Economics & Sociology
Centre of Sociological Research, Szczecin, Poland
About: Economics & Sociology is an academic journal published by Centre of Sociological Research, Szczecin, Poland. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): European union & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 2071-789X. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 784 publications have been published receiving 7599 citations. The journal is also known as: economics as a science.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze the level of fulfillment of the Europe 2020 strategy with special concentration on diversity between New Member States that joined European Union in 2004 and 2007 (EU-10) and Old European Union Members ( EU-15).
Abstract: . In the year 2015 the European Union has reached the halfway of implementation of Europe 2020 strategy, which is aimed at forming the conditions for sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion. In this context the aim of the paper is to analyze the level of fulfillment its aims with special concentration on diversity between New Member States that joined European Union in 2004 and 2007 (EU-10) and Old European Union Members (EU-15). The empirical part of the paper is based on the taxonomic research with application of zero-unitarization method. In order to make the dynamic analysis for the years 2004-2013 the constant reference point for the whole period was used. The evaluation was based on the Eurostat Europe 2020 indicators. The analysis showed significant diversity between New and Old Member States. However, in the years 2004-2013 EU-10 had made an important progress in the implementation of Europe 2020 strategy.Keywords: Europe 2020 strategy, multivariate analysis, zero-unitarization method.JEL Classification : C00, E61, 052(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionIn the year 2015 the European Union has reached the halfway of implementation of Europe 2020 strategy. The plan constitutes the second in this century ten-year strategy, which is aimed at building the conditions for sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion. As the foundation for the Europe 2020 strategy three mutually reinforcing priorities were formed: a) Smart growth: developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation; b) Sustainable growth: promoting a more resource efficient, greener and more competitive economy. c) inclusive growth: fostering a high-employment economy delivering social and territorial cohesion (European Commission 2010, p. 3).Europe 2020 document is a continuation of the Lisbon Strategy announced at the beginning of this century, which was aimed at improving conditions for sustainable economic development described with the formula "to become the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world; based on knowledge, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (see Royuela-Mora et al., 2005, pp. 54-58; Lenain, 2005, pp. 9-31). The Lisbon Strategy was adopted during the significant economic changes associated with development of the global knowledge-based economy, which was accompanied by very high rate of economic growth achieved by the United States (see Balcerzak, 2009, pp. 3-22). It was an ambition of political and economic elites of the European Union to create the conditions, which would allow Europe to "catch up" of the United States in terms of the development of conditions for using the potential of knowledgebased economy. Unfortunately, already in the halfway of the Lisbon strategy, it was clear that the achievement of its objectives is impossible (Mogensen, 2005, pp. 46-49). In this time many representatives of European political elites were in favor of the view that the failure of Lisbon strategy implementation should be mainly treated as a consequence of European Union enlargement and the structural diversity between "New and Old Europe" (see Wanilin, 2006). In this context the main aim of the paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the goals of Europe 2020 strategy from the perspective of the years 2004-2013 with special consideration to the progress obtained by ten countries that joined EU in the years 2004 and 2007. In the analysis a special attention was given to the results of the Visegrad Group as the biggest economies of the EU-10 in relation to the achievements of the most important Eurozone economies. The first year of the analysis is the year of the biggest European Union enlargement, which can be considered as the most significant institutional change in Central and Eastern Europe. …
TL;DR: In this paper, a long-range energy forecasting software, developed by Stockholm Environment Institute, is employed for the long-term forecasting of energy use and energy intensities in the household sectors.
Abstract: DOI: 10.14254/2071789X.2018/11-1/16 ABSTRACT. In the presented paper assumption is being raised that ceteris paribus forecasted energy efficiency until the year 2050 reveals competitive potential, which could be reached if technological progress is ongoing and no radical changes in the energy consumption culture are observed. The research methodology is as follows. In order to clarify what trends of energy efficiency change are preconditioned by the structure of the economy, technological potential and behavioral patterns, activity level and energy intensity in the household sector are forecasted for the selected European countries – Poland, Lithuania and Germany. Lithuania and Poland represent here the countries slightly less economically developed as compared to highly developed Germany. Long-range energy forecasting software LEAP, developed by Stockholm Environment Institute is being employed for the long-term forecasting of energy use and energy intensities in the household sectors. The obtained results, as we have expected, allow verifying if consistent patterns of energy intensity change is existent for currently comparatively less developed and better countries, and if such patterns differ. Peculiarities of energy intensity change in less developed and more developed European countries are to be economically interpreted. The obtained results will allow to judge about change of competitiveness of the considered countries. Provided insights can be instrumental for devising national economic policies oriented on more efficient energy use in the long run.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the relationship between personality characteristics and approach to the perception and management of business risks and found that there are significant differences in the attitudes of these two categories of entrepreneurs in approaching credit risk, where it was found out that the defined categories of business have different approaches to knowledge of credit conditions of commercial banks.
Abstract: . The issue of business in the segment of small and medium-sized companies is a very actual area of scientific research today. Currently, great importance is given to research of personal and knowledge preconditions of people for doing business. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between personality characteristics and approach to the perception and management of business risks. Based on the preferred personality qualities and knowledge the entrepreneurs have been included into two categories, namely they are artist-entrepreneurs and businessmen-laborers, also the differences in their entrepreneurial attitudes have been examined. Both groups of entrepreneurs in our research rate market risk as the most important risk, which was demonstrated by a decline in performance of companies during the crisis. Our results showed that there are significant differences in the attitudes of these two categories of entrepreneurs in approaching credit risk, where it was found out that the defined categories of business have different approaches to knowledge of credit conditions of commercial banks. The results of our study have showed a high degree of confidence of individual groups of entrepreneurs when evaluating their ability to manage financial risks in the company and the high intensity of entrepreneurial optimism regardless of the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs.Keywords: small and medium enterprises, personal characteristics of entrepreneurs, financial risk, credit riskJEL classification: L26, O16, G21IntroductionSmall and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economic system of any developed country.In this context, it is clear that the issue of entrepreneurship in the small and medium-sized companies is very topical area of scientific research. Currently, great importance is given to research of personal and knowledge characteristics of people for business because many of the results that are mentioned below show the fact that to be an entrepreneur does not fit all the people and the business needs a specific properties. These properties may affect the approach to the assessment and management of business risks that significantly influence the success in business.Theoretical backgroundThe business environment is determined by personality characteristics and motives of individual entrepreneurs. Business situations are often unique in their unpredictability, complexity and changing requirements during the business process. Entrepreneurs must be capable to have the features of several personalities at once and as one person to demonstrate the ability to act as investors, inventors, accountants, dispute investigators, leaders, technologists, marketing specialists and top sellers. For this reason, the more knowledge and skills the entrepreneur is capable to demonstrate the better. (Frese, Gielnik, 2014)According to Deakova, Drazovska, Grznarik and Kondasova (2010) the most important personal qualities for an entrepreneur are: courage, self-reliance, responsibility, determination, perseverance, proactive approach, creativity and scholarship in a particular area, where this businessman intends to do business. The entrepreneurs have a tendency to choose themselves an area of business that has a consistency between their personal characteristics and requirements for success. In addition, they tend to manage their business by using their strong and specific qualities. (Sidik, 2012)Kvietok (2013) states, that decision to take on the business risk is symptomatic of a certain type of people. (According to Hvide and Panos, 2014 the individuals who are more risk tolerant are more likely to start up firms.) A significant part of the motivation to take risks in business follows from the success motivation. To achieve the set goals, successful people are willing to take on reasonable risks associated with feedback about the level of achieved results. …
TL;DR: In a recent study, Riddell et al. as mentioned in this paper concluded that the most pervasive ambition of donors' foreign aid programs is to largely eliminate poverty in the developing world, however, it does not appear to contribute to economic growth.
Abstract: (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionMost often, poverty is viewed in terms of income. People can be considered to live in poverty when they do not have income and other resources required to fulfill the conditions of life such as diets, material, facilities goods and services; this requirement would have made them to play roles and participate in the relationships and traditions of their society (UNDP, 2006). However, it is believed that income gives an inequitable sketch but does not cover the wider standard of living or human development. Poverty is defined by the World Bank as "encompassing not only material deprivation (measured by an appropriate concept of income or consumption) but also low achievements in education and health" (World Bank, 2000, p. 15; Moser & Ichida, 2001, p. 6). Objectively, poverty alleviation has been the foremost goal of foreign aid inflow. Therefore, foreign aid or assistance on concessional terms is usually transmitted either directly or indirectly through multilateral institutions or private voluntary organizations in order to improve the social and economic development of the developing countries1. Thus, the broad purpose of international aid is to stimulate economic development and poverty alleviation. Initially foreign aid seems to enhance average income in the aid receiving country and then plays role in poverty mitigation (Alvi & Senbeta, 2012). Sachs and McArthur (2001) demonstrated that the targeted aid can help largely to eliminate poverty in developing countries. In a similar study, Connors (2012) points out that the fundamental objectives of foreign aid are to mitigate poverty; these objectives include encouraging economic growth, boosting institutional reform, and decreasing poverty in the developing world. Riddell (2014) provides reasons for providing aid by arguing that foreign aid offered in principle, directly or indirectly will facilitate the improvement of the lives of those people who really need it.Regarding the effectiveness of foreign aid, the literature reveals that it does its "work". For example, Arndt et al. (2011) suggest that foreign aid remains an important tool for augmenting the development prospects of poor countries. In a study of the long-term effect of Swedish aid on poverty reduction in three Asian countries, it is concluded that aid has been playing a positive role in Laos and Vietnam, but the results are inconclusive in the case of Sri Lanka (McGillivray et al., 2012). ITAD (2013) reports that the recent sharp decrease in poverty is due to the contribution made by foreign aid funds in Tanzania. The study of Alvi and Senbeta (2012) though shows that foreign aid inflows result in poverty alleviation, however, it does not appear to contribute to economic growth. In a study, Adamu (2013) indicates that foreign aid contributes to economic growth and development through the provision of capital and transfer of technology which boost good governance and practices. In a recent study, Riddell (2014) concludes that in several countries foreign aid has made vital contributions to development and poverty mitigation.Albeit, the most pervasive ambition of donors' foreign aid programs is to largely eliminate poverty in the developing world. In 2013 the statistical data on development aid reveals that it increases by 6.1% in real terms to reach the maximum level ever documented; the donors offer almost US$ 134.8 billion (£80.3 billion) in net ODA and US$128 billion in 2012 (OECD, 2014). The World Bank (2014) shows that "our dream is a world free of poverty" and to do progressive work in more than 145 client countries that endeavor to mitigate extreme poverty and encourage communal prosperity. The report maintains that in the developing world, almost 21 percent of people live at or below US$ 1.25 a day, while the estimates are 43 percent and 52 percent in 1990 and 1981, respectively. The data reveals that almost a total of 1. …
TL;DR: In this paper, Pietrzak et al. provided a multiple-criteria analysis of the quality of human capital (QHC) in the EU countries at macroeconomic level for two sub-periods 2001-2007 and 2007-2012.
Abstract: (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionQuality of human capital (QHC), both at microeconomic and macroeconomic level, is currently considered as the main growth factor in developed economies. The process of creation of high value added in the reality of global competitive knowledge-based economy is not possible without constant effort to improve the QHC. Thus, from the long term perspective effective policies supporting multifactor development of the QHC in the context of knowledge-based economy make the condition for keeping global competitiveness of every developed economy. In the European economy it has been stated as one of the most important aims of the Europe 2020 strategy (Balcerzak, 2015, pp. 190-2010; European Commission, 2010; Hobza & Mourre, 2010). However, the economic role of the QHC is not only crucial form the perspective of long term macroeconomic development. For example in the short term it influences the situation on the labour markets (Muller-Fraczek & Pietrzak, 2011, pp. 205-209; Pietrzak & Balcerzak, 2016a; Balcerzak (ed.), 2009; Balcerzak & Zurek, 2011, pp. 3-14), the economic and social cohesion of regions and cities (Wilk et al., 2013, pp. 124-132; Pietrzak et al., 2014, pp. 135-144) or countries fiscal sustainability (Balcerzak et al., 2016, pp. 483-496; Balcerzak and Rogalska, 2016, pp. 271-282). Thus, the research on the QHC is important both form long and short term perspective.In the EU all governments implement national strategies that should support improvement of the QHS. In this context, it is necessary to compare countries' results, which can be useful for pointing the best practices and effective policy guidelines in the field. Thus, the main objective of the article is to provide a multiple-criteria analysis of the QHC in the EU countries at macroeconomic level. In the research the special attention is given to the results obtained by new member states of the EU. The research was based on the Eurostat data for the years 2001-2012. Furthermore, the analysis was done for two sub-periods 2001-2007 and 2007-2012. This approach enables to provide some insight on the probable influence of the global financial crisis on the changes of the QHC in the European economy.Additional operational aim of the paper is to provide input data on the QHC that can be used in econometric modeling of macroeconomic determinants of development and growth of European economies (see Pietrzak & Balcerzak, 2016b; Balcerzak & Pietrzak, 2016a, 2016b; Balcerzak & Pietrzak, 2015, pp. 93-106; Balcerzak, 2009, pp. 711-739). The article is a continuation of previous research of the author in the field (Balcerzak & Pietrzak, 2016c; Balcerzak, 2011, pp. 456-467).1. Data and Selection of Diagnostic VariablesThe QHC analyzed form macroeconomic perspective must be treated as complex multivariate phenomenon. It should be quantified with application of taxonomy tools and multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methodological approach (see: Balcerzak & Pietrzak, 2016d; Kunasz, 2009, pp. 35-48; Pawlas, 2009, pp. 21-31; Pietrzak & Balcerzak, 2016c; Wronowska, 2009, pp. 32-45; David, & Goddard Lopez, 2001).In the case of every multiple-criteria analysis the most significant problem is the choice of diagnostic variables that are used in the quantification of a given phenomenon. It must be stressed that the final results are always strongly influenced by the choice of the diagnostic variables (Gostkowski, 1972, pp. 15-17). This is especially important in the case of difficult to measure and quite often qualitative factor such as the QHC. As a results, in the first stage based on the review of literature related to previous research on the QHC a set of preliminary variables was selected, which in the second stage were verified with the application of formal taxonomic criteria of information value (Zelias (ed.), 2000, pp. 127-133). …