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JournalISSN: 0196-8904

Energy Conversion and Management 

About: Energy Conversion and Management is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Exergy & Heat transfer. It has an ISSN identifier of 0196-8904. Over the lifetime, 15312 publication(s) have been published receiving 618608 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Latent heat storage is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density, with a smaller temperature difference between storing and releasing heat. This paper reviews previous work on latent heat storage and provides an insight to recent efforts to develop new classes of phase change materials (PCMs) for use in energy storage. Three aspects have been the focus of this review: PCM materials, encapsulation and applications. There are large numbers of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area. Hydrated salts have larger energy storage density and higher thermal conductivity but experience supercooling and phase segregation, and hence, their application requires the use of some nucleating and thickening agents. The main advantages of PCM encapsulation are providing large heat transfer area, reduction of the PCMs reactivity towards the outside environment and controlling the changes in volume of the storage materials as phase change occurs. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regards to the material and the methods used to contain them are also discussed.

2,338 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily. Biodiesel fuels are attracting increasing attention worldwide as blending components or direct replacements for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel fuel typically comprises lower alkyl fatty acid (chain length C14–C22), esters of short-chain alcohols, primarily, methanol or ethanol. Various methods have been reported for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsification, pyrolysis, and transesterification. Among these, transesterification is an attractive and widely accepted technique. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. The most important variables affecting methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil and the reaction temperature. Methanol is the commonly used alcohol in this process, due in part to its low cost. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages over other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. Biodiesel fuel is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel or petrodiesel fuel made from vegetable or animal fats; it can be used in any mixture with petrodiesel fuel, as it has very similar characteristics, but it has lower exhaust emissions. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petrodiesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future; it has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly fuel that can be used in any diesel engine without modification.

1,639 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A great fraction of worldwide energy carriers and material products come from fossil fuel refinery. Because of the on-going price increase of fossil resources, their uncertain availability, and their environmental concerns, the feasibility of oil exploitation is predicted to decrease in the near future. Therefore, alternative solutions able to mitigate climate change and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels should be promoted. The replacement of oil with biomass as raw material for fuel and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes. In biorefinery, almost all the types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through jointly applied conversion technologies. This paper provides a description of the emerging biorefinery concept, in comparison with the current oil refinery. The focus is on the state of the art in biofuel and biochemical production, as well as discussion of the most important biomass feedstocks, conversion technologies and final products. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can be established. The aim of this bio-industry is to be competitive in the market and lead to the progressive replacement of oil refinery products.

1,460 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Biomass resources include wood and wood wastes, agricultural crops and their waste byproducts, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, waste from food processing and aquatic plants and algae. Biomass is used to meet a variety of energy needs, including generating electricity, heating homes, fueling vehicles and providing process heat for industrial facilities. The conversion technologies for utilizing biomass can be separated into four basic categories: direct combustion processes, thermochemical processes, biochemical processes and agrochemical processes. Thermochemical conversion processes can be subdivided into gasification, pyrolysis, supercritical fluid extraction and direct liquefaction. Pyrolysis is the thermochemical process that converts biomass into liquid, charcoal and non-condensable gases, acetic acid, acetone and methanol by heating the biomass to about 750 K in the absence of air. If the purpose is to maximize the yield of liquid products resulting from biomass pyrolysis, a low temperature, high heating rate, short gas residence time process would be required. For high char production, a low temperature, low heating rate process would be chosen. If the purpose is to maximize the yield of fuel gas resulting from pyrolysis, a high temperature, low heating rate, long gas residence time process would be preferred.

1,430 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Biomass fast pyrolysis liquefaction has aroused great attention and interests both at home and abroad extensively in recent years. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties and discusses the characteristics of the components and compositions of biomass pyrolysis oil. Furthermore, the problems and focuses were summarized with some suggestions presented on upgrading and applications of bio-oil in the decades.

1,241 citations

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