About: Energy Procedia is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Renewable energy & Photovoltaic system. It has an ISSN identifier of 1876-6102. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 21270 publication(s) have been published receiving 245343 citation(s).
Topics: Renewable energy, Photovoltaic system, Energy consumption, Efficient energy use, Thermal energy storage
Abstract: Solar cell performance decreases with increasing temperature, fundamentally owing to increased internal carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. The operating temperature plays a key role in the photovoltaic conversion process. Both the electrical efficiency and the power output of a photovoltaic (PV) module depend linearly on the operating temperature. The various correlations proposed in the literature represent simplified working equations which can be apply to PV modules or PV arrays mounted on free-standing frames, PV-Thermal collectors, and building integrated photovoltaic arrays, respectively. The electrical performance is primarily influenced by the material of PV used. Numerous correlations for cell temperature which have appeared in the literature involve basic environmental variables and numerical parameters which are material or system dependent. In this paper, a brief discussion is presented regarding the operating temperature of one-sun commercial grade siliconbased solar cells/modules and its effect upon the electrical performance of photovoltaic installations. Generally, the performance ratio decreases with latitude because of temperature. However, regions with high altitude have higher performance ratios due to low temperature, like, southern Andes, Himalaya region, and Antarctica. PV modules with less sensitivity to temperature are preferable for the high temperature regions and more responsive to temperature will be more effective in the low temperature regions. The geographical distribution of photovoltaic energy potential considering the effect of irradiation and ambient temperature on PV system performance is considered.
Abstract: This paper analyses residential PV battery systems in order to gain insights into their sizing. For this purpose a simulation model was developed and system simulations on a timescale of one minute were performed. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was conducted varying the PV system and battery size to identify appropriate system configurations. Based on the simulation results, an economic assessment of PV battery systems was carried out and the cost-optimal configurations for various cost scenarios were determined. The results show that in the considered long-term scenario the conjunction of PV systems with batteries will be not only profitable but also the most economical solution.
Abstract: Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems nowadays. The removal of heavy metals from the environment is of special concern due to their persistence. Batch experiments were conducted to test the ability of activated carbon for the removal of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium and zinc from water. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to verify the adsorption performance. Nickel showed the highest removal percentages by activated carbon at all concentrations and the removal percentages decreased as the concentration of heavy metal increased. The obtained correlation coefficient (R2) for different adsorbents suggested poor fitting of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm for Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn, while R2 obtained using Freundlich model for different adsorbents indicated that it fitted the experimental data well. Silica/activated carbon (2:3) composite was more efficient in the removal of nickel ions than activated carbon and silica nanoparticles. SEM pictures were taken for the three particles under test.
Abstract: Rapid growth in wind power, as well as increase on wind generation, requires serious research in various fields. Because wind power is weather dependent, it is variable and intermittent over various time-scales. Thus accurate forecasting of wind power is recognized as a major contribution for reliable large-scale wind power integration. Wind power forecasting methods can be used to plan unit commitment, scheduling and dispatch by system operators, and maximize profit by electricity traders. In addition, a number of wind power models have been developed internationally, such as WPMS, WPPT, Prediktor, ARMINES, Previento, WPFS Ver1.0 etc. This paper provides a review on comparative analysis on the foremost forecasting models, associated with wind speed and power, based on physical methods, statistical methods, hybrid methods over different time-scales. Furthermore, this paper gives emphasis on the accuracy of these models and the source of major errors, thus problems and challenges associated with wind power prediction are presented.
Abstract: In the paper we share our operational experience gained from three sites: Sleipner (14 years of injection), In Salah (6 years) and Snohvit (2 years). Together, these three sites have disposed 16 Mt of CO2 by 2010. In highly variable reservoirs, with permeability ranging from a few milliDarcy to more than one Darcy, single wells have injected several hundred Kt of CO2 per year. In the reservoirs, the actual CO2 plume development has been strongly controlled by geological factors that we learned about during injection. Geophysical monitoring methods (especially seismic, gravity, and satellite data) have, at each site, revealed some of these unpredicted geological factors. Thus monitoring methods are as valuable for reservoir characterisation as they are for monitoring fluid saturation and pressure changes. Current scientific debates that address CO2 storage capacity mainly focus on the utilization of the pore space (efficiency) and the rate of pressure dissipation in response to injection (pressure limits). We add to this that detailed CO2 site characterisation and monitoring is needed to prove significant practical CO2 storage capacity–on a case by case basis. As this specific site experience and knowledge develops more general conclusions on storage capacity, injectivity and efficiency may be possible.