eLife Sciences Publications Ltd
About: eLife is an academic journal published by eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Biology & Medicine. It has an ISSN identifier of 2050-084X. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 16062 publications have been published receiving 619313 citations.
TL;DR: It is shown that recently reported non-canonical sites do not mediate repression despite binding the miRNA, which indicates that the vast majority of functional sites are canonical.
Abstract: Proteins are built by using the information contained in molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA). Cells have several ways of controlling the amounts of different proteins they make. For example, a so-called ‘microRNA’ molecule can bind to an mRNA molecule to cause it to be more rapidly degraded and less efficiently used, thereby reducing the amount of protein built from that mRNA. Indeed, microRNAs are thought to help control the amount of protein made from most human genes, and biologists are working to predict the amount of control imparted by each microRNA on each of its mRNA targets. All RNA molecules are made up of a sequence of bases, each commonly known by a single letter—‘A’, ‘U’, ‘C’ or ‘G’. These bases can each pair up with one specific other base—‘A’ pairs with ‘U’, and ‘C’ pairs with ‘G’. To direct the repression of an mRNA molecule, a region of the microRNA known as a ‘seed’ binds to a complementary sequence in the target mRNA. ‘Canonical sites’ are regions in the mRNA that contain the exact sequence of partner bases for the bases in the microRNA seed. Some canonical sites are more effective at mRNA control than others. ‘Non-canonical sites’ also exist in which the pairing between the microRNA seed and mRNA does not completely match. Previous work has suggested that many non-canonical sites can also control mRNA degradation and usage. Agarwal et al. first used large experimental datasets from many sources to investigate microRNA activity in more detail. As expected, when mRNAs had canonical sites that matched the microRNA, mRNA levels and usage tended to drop. However, no effect was observed when the mRNAs only had recently identified non-canonical sites. This suggests that microRNAs primarily bind to canonical sites to control protein production. Based on these results, Agarwal et al. further developed a statistical model that predicts the effects of microRNAs binding to canonical sites. The updated model considers 14 different features of the microRNA, microRNA site, or mRNA—including the mRNA sequence around the site—to predict which sites within mRNAs are most effectively targeted by microRNAs. Tests showed that Agarwal et al.'s model was as good as experimental approaches at identifying the effective target sites, and was better than existing computational models. The model has been used to power the latest version of a freely available resource called TargetScan, and so could prove a valuable resource for researchers investigating the many important roles of microRNAs in controlling protein production.
TL;DR: CPU-based vector acceleration has been added in addition to GPU support, which provides flexibility in use of resources and avoids memory limitations in the third major release of RELION.
Abstract: Here, we describe the third major release of RELION. CPU-based vector acceleration has been added in addition to GPU support, which provides flexibility in use of resources and avoids memory limitations. Reference-free autopicking with Laplacian-of-Gaussian filtering and execution of jobs from python allows non-interactive processing during acquisition, including 2D-classification, de novo model generation and 3D-classification. Per-particle refinement of CTF parameters and correction of estimated beam tilt provides higher resolution reconstructions when particles are at different heights in the ice, and/or coma-free alignment has not been optimal. Ewald sphere curvature correction improves resolution for large particles. We illustrate these developments with publicly available data sets: together with a Bayesian approach to beam-induced motion correction it leads to resolution improvements of 0.2-0.7 A compared to previous RELION versions.
TL;DR: MR-Base is a platform that integrates a curated database of complete GWAS results (no restrictions according to statistical significance) with an application programming interface, web app and R packages that automate 2SMR, and includes several sensitivity analyses for assessing the impact of horizontal pleiotropy and other violations of assumptions.
Abstract: Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can be used to infer causal relationships between phenotypes, using a strategy known as 2-sample Mendelian randomization (2SMR) and bypassing the need for individual-level data. However, 2SMR methods are evolving rapidly and GWAS results are often insufficiently curated, undermining efficient implementation of the approach. We therefore developed MR-Base ( http://www.mrbase.org ): a platform that integrates a curated database of complete GWAS results (no restrictions according to statistical significance) with an application programming interface, web app and R packages that automate 2SMR. The software includes several sensitivity analyses for assessing the impact of horizontal pleiotropy and other violations of assumptions. The database currently comprises 11 billion single nucleotide polymorphism-trait associations from 1673 GWAS and is updated on a regular basis. Integrating data with software ensures more rigorous application of hypothesis-driven analyses and allows millions of potential causal relationships to be efficiently evaluated in phenome-wide association studies.
TL;DR: It is shown here that Cas9 assembles with hybrid guide RNAs in human cells and can induce the formation of double-strand DNA breaks at a site complementary to the guide RNA sequence in genomic DNA.
Abstract: Type II CRISPR immune systems in bacteria use a dual RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9, to cleave foreign DNA at specific sites. We show here that Cas9 assembles with hybrid guide RNAs in human cells and can induce the formation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) at a site complementary to the guide RNA sequence in genomic DNA. This cleavage activity requires both Cas9 and the complementary binding of the guide RNA. Experiments using extracts from transfected cells show that RNA expression and/or assembly into Cas9 is the limiting factor for Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage. In addition, we find that extension of the RNA sequence at the 3' end enhances DNA targeting activity in vivo. These results show that RNA-programmed genome editing is a facile strategy for introducing site-specific genetic changes in human cells.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00471.001.
TL;DR: It is shown that the receptor-binding region of pre-S1 specifically interacts with sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a multiple transmembrane transporter predominantly expressed in the liver that is a functional receptor for HBV and HDV.
Abstract: Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV-related diseases remain a major public health problem. Individuals coinfected with its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) have more severe disease. Cellular entry of both viruses is mediated by HBV envelope proteins. The pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein is a key determinant for receptor(s) binding. However, the identity of the receptor(s) is unknown. Here, by using near zero distance photo-cross-linking and tandem affinity purification, we revealed that the receptor-binding region of pre-S1 specifically interacts with sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a multiple transmembrane transporter predominantly expressed in the liver. Silencing NTCP inhibited HBV and HDV infection, while exogenous NTCP expression rendered nonsusceptible hepatocarcinoma cells susceptible to these viral infections. Moreover, replacing amino acids 157-165 of nonfunctional monkey NTCP with the human counterpart conferred its ability in supporting both viral infections. Our results demonstrate that NTCP is a functional receptor for HBV and HDV.