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Showing papers in "Education As Change in 2011"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a Lesson Planning Guideline which is used to scaffold the construction of student teachers' pedagogical content knowledge by requiring them to consider the constituent parts of content knowledge individually and in relation to one another during the planning process.
Abstract: Lesson planning for student teachers is often regarded in technical terms, merely as the means to ensure effective classroom performance. This approach limits the possibilities that the process of lesson planning offers to the development of professional competence among student teachers. In particular, student teachers need to begin to develop their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), the capacity to make pedagogical choices that are logically derived from content and contextual knowledge. This article reports on a Lesson Planning Guideline which is used to scaffold the construction of student teachers’ PCK individually by requiring them to consider the constituent parts of PCK individually and in relation to one another during the planning process. This guideline was developed in response to perceived limitations of existing guidelines used in our institution and found in texts for student teachers. Called a “Rationale for lesson design” the Guideline does not attempt to simplify the planning ...

73 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors foreground the concept of young children as agents through an exploration of the strategies they use to gain control and produce social life in early childhood centres in KwaZulu-Natal.
Abstract: The aim of this article is to foreground the concept of young children as agents through an exploration of the strategies they use to gain control and produce social life in early childhood centres. In order to be sensitive to the subjective contents of young children's lives, a qualitative approach with observation as the key method of data production was used. Children between the ages of three and four years in two early childhood centres in KwaZulu-Natal participated in the study. The findings suggest that young children are knowledgeable, intentional and skilled actors who deploy influential strategies to assert autonomy and contribute to life at the centres. The strategies of resistance, avoidance, ignoring and collaboration are discussed to illuminate the resources the children actively used. In the context of valuing young children as agents, the concluding remarks highlight the need for practice and research to be informed by an empowerment approach in early childhood education.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the experiences of sexual violence and gender-motivated fights in primary schools in Lesotho and found that these had inequitable effects that militated against girls more than boys.
Abstract: A doctoral study on constructions of gender has found that meanings attached to children's identities play a role in their experiences of gender in schools. From the view of the sociological theory of social constructionism the data were analysed to search for everyday gendered experiences of female and male children in a primary school. Drawing from ethnographic data (conversations, observations and informal discussions), this article discusses girls' and boys' experiences of gender in three co-educational rural primary schools in Lesotho. Analysis denotes experiences of sexual violence and gender-motivated fights as predominant in girls' and boys' experiences of gender, and that these had inequitable effects that militated against girls more than boys. These painful experiences occurred against the backdrop of high female enrolment in Lesotho primary schools (Unicef 2008). The article cautions that statistics on increased girls' school attendance might create a false impression concerning gende...

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue for a specific view of pre-service teacher education, in which students are given the opportunity to seriously study the content of the subjects they will be teaching, while learning some skills to deliver the school curriculum and to begin to understand, and deal with, learners' sociological and psychological dispositions.
Abstract: Starting from current views on pre-service teacher education, this article presents the findings of an inquiry into new teachers’ perceptions of their university education. The authors argue for a specific view of pre-service teacher education, in which students are given the opportunity to seriously study the content of the subjects they will be teaching, while learning some skills to deliver the school curriculum and to begin to understand, and deal with, learners’ sociological and psychological dispositions. They also argue that the expectation that universities should prepare teachers fully for practice is not feasible, as the school itself as a place of work is the optimal setting for getting to know – in an authentic and non-trivialising way – the hardships and challenges of what constitutes teaching in a country like South Africa. The findings of the study show that teachers are confident about their preparation in content knowledge. They are also comfortable with some aspects of pedagogy,...

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose that theory and practice, as the science and the craft of teaching, are reciprocal and interfacing, and they suggest the analogy of "bootstrapping" as a way of thinking about the epistemologies of theories and practices in tandem.
Abstract: The authors of this article propose that theory and practice, as the science and the craft of teaching, are reciprocal and interfacing. To manifest this construct in teacher preparation courses, they suggest the analogy of ‘bootstrapping’ as a way of thinking about the epistemologies of theory and practice in tandem. With this analogy in mind, they explore the use of a specific curriculum tool to bring theory and practice closer together. Survey and interview data in a study they conducted indicate that new teachers’ experience of their first year or two in the workplace is largely positive with regard to what they think they know and can do pedagogically, while revealing that they nevertheless perceive themselves as unprepared to cross the boundary into the workplace. The authors conclude that more can be done in teacher education programmes to amalgamate the epistemologies and the discourses of the science and the craft of pedagogy in non-clinical work.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe and evaluate a project that aims to include the indigenous knowledge and skills of the Nama people in rural schools in The Karas Region, Namibia.
Abstract: This article describes and evaluates a project that aims to include the indigenous knowledge and skills of the Nama people in rural schools in The Karas Region, Namibia. In the Traditional Life Skills Project (TLSP) parents and grandparents teach children some of the traditional life skills and knowledge of the Nama people in the schools in the afternoons. The paper points out that in successful communities the project makes an important contribution to the conservation of the Nama culture. Furthermore, it has the potential of reducing both drop-out rate and disciplinary problems in the schools. It also contributes economically to the local societies through sales of products which they manufacture. In some of the communities the project has not succeeded. The causes of success or failure are analysed using the concept ‘social capital’, and a central conclusion is that the level of social capital in a community is pivotal for the success of this project. The paper suggests that a closer integrati...

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper used principals' portfolios to examine how they learnt, sought to learn and can learn leadership, and explored the portfolio as an instrument for change in school principals' leadership learning using a qualitative methodological approach.
Abstract: This paper uses principals’ portfolios to examine how they learnt, sought to learn and can learn leadership. Leadership development has become a topical matter in education. However, there is still much debate about what constitutes effective leadership development. In South Africa, the Department of Education in conjunction with higher education institutions introduced the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE) (School Leadership) programme to capacitate school principals and other education managers in developing skills, knowledge and values needed to effectively lead and manage schools. As part of their course requirements, school principals were expected to develop a portfolio to demonstrate change on their part regarding school leadership and management competences. This paper explores the portfolio as an instrument for change in school principals’ leadership learning. Working within an interpretive research paradigm and employing a qualitative methodological approach, a sample of 18 portfo...

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate Turkey's upper elementary grades (grades 6 to 8) geometry education by looking at the compatibility between the curriculum, textbooks, and secondary school placement examinations at the same grade levels in that country.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate Turkey's upper elementary grades (grades 6 to 8) geometry education by looking at the compatibility between the curriculum, textbooks, and secondary school placement examinations at the same grade levels in that country. Historically, mathematics education in Turkey has revolved around the curriculum, textbooks and examinations; this study therefore aims to measure how compatible these components are after the reform movement of 2004. Pair wise comparisons included the following: the time allocation for the geometry learning area in the official mathematics curriculum at upper elementary schools during the post-reform period; the actual number of examples in the new textbook series; and the percentage of geometry questions that make up the total mathematics questions in the SBS examinations (level determination examinations – see below). This study suggests that the three aspects (curriculum, textbooks, and national examinations) of geometry education are n...

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper conducted a case study of four homeschooling settings and found that the views of the homeschool learners correspond with those of the educators to a certain extent, but also indicated some significant differences.
Abstract: Homeschooling research to date has focused mainly on the perspective of homeschool educators. However, heeding the voices of homeschool learners is essential for a reliable understanding of the homeschool context. This article focuses on findings regarding one homeschool learner who was a participant in a qualitative, multiple case-study of four homeschools. Homeschool educators and learners were interviewed concerning their discourses and perspectives regarding their respective homeschools. Projections were used that explored participants’ meanings at a deeper level, and there were three sessions of non-participating observation in each homeschool. The views of the homeschool learners corresponded, to a certain extent, with those of the homeschool educators, but also indicated some significant differences. Although the limited scope of the investigation prohibits generalisation, the homeschool educators all appeared to be convinced that they were acting in their children's best interests, and ye...

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a grounded theory inquiry was conducted to explore how teachers made this happen and to develop a substantive theory in this regard, which suggests that the core categories at work in the schools interact and form a pattern that could be repeated over time to improve the...
Abstract: Effective parent involvement programmes depend primarily on the capacities of teachers to work effectively with families in school- based initiatives. However, teachers generally receive little preparation for parent involvement. Responding to this need, an in-service teacher education programme has been introduced at a South African university. Teachers enrolled in the programme are required to complete a field-based assignment entailing the implementation of a parent involvement activity in their schools. A grounded theory inquiry was conducted to explore how teachers made this happen and to develop a substantive theory in this regard. Teachers' written accounts of the activity were selected over a twoyear period by means of theoretical sampling and were then analysed, using grounded theory coding and constant comparative analysis. The emerging substantive theory suggests that the core categories at work in the schools interact and form a pattern that could be repeated over time to improve the ...

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors used the lens of integration of knowledge to interrogate two Standard 4 history textbooks published in the 1980s and two Grade 6 Social Science textbooks written for the new National Curriculum Statements during the last five years.
Abstract: The post-democratic South African curriculum encourages integration between disciplines, and between disciplinary knowledge and everyday knowledge. This article uses the lens of integration of knowledge to interrogate two Standard 4 history textbooks published in the 1980s and two Grade 6 Social Science textbooks written for the new National Curriculum Statements during the last five years. Using Bernstein's concept of classification, the article describes the extent to which the textbooks represent knowledge as specialised to history or integrated in both substantive and procedural knowledge. Similar content in the chapter ‘History of medical science’ was analysed across all four texts. The findings indicate that the textbooks for the new curriculum contain reduced substantive history knowledge compared to the old textbooks. The new textbooks have a greater focus on inclusive history and on everyday knowledge. One of the implications of this integration is that the new textbooks do not develop a...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the ways in which students reason about past and present in relation to questions of ethnic identities and loyalty to the state in a time of war and found that even with well-selected historical materials, most students need attentive guidance in the difficult tasks of drawing meaningful interpretations from them.
Abstract: This article examines the ways in which students reason about past and present in relation to questions of ethnic identities and loyalty to the state in a time of war. In digitally recorded discussion groups of three, they studied documents from the largely German–Canadian town of Berlin, Ontario, which, responding to images of the German enemy, changed its name to ‘Kitchener’ in 1916. It examines how students make sense of the documents; how they use traces of the past to explore issues in the contemporary world; and what patterns of difference emerge in respect of their own ethnic identities and immigration histories. It concludes that, even with well-selected historical materials, most students need attentive guidance in the difficult tasks of drawing meaningful interpretations from them.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report on a study where teachers were researching aspects of mathematics for the teaching of limits of functions, in which mathematical and pedagogical issues were intertwined, and analyse how teachers' mathematical knowledge evolves through their participation in a research project.
Abstract: Teachers involved in action research in mathematics classrooms typically focus on their pedagogical practice, and rarely challenge the mathematical content of their teaching. The first part of this article supports this claim in terms of an analysis of the teachers-as-researchers movement. It then reports on a study where teachers were researching aspects of mathematics for the teaching of limits of functions, in which mathematical and pedagogical issues were intertwined. The aim of the study was to analyse how teachers’ mathematical knowledge evolves through their participation in a research project. The study showed that whilst their knowledge evolved for some aspects of limits during the research process this was not the case in two crucial aspects of this knowledge: the e-δ definition and the graphical representation of limits. Furthermore, the study revealed the discomfort of an experienced teacher when facing challenges to his own mathematical knowledge and therefore the content of his teac...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the motivation of two cohorts of South African first-year students for their decision to enrol for this qualification and argue that within the overall value of social justice in education the motivation for becoming teachers of the early grades can be seen as a contribution to the building of a young nation.
Abstract: This article addresses the question of why students choose to study to become foundation phase (FP) teachers. Career choice in teacher education is an important national issue, particularly since there is a drive to increase enrolment in foundation phase teacher education programmes in the country. In this study we explore the motivation of two cohorts of South African first-year students for their decision to enrol for this qualification. In response to an open-ended question survey, designed within the broad framework of motivation theory, students wrote brief narratives which were utilised as the data source. Particular emphasis was placed on the need-motive-value approach, as one classification of motivation theory to analyse the data. We argue that within the overall value of social justice in education the motivation for becoming teachers of the early grades can be seen as a contribution to the building of a young nation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored factors and critical incidents identified by preservice teachers in a foundational mathematics module as contributing to the breakdown of their mathematics learning at school, including the pre-service teachers' views of mathematics as hostile and in an adversarial relationship to them, personal dissatisfaction with the teacher, confusing mathematics content and discontinuity in learning environments.
Abstract: This article explores factors and critical incidents identified by preservice teachers in a foundational mathematics module as contributing to the breakdown of their mathematics learning at school. Mathematics autobiographies were used in the module both as a pedagogical tool and as a research data collection method to access stories of school mathematics experience. A set of codes, synthesised from a survey of the literature and themes evident in the data, was used to analyse the stories. The contributing factors were found to include, first, the pre-service teachers’ views of mathematics as hostile and in an adversarial relationship to them; second, the preservice teachers’ experiences of mathematics at the hands of teachers lacking subject knowledge, empathy and professionalism; and third, personal dissatisfaction with the teacher, confusing mathematics content and discontinuity in learning environments. In conclusion, the implications of the insights from the mathematics stories are used to m...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the interface between identity and change is used as a lens to explore the discursive strategies five in-service teachers use to cope with educational change, and they use these discourses to position themselves within the context of a changing policy environment as hopeful professionals driven by profe...
Abstract: Educational change places enormous pressure on in-service teachers to bring their professional identities under discussion. How teachers interpret and re-interpret their own understanding of who they are as teachers and the new roles they are expected to play affect their ability to cope with educational change and their willingness to effect change. In this paper the interface between identity and change is used as a lens to explore the discursive strategies five in-service teachers use to cope with educational change. Discourse analysis showed that when professional identity is informed by a discourse of vocational commitment, the latter not only becomes a tool for in-service teachers to cope with change, but it also feeds into a discourse of possibility. Despite framing their relationship with the Department of Education as a binary opposite, the participants use these discourses to position themselves within the context of a changing policy environment as hopeful professionals driven by profe...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an investigation at three secondary schools in Limpopo province found that motivated teachers, dedicated principals, an orderly school, organized parent involvement, and English as the language of learning and teaching were the most significant factors in the migration tendencies of pupils to former white schools.
Abstract: In South Africa, the policy of school choice has resulted in a sustained exodus of learners from traditionally black, segregated schools to former white schools. This article looks at how parental choice is changing the face of rural school populations in the northern, rural part of the country. The author reports on an investigation at three secondary schools in Limpopo province. The findings show that motivated teachers, dedicated principals, an orderly school, organised parent involvement, and English as the language of learning and teaching were the most significant factors in the migration tendencies of pupils to former white schools. The findings support recent research which, in various forms, argues that school migration is indicative of what parents and their children value in education and what they wish to leave behind when they migrate.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article developed and tested a systematic framework for conceptualizing and analysing dysfunctions in schools based on the Explanatory Model of School Dysfunctions (EMSD) developed by Bergman, Bergman and Gravett (2011).
Abstract: The aim of this article is to develop and test a systematic framework for conceptualising and analysing dysfunctions in schools. Based on the Explanatory Model of School Dysfunctions (EMSD) developed by Bergman, Bergman and Gravett (2011), dysfunctions as experienced by teachers and learners were analysed. Data for this research are non-representative and include 40 essays written by teachers and approximately 1 500 open-ended responses by recently matriculated students. It was found that the EMSD is suitable for modelling the problem domains experienced by teachers and learners. Perceived causes and consequences of dysfunctions relate to their proximal contact zone, i.e. the agents and behaviours with which they are most familiar. This article includes a discussion on theoretical and empirical limitations, recommendations for future research in this field, as well as policy recommendations to address some of the problems experienced by teachers and learners in South Africa.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Capability Approach (CA) of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum is one possibility for such an alternative paradigm, meeting many of the threshold qualities suggested by Kuhn in his discussion of paradigm shifts as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: This article suggests that for the last three decades (and possibly longer) educational policy and research in the United States has been dominated by a utilitarian/ consequentialist derived paradigm. The rules and tools that have emerged out of this paradigm, however, have for the most part failed to solve critical puzzles and solutions to important education-based problems. These failures, as Thomas Kuhn suggested, have thrown the paradigm into crisis. While those working within the paradigm continue to believe that a newly discovered rule system or set of tools may offer solutions not yet found and progress not yet realised, the current state of crisis also may presage the emergence of an alternative paradigm to take the place of the current, dominant one. The Capability Approach (CA) of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum is one possibility for such an alternative paradigm, meeting many of the threshold qualities suggested by Kuhn in his discussion of paradigm shifts. CA would move educational po...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a qualitative research design to elucidate themes surrounding teacher implementation of the Learn Not to Burn (LNTB) curriculum, focusing on the relevance of differentiated instructional practices such as visual stimulating focused activities, hands on learning and the importance of incorporating music in ensuring access to the LNTB curriculum.
Abstract: The most significant barrier to learning in the inclusive education system of South Africa is the curriculum and differentiated pedagogy has been found to be an effective adjunct to inclusive practices in schools. Subsequently a special school in Gauteng implemented the “Learn NOT to Burn” (LNTB) fire safety programme through the provision of differentiated instructional adaptations and accommodations for learners with severe intellectual disabilities (SID). This study used a qualitative research design to elucidate themes surrounding teacher implementation of the LNTB curriculum. A pilot study was conducted whereby an ethnographic design was used to address the research question. Data collection methods included focus group interviews, questionnaires and journal analysis. The findings focus on the relevance of differentiated instructional practices such as visual stimulating focused activities, hands on learning and the importance of incorporating music in ensuring access to the LNTB curriculum ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored school leaders' perspective of their identity and how this relates to their leadership in an ethnically diverse school and found that, in general, the leaders are only partly aware of their own identity and of the complex issues related to diversity in the school.
Abstract: The article explores school leaders’ perspective of their identity and how this relates to their leadership in an ethnically diverse school This case study indicates that, in general, the leaders are only partly aware of their own identity and of the complex issues related to diversity in the school Diversity is still predominantly conceptualised as meaning the former racial groups Significant efforts are made by leaders to unshackle themselves from discriminatory acts or attitudes; the result is ‘colour blindness’ and attitudes which tend to neglect the significance of one's own identity and that of other individuals and groups This limited or narrow conceptualisation of diversity and one's own identity has implications for the leadership of schools There is still a strong emphasis on the ‘other’ or ‘anderskleuriges’, identifying ‘us’ and ‘them’, which is indicative of the persistence of unequal power relations in the school

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare the signalling ability of the National Senior Certificate (NSC) school-leaving mathematics scores with the former Higher Grade (HG) in terms of mathematical preparedness.
Abstract: Pupils’ competence and preparedness are assumed to be reflected in their school-leaving scores which are used by employers and further education institutions as signals for selecting appropriate applicants. Schools need a consistent signal of their pupils’ potential success beyond school in order to prepare them appropriately. The introduction of the National Senior Certificate (NSC) in South Africa has led to the admission of students into universities who seem inadequately prepared for tertiary education, especially with regard to their mathematical preparedness. Using a standardised 1st year university test first written in 2006 and repeated in 2009 and 2010, we compare the signalling ability of the NSC school-leaving mathematics scores with the former Higher Grade (HG) in terms of mathematical preparedness. Our findings suggest that the NSC mathematics scores are inflated by around 20–25 percentage points compared to the former HG mathematics scores. However, once deflated, the NSC scores are...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe an atypical multimodal approach to assessment in a pre-service teacher education course and report on the use of a semiotic mix of drama and visual art as alternative ways to assess students' learning.
Abstract: This article describes an atypical multimodal approach to assessment in a pre-service teacher education course. The author argues that many students enter programmes at South African universities with an underdeveloped competence in academic English. She argues that although they are learning English as an academic language, their learning is evaluated in written language via summative assessments that require verbal fluency. In this article the author reports on the use of a semiotic mix of drama and visual art as well as social learning experiences, as alternative ways to assess students’ learning. Components of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are put forward as a theoretical framework for the course and assessment design, focusing on the flexibility of presentation and student engagement, and support for students who are still struggling with English academic language proficiency. The significance of the article lies in the analysis of the outcome of the multimodal approach to assessment, ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the use of game-mediate learning with pre-service teachers, with the view to evaluating the use a socially mediated knowledge construction to develop appropriate classroom pedagogical practices.
Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of game-mediate learning with pre-service teachers, with the view to evaluating the use of a socially mediated knowledge construction to develop appropriate classroom pedagogical practices. Two instrumental case studies are presented in order to explore how pre-service teachers understand the use of computer games in teaching and learning. These cases are part of a collective case study to advance the theory of the use of video games in learning and teaching. Different groups of pre-service teachers participated in the study. The first group included third-year undergraduate education students who played a computer game on the biology of diseases. The second group of participants, postgraduate students reading for their teaching qualification, played computer games designed to address misconceptions related to genetics. The introduction of game puzzles into a learning activity acted as an explicit mediator of learning, and discussions...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe some current conceptualisations about the positive impact that thoughtful community and family partnerships have for the growth and development of children, teachers, families and schools.
Abstract: Family engagement topics are less common in university teacher preparation curricula than subject content and pedagogical studies. This article describes some current conceptualisations about the positive impact that thoughtful community and family partnerships have for the growth and development of children, teachers, families and schools. Theoretical, historical and societal factors will be considered, as well as data from a questionnaire distributed to 66 teacher education graduate students just prior to taking courses in their degree sequence that focus on working with families. Even at Master's level, candidates expressed significant fears about working closely with families. Strategies are presented for better integration of family-centered learning experiences into the pre-service curriculum so that graduates can begin their work in schools with greater family and community theoretical understanding and practical competence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a part of the results of that research, and focus on how school leaders and teachers perceive bottlenecks and also how they view outcomes of innovations.
Abstract: New legislation was introduced for the lower grades of secondary education in 2006 in the Netherlands. Innovations and reform implemented by schools related to this new legislation focused on new approaches to educational content such as didactical approaches, active learning, project teams, competence-based teaching and learning, time available for teaching, and standards of quality of education. In order to evaluate the implementation and outcomes related to these innovations and reforms we conducted research in 69 secondary schools, involving 178 teachers. This article presents a part of the results of that research, and focuses on how school leaders and teachers perceive bottlenecks and also how they view outcomes of innovations. The findings show that they agree on what they see as impediments. However, with regard to their perceptions regarding outcomes, significant differences were found. School leaders judged nearly every outcome as more positive than the teachers did.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the conceptualisation of a multivariate interactive computerised teacher demand and supply decision support model of projection for the FET band of public schools for the Gauteng Province of South Africa is presented.
Abstract: This article reports on the conceptualisation of a multivariate interactive computerised teacher demand and supply decision support model of projection for the Further Education and Training (FET) band of public schools for the Gauteng Province of South Africa. This model was conceptualised with a view to enabling policy makers to make projections that estimate aggregate or disaggregate teacher supply and demand. A reductionist methodological approach was used in this inquiry, with the intention of reducing the ideas surrounding teacher supply and demand into a discrete set of variables reflected in a multivariate model. It also reflects a deterministic philosophy of cause and effect, as variables are manipulated within the model. Knowledge is developed in this inquiry through the development of multiple numeric measures of the objective reality of teacher supply and demand. The main contribution of this inquiry is the computerised disaggregated teacher supply and demand projection model – the mo...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined if there is a significant relationship between brain-based e-learning and grammar translation method in middleschool students' academic achievements and attitudes towards an English course taught in Turkey.
Abstract: The advances in brain-based researches, new insights about the brain and how it works have all led to rich developments, ideas and principles that can be used in educational settings. In this research, three main factors, relaxed alertness, orchestrated immersion and active processing (Caine & Caine 1994), have been considered as essential phases for a complementary learning environment. Moreover, the twelve main principles of brain-based research (Caine & Caine 1994) and how these might apply to learning and teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) formed the basis for the brain-based part of this study. As far as the e-learning part is concerned, a course website was created and designed according to brain-based principles. The purpose of this experimental study is to examine if there is a significant relationship between brain-based e-learning and grammar translation method in middleschool students’ academic achievements and attitudes towards an English course taught in Turkey. In this stu...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report an evaluation of the university-based part of a programme to train science and technology student teachers to teach argumentation. But they do not discuss the role of student teachers as learners and teachers' and teacher educators' instructional roles.
Abstract: In South Africa, critical thinking is a prominent aim of education. Argumentation (the processes and products of arguing) is central to critical thinking and important in science and technology, but teachers have not been trained in classroom methods. This article reports an evaluation of the university-based part of a programme to train science and technology student teachers to teach argumentation. Observations of the university sessions produced detailed descriptions of the enacted curriculum with respect to argumentation and the teaching of argumentation. A model called SIMPL facilitated critical reflection by the programme's teacher educators. These reflections validated course structures, identified key assumptions made by teacher educators and clarified the interplay between student teachers as learners, and teachers’ and teacher educators’ instructional roles. The findings showed that while the curriculum provided student teachers with ample experience of argumentation and opportunities t...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors make a case for teaching theory at the earliest stages of university education, drawing upon Henning's (2008) study of theoretical learning in a research project, they theorise a third-year one-semester undergraduate module on Vygotsky's theory to show how students can acquire scientific concepts by doing research into these concepts.
Abstract: In this paper, we make a case for teaching theory at the earliest stages of university education. Drawing upon Henning's (2008) study of theoretical learning in a research project, we theorise a third-year one-semester undergraduate module on Vygotsky's theory to show how students can acquire scientific concepts by doing research into these concepts. We describe three epistemic stages that students go through in their journey to become autonomous thinkers, readers and researchers. Data supporting our claims are drawn from the writings of 33 students, teacher-designed materials, and teacher diary entries from 2005 to 2010. Students focus on one stage of development that children go through, namely the use of private speech between four and seven years according to Piaget and Vygotsky. Students replicate these scholars’ empirical studies of private speech by using as their data base, introspective accounts, field observations in their communities and finally, by conducting research to obtain privat...