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JournalISSN: 0887-0624

Energy & Fuels

About: Energy & Fuels is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Coal & Combustion. It has an ISSN identifier of 0887-0624. Over the lifetime, 18912 publication(s) have been published receiving 559856 citation(s). more

Topics: Coal, Combustion, Asphaltene more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF0502397
10 Mar 2006-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: Fast pyrolysis utilizes biomass to produce a product that is used both as an energy source and a feedstock for chemical production. Considerable efforts have been made to convert wood biomass to liquid fuels and chemicals since the oil crisis in mid-1970s. This review focuses on the recent developments in the wood pyrolysis and reports the characteristics of the resulting bio-oils, which are the main products of fast wood pyrolysis. Virtually any form of biomass can be considered for fast pyrolysis. Most work has been performed on wood, because of its consistency and comparability between tests. However, nearly 100 types of biomass have been tested, ranging from agricultural wastes such as straw, olive pits, and nut shells to energy crops such as miscanthus and sorghum. Forestry wastes such as bark and thinnings and other solid wastes, including sewage sludge and leather wastes, have also been studied. In this review, the main (although not exclusive) emphasis has been given to wood. The literature on woo... more

Topics: Pyrolysis oil (61%), Biomass to liquid (58%), Biomass (57%) more

4,561 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF034067U
26 Feb 2004-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: Fast pyrolysis of biomass is one of the most recent renewable energy processes to have been introduced. It offers the advantages of a liquid product, bio-oil that can be readily stored and transported. Bio-oil is a renewable liquid fuel and can also be used for production of chemicals. Fast pyrolysis has now achieved a commercial success for production of chemicals and is being actively developed for producing liquid fuels. Bio-oils have been successfully tested in engines, turbines, and boilers, and have been upgraded to high-quality hydrocarbon fuels, although at a presently unacceptable energetic and financial cost. The paper critically reviews scientific and technical developments in applications of bio-oil to date and concludes with some suggestions for research and strategic developments. more

Topics: Pyrolysis oil (64%), Liquid fuel (56%), Renewable energy (55%)

2,477 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF070044U
Douglas C. Elliott1Institutions (1)
02 May 2007-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: This paper is a review of the developments in the field of catalytic hydroprocessing of biomass-derived liquefaction conversion products (bio-oil) over the past 25 years. Work has been underway, primarily in the U.S. and Europe, in catalytic hydrotreating and hydrocracking of bio-oil in both batch-fed and continuous-flow bench-scale reactor systems. A range of heterogeneous catalyst materials have been tested, including conventional sulfided catalysts developed for petroleum hydroprocessing and precious metal catalysts. The important processing differences have been identified, which required adjustments to conventional hydroprocessing as applied to petroleum feedstocks. This application of hydroprocessing is seen as an extension of petroleum processing and system requirements are not far outside the range of conventional hydroprocessing. The technology is still under development but can play a significant role in supplementing increasingly expensive petroleum. more

1,224 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF700639E
Gerhard Knothe1Institutions (1)
19 Feb 2008-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: Biodiesel is a domestic and renewable alternative with the potential to replace some of the petrodiesel market. It is obtained from vegetable oils, animal fats, or other sources with a significant content of triacylglycerols by means of a transesterification reaction. The fatty acid profile of biodiesel thus corresponds to that of the parent oil or fat and is a major factor influencing fuel properties. Besides being renewable and of domestic origin, advantages of biodiesel compared to petrodiesel include biodegradability, higher flash point, reduction of most regulated exhaust emissions, miscibility in all ratios with petrodiesel, compatibility with the existing fuel distribution infrastructure, and inherent lubricity. Technical problems with biodiesel include oxidative stability, cold flow, and increased NOx exhaust emissions. Solutions to one of these problems often entail increasing the problematic behavior of another property and have included the use of additives or modifying the fatty acid compositi... more

Topics: Biodiesel (62%), Fatty acid methyl ester (57%), Diesel fuel (55%) more

1,174 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/EF0500538
30 Jul 2005-Energy & Fuels
Abstract: Hydrogen is considered to be the most viable energy carrier for the future. Producing hydrogen from ethanol steam reforming would not only be environmentally friendly but also would open new opportunities for utilization of renewable resources, which are globally available. This paper reviews the current state of the steam reforming process of ethanol, examines different catalysts, and, finally, makes a comparative analysis. Different catalysts have been used for the steam reforming of ethanol. Depending on the type of catalysts, reaction conditions, and the catalyst preparation method, ethanol conversion and hydrogen production vary greatly. It was observed that Co/ZnO, ZnO, Rh/Al2O3, Rh/CeO2, and Ni/La2O3−Al2O3 performed the best, in regard to the steam reforming of ethanol. Currently, hydrogen production from ethanol steam reforming is still in the research and development stage. more

Topics: Steam reforming (71%), Methane reformer (66%), Carbon dioxide reforming (65%) more

1,153 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Chunming Xu

81 papers, 1.8K citations

Ryan P. Rodgers

63 papers, 3.2K citations

Malcolm A. Kelland

58 papers, 2.2K citations

Hongwei Wu

53 papers, 1.8K citations

Murray R. Gray

52 papers, 2.2K citations

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