

5,071 citations

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